Reduplication: full

Morphology - General
The full morpheme is reduplicated


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes not productive Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 55 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no Allin notes that there may be some frozen reduplication, but this is not productive and the unreduplicated forms are no longer available. However, the verb phrase can be repeated in total (for simple VPs) or in part (complex VPs) to give a repetitive read Allin 1976: 113, 210 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes marks repetitive aspect, reduplication of the final syllable of a verbal stem. Some verbs use full reduplication, some use partial. Aikhenvald, 1995: 31 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Examples of partial and total reduplication. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 517 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no info Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no There is perhaps an archaic reduplicated form of the causative morpheme as an intensifier. Aikhenvald 2003: 274 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no only for onomotopaeic forms Facundes, 2000: 250 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:120 Daniel Smith
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:21-36 Daniel Smith
Yanesha' yes This occurs with verbs to express iterative meaning Duff-Tripp 1997:164 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes This is especially common in nouns, "particularly animal names"; "found on verb, adjective, and some adverbial stems for intensification or emphasis" Danielsen 2007: p96 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:96-100 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no no evidence so far- this does not seem to be very common in any Carib lgs Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi yes Seen when conveying a large (numeral) number. Carson 1982:73 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no info only one mention of reduplication Payne 2012:339 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 271 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes e.g. dunnu - dunnu (wrinkled) Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes When an adjective is repeated it expresses a greater degree of the quality of it Frank 1985:43 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:114-115 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:109-11 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:31 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no However, the repetition of a verb is used to express emphasis. Repetition of words is also used to express a repeated or continuos action. Levinson 1976b:88 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Verbal reduplication Fleck:453 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.188 Daniel Valle Full reduplication is used to convey "duration in time". In addition to verbal full reduplication a morpheme which specifies the kind of duration needs to co-occur.
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:84-6 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info More likely not Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:418 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001 Shannon Dardis The only mentions I found of any kind of reduplication/repetition were in reference to interjections (Huayhua Pari 2001: 228) and as a way to pluralize some nouns (Gomez 1992: 32)
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes reduplicated verbs for plurality Cavalcante 1987:58-65 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes reduplication of verb root Minor and Minor 1982. p.52 Christopher Clack when the root is vocal, insert a glotal 'h' between the two vowels.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p.111 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes The diminutive suffix, -xĩ, is occasionally duplicated, particularly with the dĩ- 'this' prefix. Chacón 2012:207-208 Daniel Smith
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993 Chris Clack not indicated/expected
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.85 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.41-47 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.62 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes has the effect of deverbalizing a stative verb, but with other verbs it expresses rapid, periodic repetition of an action without interruption Ramirez 1994: p.365 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez : p.35 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: p.198 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes However, reduplication is not a productive phenomenon. It only happen in less than 20 words and some not all of them fully reduplicate. Everett 2006:210 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:74, 308 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Aché yes There is at least full reduplication of a morpheme to show intensity or dinamism. Susnik 1974:54 Daniel Valle
Kokama no there is partial redup., but rare Vallejos 2010:153-154 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 42-3 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes s108 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 99 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 107 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 51-3 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 106-121 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 43-45 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 27-28, 49 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 16 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r29-33 done 1
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 158, 181 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 212 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar yes 12, 19, d35-6 done 1
Nhanta yes 72 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 37-38 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 50, 82, 129 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 34 done 1
Martuthunira no 34 done 0
Marrgany yes 312 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 61 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 24 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 382 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 7 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 25b Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 234 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 87 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng yes 67, 94 Done-Amalia 1
Gumbaynggirr yes 316 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 98, 101 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 86 1
Dyirbal yes 242 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 49, 89 done 1
Djinang Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 138, 141, 149, 171 done 1
Bularnu yes 19 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 32 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 21; 135-6 done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 4 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 135 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 51 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 84 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 74, 93, 100 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 67, 91 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 17 done 1
Katthang yes 48 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 6 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 312 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 126 Done- 1
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 10.1.1 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 513 done 1
Bandjalang yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 77 done 1
Arrernte Yes 195 1
Kokatha Yes 58 1
Karajarri Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 145 1
Ritharrngu Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 951 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 78 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri yes 27 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 50 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 83 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 24 1
Wajarri Yes 63 1
Warungu yes 238, 315 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001:336 Patience Epps