Urarina

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ura
Location
-4.44°, -75.42°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Jakway, Martha A. 1975. Listas Comparativas de palabras usuales en idiomas vernáculos de la selva. (Datos Etno-Lingüísticos, 4.) In Jakway, Martha (ed.) Yarinacocha: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Olawsky, Knut. 2006 A grammar of Urarina. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ʨoae tʃoae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
and y e grammar ajna ajna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ahaane (pl) aha:ne unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
at en, a em, a location kïane kʉane See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
back espalda costas body hanuri hanuɽi unique compare Paresi ihiniri See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bad mal mal quality baaso ba:so See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
belly barriga barriga body sʉri sʉri unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kaḍzene kaɽene doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito karíira See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
big grande grande quality seuhwa seuhwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
black negro preto colour hiʨuhwaj hitʃuhwaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blood sangre sangue body kwiʨana kwitʃana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bone hueso osso body bʉkʉ bʉkʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body isíʨo isítʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
child niño, niña criança human beree, kanaanaj beɽe:, kana:naj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment dedesekaḍzi dedesekatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cold frío frio quality helaḍzo-to-a helatʃo-to-a unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality esi ɲae esi ɲae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
day día dia time hanone hanone unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality lanąąha lanããha unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dry seco seco quality hakuru hakuru unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ear oreja orelha body iriʨu iɽitʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment atane atane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna tahe tahe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
eye ojo olho body nuta nuta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
far lejos longe quality kuriae kuriae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body erene erene unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship ufwa ufwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna ïhi ʉhi doubtful loan Aguaruna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment isi isi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flower flor flor environment ïhane ʉhane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment sïḍzaa sʉtʃaa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora iɲaa iɲaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
good bueno bom quality katai katai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body hanaka hanaka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hand mano mão body bihi bihi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar aka aka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body kuturi kutuɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality anaito anaito unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
how? como como grammar dʒatoaneĩ tʃatoaneĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar kanï kanʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
if si se grammar hananiane hananiane See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kʉane, asae kʉane, asae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body sʉri sʉɽi loan Tupi-Guarani, see southern forms, e.g. TXI ’tʃuri (Mello) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lake lago lago environment nemʉri nemʉɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment n-alo n-alo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ahaa (left side) ahaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body anaaé anaaé unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment hianaa hianaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
liver hígado figado body nahari nahaɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality kaḍzati-i katʃati-i unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ataḍzi atatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
man/male hombre homem human kaʨa katʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna inio inio unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
moon luna lua environment atene atene unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship neba neba unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mouth boca boca body nʉhʉae nʉhʉae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
name nombre nome human kʉɾaa kʉɽa: unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality niʨa nitʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ïlïno ʉlʉno See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body nʉlʉnʉ nʉlʉnʉ doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
new nuevo novo quality iɲe iɲe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
night noche noite time hamunaa hamuna: unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
no/not no não grammar kwatia kwatia unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
nose nariz nariz body asi asi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
old viejo velho quality siḍzi sitʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
one uno um number lejhĩi lejhĩi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
other otro outro grammar leoča leotʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kʉnajti (to be sick) kʉnajti unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human katɕa 'man, person' katʃa 'man, person' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment elo, elu elo, elu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour lanahaj lanahaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body rautono (right side) ɽautono unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture beru beru unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
root raíz raiz flora haisi haisi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality setï setʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sand arena areia environment okwai okwai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ahina ahina unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
short corto curto quality maʉeki maʉeki unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body nuha nuha unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ne-kwehia 'INTR-embarrass' ne-kwehia 'INTR-embarrass' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
skin piel pele body kaḍzi katʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sky cielo céu environment dede dede unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality laauhiri la:uhiɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment sïḍzaa sʉtʃaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
star estrella estrela environment aḍzasihe atʃasihe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora enïa enʉa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment aheri aheɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body nʉsei nʉsei unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar nii nii doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar akaʉrʉ akaʉrʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality mʉlʉʉtoa mʉlʉʉtoa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thin delgado fino quality hareheeri haɽehe:ɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
this este/esta este grammar kaa kaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ii i: unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
three tres tres number niʨata nitʃata unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment aḍzaḍza atʃatʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bite morder morder body kala kala unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blow soplar soprar body niatï niatʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment moko moko unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
climb subir subir motion ini ini unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
come venir vir motion ʉ ʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact enoala enoala unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental aʉaʉako aʉaʉako unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact saï saʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state u u unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact bahe bahe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental kuseni kuseni unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ku ku unknown cf. Tukanoan, but more likely onomatopoeic/chance similarity See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
eat comer comer body lenone lenone unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fall caer cair motion kumu (fall down) kumu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fear miedo medo mental kwaasia (vb.) kwaasia (vb.) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion tʉtʉara 'make flow' tʉtʉara 'make flow' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fly volar voar motion hiaelï hiaelʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grow crecer crescer state omaro omaro unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental auna auna unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion asi, kʉrʉrʉ asi, kʉɽʉɽʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tõito tõito unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other siiʨa si:tʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
kill matar matar impact su su unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kwitʉkʉ kwitʉkʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
laugh reír rir mental kweena- kwe:na- unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ekïï ekʉʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ne 'live, be' ne 'live, be' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other tʉreta tʉreta unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact fwaufwaa fwaufwaa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
say decir dizer mental ajto ajto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact hwaʉitu, hjʉsi hwaʉitu, hjʉsi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
see ver ver mental kwar kwaɽ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact iʨafwa itʃafwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state nelaʉrja- (sit down) nelaʉɽja unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body sini sini unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body aona aona unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tonono tonono unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact huku huku unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dʒʉhʉ tʃʉhʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
steal robar roubar other asihjaʉ asihjaʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body laḍzaa-ka latʃaa-ka unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion fwiʨu fwitʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
think pensar pensar mental kwaaaʉk- kwa:aʉk- loan Kokama See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact hau- hau- unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hiaane hiaane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body naḍzo natʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion amʉ amʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other amia amia unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body lele lele unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tooth diente dente body katï katʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
two dos dois number koḍzataha-i kotʃataha-i unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
water agua agua environment akaʉ akaʉ unknown cf. similar forms in Tukanoan, Zaparo, Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kana kana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar kanakaana kanakaana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality setẽeto setẽeto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar dʒa tʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar hana hana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
where? donde onde grammar dʒʉ tʃʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white blanco branco colour somahaj somahaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar dʒa tʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship komasai komasai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wind viento vento environment kïhara kʉhara unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wing ala asa body ko-o ko-o unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human eene e:ne doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ïhae ʉhae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ɲaaɾa ɲa:ɽa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
foot pie body tihja tihja unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kwajteĩ kwajteĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
all todo todos other hitariĩ, itulere hitaɽĩ:, ituleɽe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tahiɕu tahitʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body nʉhe nʉhe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body laha (pl) laha (pl) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body rurana rurana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bark corteza casca environment missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fingernail uña unha body nusiʨue nusitʃue unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
heart corazón coração body sʉʉha sʉʉha unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sun sol sol time enoto enoto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ḍzaḍzoaco unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
green verde verde quality beraʉesiohwaj beɽaʉesiohwaj unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hot caliente quente quality ahaaruto (to be hot) aha:ɽuto unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. anisihe anisihe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tahai tahai unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. atari ataɽi unique See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ïhaḍzi ʉhatʃi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans kakʉri kakʉɽi unique See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kïeeḍzi kʉeetʃi loan - WW %kujuwi / kurutsi See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae alõori alõ:ɽi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae hiḍzi hitʃi unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pïnaḍzi pʉnatʃi unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica anuri anuɽi unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ataoaḍzi ataoatʃi unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba komokomo komokomo unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris reemae ɽe:mae unique See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ʉkʉari ʉkʉaɽi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kukuri, gaiḍzi kukuri, gaitʃi unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. dʒakari (Tupi loan?), enïa tʃakaɽi, enʉa loan - WW TG %jakare See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ate ate unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. kurari kuɽaɽi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae abe abe doubtful loan cf. Pumé apéi, Baniwa ómai See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura dari daɽi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. leleno leleno unique See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata hjaare hja:ɽe unknown some similarity Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes edara kwamaa 'water people-hammock'; akaʉi ɲo edara kwamaa 'water people-hammock'; akaʉi ɲo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna akanu akanu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox alajʨõo alajtʃõ: See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ahãaori, nuri (giant river turtle) ahã:oɽi, nuɽi unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa alaa ala: unique See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea akʉaraa akʉaɽa: unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes rihje ɽihje unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) sie, ko-a sie unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens sïḍzi sʉtʃi doubtful loan, direction unknown Camsa tsɨtɕá See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea katoe katoe See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus missing See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum hjarana hjaɽana See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. fwanara, panaḍza fwanara, panaḍza loan Spanish 'banana' See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) omane omane unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays katoḍzi katotʃi unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum enoata enoata unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna enʉa enʉa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hjaane, ičoa-ka hjaane, itʃoa-ka unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. esʉ esʉ unique See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum kaaʃukʉɾʉ ka:ʃukʉɽʉ loan Spanish (Port/Tupi) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui alaaeri ala:eɽi See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ahjaʉi ahjaʉi unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta laano (not specified as bitter or sweet) la:no unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas akii, moko-a akii, moko-a unique See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. iʨai itʃai See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. urwari uɽwari See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tenïnï tenʉnʉ See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi iɲunu, akaï iɲunu, akaʉ unknown; doubtful loan, direction unknown Iquito ákuta See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae akaḍzone (sp/generic?) akatʃone (sp/generic?) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis kokoḍzi kokotʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ataḍzi atatʃi doubtful loan, direction unknown Andoke See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera alabeḍza alabetʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. atanihĩ atanihĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera alïlïḍzi alʉlʉtʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ahai nalï ahai nalʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ʉrerej ʉɽeɽej unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. dʒaruba tʃaɽuba See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha arauata aɽauata loan Carib, via Kokama? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ruru (said to be a recent term) ɽuɽu (said to be a recent term) unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella kati kati doubtful loan cf. Huaorani gatã See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus alau (said to be a recent term) alau (said to be a recent term) doubtful loan Carib alawata? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis asisi asisi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu obana obana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari raana ɽa:na unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mami mami unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) iča itʃa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ḍzaanatana tʃaanatana unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris aɾãala aɽã:la unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus okae okae unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material umari umaɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material amąą amãa doubtful loan Arawak/Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material hiiḍzi; fawaʉafwa hiidʒi; fawaʉafwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport enanihja enanihja unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tǫǫto tõoto loan - WW %toto (onomatopoeic?) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kwičaneha-eḍza, benane kwitʃaneha-edʒa, benane unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology kwičaneha-eḍza, benane kwitʃaneha-edʒa, benane Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kahjune kahjune unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ičï-nehe ičʉ-nehe unique may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
firewood leña lenha other fwei fwei unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology aãsaj aãsaj unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kwaaʉn kwa:ʉn unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology dʒufwana, aʉno dʒufwana, aʉno unique; unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics kururihja 'masato tub' kururihja 'masato tub' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material anofwa anofwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material saabere sa:beɽe loan - WW %sipara/sapere See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool teru teɽu unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool soḍzoḍzihi sodʒodʒihi unique hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool larui laɽui unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool batohwi batohwi unique arco See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport kiha kiha unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material plato plato loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool darue daɽue unknown cf. Nheengatu tarua See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material uhajtɕʉ 'clay bowl' uhajtʃʉ 'clay bowl' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool sakari sakaɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
honey miel mel food iʨunaj-ʉrʉ itʃunaj-ʉɽʉ unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ioḍzi iotʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology bičoe bitʃoe See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation eskwela eskwela See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kusenia kusenia See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation atauari atauari loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation hjanarihi 'sugar cane' hjanarihi 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material hu 'female waist-cloth' hu 'female waist-cloth' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress safwato safwato See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sõodaro sõodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation misito misito loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation itɕafwa itʃafwa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kʉraanaa kʉraanaa unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
salt sal sal food tebe tebe loan - WW %tewe See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ne-nate 'sing' ne-nate 'sing' unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool hiʨana hitʃana unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kuhwʉ kuhwʉ See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food nabe nabe unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food nesari nesaɽi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food tajbinaae 'animal' tajbinaae 'animal' unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tenïnï tenʉnʉ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool kinitɕu kinitʃu unique esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture barʉe baɽʉe unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool bʉrari 'poison' bʉrari 'poison' loan - WW %wirari hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool unique agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool trampa (Spanish loan) tɽampa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool kuj ɲaera kuj ɲaeɽa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
house other lureri luɽeɽi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Olawsky:74 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Olawsky:30 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Olawsky:30 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Olawsky:55-8 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Olawsky:51 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Olawsky:75-6 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Olawsky:75 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Olawsky:75 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes 2 Olawsky:120-3 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Olawsky:74 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Olawsky:74 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Olawsky:63-75 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Olawsky:418 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Olawsky:418 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes Olawsky:426 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Olawsky:629 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Olawsky:426 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Olawsky:303 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Olawsky:157 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info However, it seems that they do not exist in Urarina since they are not mention anywhere in the source Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no info Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Olawsky:489-90 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 3-way distinction Olawsky:216 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Olawsky:216 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 6 Cases mark non-core grammatical relations as location, time, beneficiary, etc. Olawsky:224-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Instrumental is not marked with a postposition Olawsky:224-44 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes The number for 2 can be related to the verb "help" Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Native numerals go up to five. Numerals from 6 to 10 are borrowings from Quechua. Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes In order to form numerals above 10 native and borrowing numerals are combined Olawsky:277-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Olawsky:298-330 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Color adjective behaves as verbs Olawsky:188-9 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes However, the most common strategy for possesion is juxtaposition (possesor-possesum) Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no It seems that the "traditional" language had such a distinction but it is being lost at the time Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no However, it seems that kin terms and body part nouns were treated as inalienable in the "traditional" language Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no Olawsky:187 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Olawsky:187-204 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no Olawsky:404-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Olawsky:404-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Olawsky:404-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes There is a denominal verbalizer Olawsky:406 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no There is not formal marking explicitly used for tense (p.481) Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Olawsky:459-492 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Olawsky:569 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Olawsky:569-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Olawsky:569-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes Olawsky:573 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes There is a suffix for probability and another for inprobability Olwasky:461, 480 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes counterexpextation is marked by a verbal suffix Olawsky:474 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no There is a clitc marking frustration Olawsky:509 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no There is a verbal suffix marking habituality Olawsky:465 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes Olawsky:482 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative yes positive and fear Olawsky:508-16 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes There is only one witnessed evidential which most of the cases is understood as eye-witnesed but it can also be non-eye-witnessed Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes in-law talk Olawsky:478 Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes However, constituents may be "moved" by discourse pressures Olawsky:652-ss Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes OVS constituen order Olawsky:652 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Olawsky:652 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Olawsky:652 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Olawsky:652 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Olawsky:224-45 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Olawsky:224-45 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Olawsky:331-40 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Olawsky:331-40 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Olawsky:309-10 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Olawsky:309-10 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Olawsky:299 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Olawsky:299 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun yes Olawsky:300 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no Olawsky:300 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no There are no relative clauses in the language Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Olawsky:814 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no NPs are not case-marked. Thus, it seems that there is a neuter alligment with respect to nouns Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Subjects are obligatorily cross-referenced in the verb Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes However, pronouns are usually used to express enphasis Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Olawsky:487 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Olawsky:487 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Olawsky:487 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes But only for human 3p plural objects Olawsky:468 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Olawsky:489 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes objects are not marked on the verb except for human 3 person ones Olawsky:468 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Olawsky:459-515 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Olawsky:331-50, 489 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Olawsky:489 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no There are no ditransitive verbs. However, valence can be increased to have a ditransitive verb which has an oblique arguement which varies from verb to verb Olawsky:386 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Olawsky:386 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Olawsky:386 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes Olawsky:607-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Olawsky:603-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Olawsky:603-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Olawsky:594-60 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes There is an intransitivizer morpheme Olawsky:601 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Olawsky:622-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Olawsky:459-60 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Olawsky:459-60, 609 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Olawsky:459-60, 609 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Olawsky::592-622 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Olawsky:609 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes postposition to add an argument Olawsky:622 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Olawsky:552-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Olawsky:552-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Olawsky:552-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Olawsky:558-62 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes When more than one negative strategy is combined in a single sentence Olawski:567 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes A rise on the intonation can be perceived Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Olawsky:814-31 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Olawsky:391-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no Olawsky:391-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Olawsky:847 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Olawsky:734-ss Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Daniel Valle