Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:94 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 35 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 161-163, 253 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 268 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 310 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:41; Payne 1983:11 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:43 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:97 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:250-2 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 279 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:33 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 129 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 40-41 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:262 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes There´s verbal stem change as a strategy for forming causative. However, what the author refers here as causative may be described as jussive "let hm go in"m for instance. Frank 1990:66 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:183 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:302-4 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:62 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:12 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.186 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:103 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-60, 609 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Girón:222, 360 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 165 to 168 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes some verbs have causative stem changes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes the second syllable or final vowel is replaced with bo/bõ/b˜u or o/u Miller 1999, p. 114 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.101 Chris Clack Barasano also has lexical causative verbs derived historically from morphological causatives.
Tanimuca no There are evidences of a variety of past processes of causative formation that are no longer productive. Strom 1992, p.92 Chris Clack
Siona yes Stem change. Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 271 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:440 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:233-51 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no 11 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 89 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 181-5 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 47-9 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 98-9 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara no 38 done 0
Uradhi No 376 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 185 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 163-166 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 402-5 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 97 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 412-4 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 15 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 87 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 306 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 84 0
Dyirbal No 91 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 86-7 done 0
Djinang No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 61 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 40 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 146 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 89-90 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 84 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 55-6 done 0
Katthang no 86 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 188-189 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 59 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 153 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 193 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 224 0
Ritharrngu No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 77 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 956 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 75-6 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 37 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 391 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps