Warrwa

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
wwr
Location
-17.21°, 124.21°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar yaada yaada inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yadirr yadirr inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngaio ngayio inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar n kurra inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar ju XXngl erg juwana ju inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kinya kinya inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location y kaalbu inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Claire Bowern
alive nunjeia nunjeya inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other -ngana -ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body -(m)barrma -(m)barrma inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental daalu daalu inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gajurra, gajud kajurra, kajud inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -rra -rra inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body ninyji ninyji inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality girwa kirwa unknown Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body nungu; -ngu nungu; -ngu inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location jidlarra; jadawaa jadawaa inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality gwiina kwiina unknown Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body -mungga- -mungka- inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour gurunggaya; gururrnggay; guru kurungkaya; kururrngkay; kuru unique Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body gururr, gunbulu kururr, kunbulu inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body missing Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality n jumuda unknown Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body ganyji kanyji inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture jiba jiba inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna ngamarna inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body missing Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment nulurn XXngl probably pv. nulurn inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion missing Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment missing Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality missing Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion bawuna bawuna inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental wangorr, wa:nggurr wangorr, waangkurr inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact jukkarna jukkarna unique Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state gurd ngindany XXngl it died kurd ngindany loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact missing Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna gurridi kurridi inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental -warri- -warri- inheritance Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body gung kung inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality luurraluurra luurraluurra unique Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment duuwi duuwi inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body nilawa nilawa inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment y buru inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body -narli- XXngl misanalysis of -arli-? -narli- inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna nyuma; gambi; gambiy nyuma inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body nimelgarr nimelkarr inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion jalwiny; -jalu- XXngl note that pv = root here. jalwiny; -jalu- inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality warraganyburu; nyaarri warrakanyburu; nyaarri semantic shift Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body lagaba lakaba inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship yibala, yibarra yibarra, yibala inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental missing Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna jalmarra jalmarra inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment missing Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna wali wali inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment guriya kuriya inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion n warnminy inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Claire Bowern
foot pie body -yambala -yambala inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality maawu; mawu maawu; mawu inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body jagarra; maarru XXngl marru is face. jakarra; maarru loan Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body nimala nimala inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body nalma nalma inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental -larra- -larra- inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality jirrily jirrily inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion -ga- -ka- inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location jimbin jimbin inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact mug muk inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental gamanggaya; gama XXngl are these preverbs or roots? (gama a preverb; can it also be a root?) kamangkaya; kama inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment wirrwiny wirrwiny inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body -midi -midi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ganyingana kanyingana unique Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body gawiri, gabir kawiri, kabir inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality i.daj, yidaj i.daj, yidaj unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body buu buu inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna missing Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment binkarr, giliman, girridin binkarr, kiliman, kirridin inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship kuya kuya inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body -lirr -lirr inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human nilawal nilawal inheritance Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body buda buda inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality jimara jimara unique Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body missing Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality milienyju milyenyju unique Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ngo:rra ngo:rra loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar marlu marlu inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body ngunii- ngunii- inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality n kirwa inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number wanyjarri wanyjarri inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar waringan waringan inheritance Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human missing Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body n jara inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment galguina wila kalkuina wila inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour bilyi bilyi inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture missing Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora jiilawa jiilawa unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality mandungirany; maandu mandungirany; maandu unique Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment rambala rambala unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact waarru ngambanyjina XXngl scratch I did to myself. waarru ngambanyjina unique Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental -jarla- -jarla- inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality guugarran kuukarran unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body gundiina; gunina giliwili kundiina; kunina kiliwili inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state missing Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body missing Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment n kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body kulin ingan XXgl lie down. kulin ingan inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality uuba uuba inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body -mbanjun- -mbanjun- inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment duwi duwi inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body missing Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yalu jarran XXngl he is standing up yalu jarran inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment larn larn inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment wanangarri wanangarri inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body rung+ XXgl ache rung+ inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time gidi; giidi; waalga kidi; kiidi; waalka inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body (judugurr; judurr) (judukurr; judurr) inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion jawu minjan XXngl swim you do jawu minjan inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body magarra makarra doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar n kinya inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality ganyji kanyji semantic shift Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental -warri- -warri- inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar missing Claire Bowern
three tres tres number leina leina unknown Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body missing Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact laj gurrayan XXngl throw you do. laj kurrayan inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment ganyingana kanyingana unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kirdkird, -rrawulu- kirdkird, -rrawulu- inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body jalan XXngl note in kerr that it's archaic. jalan loan into protolanguage Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body jangguliny; XXngl isn't this 'tongue'? jangkuliny; inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality langarra langarra unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other walara walyi; gurnag walara walyi; kurnak unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number gujarra kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body gung kung unique Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion i.nyja, -rnda (C40) i.nyja, -rnda (C40) inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wela, wila wela, wila inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality biinda biinda unique Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar anggi angki inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar bana bana inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar jana jana inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour dubgaya; dub dubkaya; dub inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar yanggi yangki inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship waangu waangu inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body jalmarra jalmarra inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human yiri; yiiri; jando yiri; yiiri; jando inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other murrgulyi murrkulyi inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae jawun unique 0 0 0 0 0
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus maiada maiada loan Walmajarri WW %mayarta 0 0 0 0 0
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer wa:lja semantic shift <salmon 1 1 0 0 0
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris kili kili loan Bunuba 0 0 0 0 0
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jalmarra(wudany)/(wurrany) unique derived 0 0 0 0 0
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing 0 2 0 0 0
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri missing missing 0 1 1 0 0
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae birniny inheritance creepy-crawly Jaru cockroach, insect Walm beetle WW %pirniny 0 0 0 0 0
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species ngalyak ngalyak loan areal ngalyak 'swallow' COV Gur<Miriwung; Kajirrabeng ngelthek 0 1 0 0 0
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii dyarradyurra inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kargura unique 1 0 0 0 0
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula laŋura inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing 1 0 0 0 0
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing 0 0 0 1 0
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis mongaiera unique 0 1 0 0 0
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
catfish flora-fauna (many species) barrulu inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda karnbarr karnbarr loan Karajarri WW %kanparr 0 0 0 0 0
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo kurridi inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris iila inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae jiibilyu jiibilyu loan direction unknown WW WW %tyipily 0 1 0 0 0
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae garnanganyja garnanganyja loan WW %karnanganytya 2 1 2 0 0
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wali inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
flower flora-fauna (NA) kuriya semantic shift ‘hair’? 0 0 0 0 0
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera dumbara unique 0 0 0 0 0
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) nyamunei unique 0 0 0 0 0
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni ko:rriya ko:rriya loan Marrngu 0 0 0 0 0
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wa:lak inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kulinykuliny kulinykuliny loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp banne banne loan direction unknown WW WW %paarni 0 1 2 0 0
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) worral unique 0 0 0 0 0
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis missing missing 1 0 0 0 0
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta 0 0 0 0 0
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae marloo marloo loan Wati WW %marlu 2 1 0 0 0
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera nilagul inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mijany inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis missing missing 1 1 0 0 1
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya yu:durl inheritance also in Yawuru 0 0 1 0 0
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp missing missing 1 1 0 0 1
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca kurdirrij unique 0 0 0 0 0
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kurrurdurdu semantic shift 0 0 0 0 0
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi darreal inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus kurriya semantic shift 2 2 0 0 0
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones ba:rn ba:rn loan into protolanguage WW%PAARN WW %paarni 0 0 0 0 0
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 1
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus kenayinyji kenayinyji loan direction unknown WW %kinanytyi 0 2 0 0 0
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species mudun mudun loan direction unknown 0 0 2 0 0
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ŋulagu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina midirl inheritance Walm miti tick jaru mitily feas WW %mirti 0 0 0 0 0
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wungina inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ba:lu inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma lungumba inheritance 0 1 2 0 0
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing 0 0 1 0 1
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax kalbedyug unique 1 0 0 0 0
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys jindawirrij jindawirrij loan into protolanguage WW WW %tyintipirri 1 0 0 0 0
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) kulangarrkin unique 0 1 2 0 0
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna baalu baalu inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna jawun jawun unknown Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jalmarra(wudany)/(wurrany) jalmarra(wudany)/(wurrany) semantic shift Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna murnur; warnminy warnminy inheritance Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yiila yiila inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna n wuurru inheritance Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna ma:nggawan maangkawan inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna juurru juurru inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna wangaarra wangaarra inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress missing Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool dala:kurru unique Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool chibba inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material malbulu semantic shift <’bag’ Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport kulbia inheritance Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology mukaly; mukudaly inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool marballiŋ unique Claire Bowern
cook food food missing Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology -warri- inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool wungkala, bididi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
fire-saw other wungkala; bididi inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other kungka: jungku inheritance Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wali inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology bulliŋun unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress missing Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jalngkangurru loan areal WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food walaya loan Mangala Claire Bowern
house (European) other mayar loan WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ilay unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology worral unique Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material jumbararri loan Malay Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology kumbarr inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology bulliŋun semantic shift Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food birimbirri unknown Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology nulu inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dyennil inheritance Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yungkarra; yarngal loan Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other missing Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology dubkaya unknown Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation bilwa semantic shift Claire Bowern
corpse food kud unique Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology karndirriny inheritance Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology balya unique Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress -yambal-wurru semantic shift Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation li:mba, li:nyju loan WW %limpa Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation minyawu loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation -(a)n(a) missing Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress jangkurru; nalmawuru loan WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milgin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yunggarra; yarngal yungkarra; yarngal inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
house other mayar mayar inheritance Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no done 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info done x
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info done x
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info done x
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info done x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 11 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info done x
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info done x
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info done x
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info done x
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no done 0
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes done 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Num no done 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info done x
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info done x
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info done x
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info done x
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info done x
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes done 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? no info done x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no info done x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? no info done x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? no info done x
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no info done x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info done x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no info done x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? no? done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no? done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no? done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? N/A done 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no info done x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no done 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes? done 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no done 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal yes