Predicate adjectives: nominal

Simple Clauses - Predication
Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes From information included, it seems as though both adjectives and nouns appear in very basic form and do not take any sort of verbal morphology. Allin, 1976: 285 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 25 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Adjectives can take all derivations that verbs can, while nominals cannot. Galindo, 2002: 239-240 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Adjectives and nouns both seem to lack time and person marking when they appear in predicative positions. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520, 524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Adjectives take personal reference suffixes to reference the subject, while nouns must take either full pronouns or full NPs as arguments and verbs can also take cross-referencing prefixes. All can take time affixes when used predicatively. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 55, 87-88 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain (2000) note that there are few true adjectives, most are stative verbs. However, they lump together numerals and adjectives. There is one example of a numeral in a predicate--this acts like a noun, rather than a verb. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no When adjectives are used as predicates, they take the same morphology as stative verbs, but nouns do not. Aikhenvald, 2003: 76 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã n/a No adjectives in Apurinã. Facundes, 2000: 342 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Adjectives and nouns are treated the same in almost all aspects in Asheninca--they take the same markings, positions, etc. Payne 1981:1819 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:30 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:58-9 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:196 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Many adjective roots are also verbal roots, so the same concept can be expressed with a verb or an adjective. However, when an adjective is used predicatively, a copular verb is used. The copula is also used with nouns in predicative position. Michael, 2008. p. 292, 312-313 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Since adjectives are just classifiers, they not only are able to modify nouns, but also act as nouns. Seifart - 2005:77-103 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 78 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no "There are no adjectives. Only nouns occur to modify nouns in noun phrases" Abbott 1991: 129 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no info Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:238-9 Daniel Valle Based on the examples
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:56-7 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 225-7 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:120 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2004b:78 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:391-9 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 73, 99-100 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no verbal predicate for descriptive verbs Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 125 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes adjectives agree with person, number, and classifer even if noun is not overt Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 126 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.44 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.34-36 Chris Clack
Barasano yes or may take nominalizers, participials, and classifiers, and serve as modifiers in a noun phrase. Jones & Jones 1991, p.63 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes In isolation may be interpreted as a noun phrase or as a descriptive clause with a predicate adjective and an implicit copula. Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Siona yes Wheeler - 1970:144 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely examples from 4.5
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 202 Kelsey Neely see examples
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely evidenced by examples
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 209-210 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:34-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no no adjective in Kokama Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms17 done 1
Garrwa yes 74-6 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes LG26-7 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 105 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes cf texts, e.g. text 7, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 69 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung maybe 76 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 138 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 26 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 40 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r24 done 1
Uradhi Yes 371 Y 1
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 223 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 70 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi yes 66 done 1
Martuthunira yes 205 done 1
Marrgany yes 333 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no 138 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 418 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 6 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru yes? 123 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 115 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 337 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 158 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 69 1
Dyirbal yes 71 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 92-3 done 1
Djinang Yes 209 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 101-106 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info 56 done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 46 done 1
Bularnu yes 91 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala Yes 4 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 287-90 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 122 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 47 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi yes 72-73 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 92-3 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 85-6 done 1
Katthang yes 108 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 136 done 1
Ngarinyeri Maybe 36 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 182-189 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 333 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 68 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 99 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 502 done 1
Bandjalang yes 105 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 28 done 1
Arrernte Yes 332 1
Kokatha Yes 65 1
Karajarri Yes 75 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 10 1
Ritharrngu Yes 97 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 63 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 864 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 108 1
Bilinarra yes 7.2 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 82 Y2 1
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari Yes 24 1
Wajarri Yes 36 1
Warungu yes 186 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps