Kaingang

Family
Macro-Jean
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
kgp
Location
-27.77°, -52.44°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Cavalcante, Marita Pôrto. 1987. Fonologia e morfologia da língua kaingáng: o dialeto de São Paulo comparado com o do Paran. University of Campinas. Campinas: Univ. Gonçalves, Solange Aparecida. 2011. Tempo, aspecto, e modo em contextos discursivos no Kaingang Sul (Je). UNICAMP, PhD dissertation. Key, Mary Ritchie, drawing on Wieseman 1981. 2007. Kaingang. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/. da Silva, Maria Sueli Ribeiro. 2011. A língua Kaingáng da aldeia paulista Icatu: uma descrição funcional. Universidade Estadual Paulista/São José do Rio Preto. Teixeira, José Baltazar. 1988. Contribução para a fonologia do dialeto Kaingáng de Nonoai. University of Campinas. Campinas: Univ. Wiesemann, Ursula, ed. 1981. Dicionário kaingáng-portugues, portugues-kaingáng. 2nd edition. Brasilia, SIL.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location kri kri; kɨɲmə̃ See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment mrẽj mrɛ̃y See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body pãnĩ pãnĩ See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality kɔrɛŋ (IDS) kɔrɛŋ; Φe kɔrɛŋ; kɔriŋrɛŋ See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body nug yɛ̃n ne; tɨ̃Φɔr; -nuŋ See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location krɛ̃m; yakrɛ̃m (IDS) krɛ̃m; yakrɛ̃m; ɛ̃prã See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality ehe mag ehe; ɛhɛ; məŋ; maŋ See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour sà sə; saɨ See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body kyvènh kɨwɛɲ See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body rẽr Φɔm; ΦuŋΦɔm; ΦuŋΦo See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body kuka kuka See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body fe Φe pãrɔ See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human gĩr, ũn-sĩ ŋĩr; ũn-sĩ See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment kanhkã gòg ŋɔŋ; kaɲkã ŋɔŋ; ŋɔŋŋɔŋ; ŋuŋŋɔŋ See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality kusa kusa See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mỹr, vẽnh-vĩ ki krow See Language page PLE
day día dia time kurã kurã See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality kavẽj kawɛy; kawiŋwɛy; kɨŋwɛy See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality tɔŋ; tuŋtɔŋ (IDS) tɔŋ; tuŋtɔŋ See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality yãtũ; nə (IDS) yãtũ; nə See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment ga funfur (ga=soil; funfur=dust) ΦunΦur; Φun-Φun See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body nĩgrẽg -nĩŋrɛ̃ŋ See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ga ŋa; ɛ̃prã See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna o, ov (Portuguese loan?) -krɛ̃; o; ow; ŋarĩɲ krɛ̃ See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body kanẽ #NAME? See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality kòr gy, kor hà kɔrɔŋɨ; kuwar; kɔr See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ràm rəm; -tãŋ See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship panh -yɔŋ; paɲ See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna fẽr #NAME? See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment pĩ See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment fej #NAME? See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment krũj krũy See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora ka kanẽ -kanɛ̃; ka kanɛ̃ See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality hã, fe mãg hə; Φe məŋ; wĩ hə; hapɛ̃ See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body gãnh -ŋãɲ See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body nĩgà nĩŋɛ See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ti, -n ti; Φi See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body krĩ -krĩ See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality kufy kuΦɨ See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar ri ri; hɛ̃ri ke See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar inh ʔiɲ See Language page PLE
if si se grammar kỹ kə̃ See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ki, kã ki; kã; kãkã; kãki; kãtə See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body nug -kãtə; nuŋ See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment ʔɔrɛ niŋ (IDS) ʔɔrɛ niŋ See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment fèj #NAME? See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jakãnh -yakãɲ See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body fa #NAME? See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mrãrn ke (IDS) mrãrn ke See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body tỹmẽ -tə̃mɛ̃; tɨ̃mɛ̃ See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality krẽgfa, tèj tɛy; krɛ̃ŋΦa See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ga ŋa See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human ũn-grè ũn-ŋre; ŋrɛ See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna nĩ -nĩ See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment kysã kɨṣ̌ã; kɨsã See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nỹ, jỹ -nə̃; yə̃; mə̃ɲ See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body jẽnky -yɛ̃nkɨ See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human jiji yiyi; yɨyɨ See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality kakò, rã kakɔ; rã See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body jagpãnunh yaŋpãnuɲ See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body nunh #NAME? See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality tãg tãŋ See Language page PLE
night noche noite time kuty kutɨ See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar vò, tũ wɔ, tũ See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body nĩjẽ -nĩyɛ̃ See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality si, kòfa kɔΦa; si; ŋuΦã See Language page PLE
one uno um number pir pir See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar ũ, ũn ũ, ũn See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body kaga kaŋãŋ; kaŋa See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human fòg (non-indigenous person) wɛ̃ɲʔũ; saɲ; kaɲŋəŋ See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment ta ta; ta kutɛ̃ See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour kusũg kɔsɔŋ; kusũŋ See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pẽg-ja #NAME? See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture ẽmĩn ʔɛ̃prɨ sĩ See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora jãre -yãre See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality kòrèg kɔrɛŋ; kɔriŋrɛŋ; kunãɲ See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment rỹnhrỹj rɨ̃ɲrɨ̃y; rĩɲrĩy See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yã; yukɛn; yãkɛn (IDS) yã; yukɛn; yãkɛn See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality rur rur See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body jẽnĩmanh yɛ̃nĩmaɲ; yɛ̃nĩmɨ̃ɲ; pɛ̃n mɛŋ See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental mỹ´a mɨ̃ʔa; kawɛy See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body fàr #NAME? See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment kanhkã kaɲkã See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality sĩ, kãsir sĩ; kãsir; mi; kɔnɛ̃ŋ; kuniŋ See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment nĩja nĩya; nĩya-ŋ; tũm tũm ke See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment krĩg krĩŋ See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ka ka See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment pò See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body my -mɨ See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ag ʔaŋ; Φaŋ See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality jãjèv yãyɛw; kãŋnĩ See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality gỹnh kɨyo See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar tag tag See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ʔã See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body tỹvãn tɨ̃wãn See Language page PLE
three tres tres number tãgtũ tãŋtũ; tãŋtũŋ See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment ta tỹ tỹrỹr he ta tə̃ tə̃rə̃r hɛ; kɔhun See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body para, kypra pra; kɨpra See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body jãkà kãkan; yãkə; kãkə; Φu ke; hu he See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body hãn hãn ke (onomatopoeia?), jẽnger yɛ̃nŋɛr See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment pũn, kuprũn pũr See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kajẽ kayɛ̃ See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion tãpry, jãpry tãprɨ; yãprɨ; yãŋprɨ; kuΦĩn See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion kãtĩ, kãmũ kãtĩŋ; kãtĩ; kãmũ See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ẽgnènh ɛ̃ŋnɛɲ See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental tò, vẽmèn nĩkrɛn See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental fỹ, kygfỹ Φɨ̃; kɨŋΦɨ̃; wɛ̃krɛ̃n See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kym, kykym kɨm; kɨkɨm See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state ter tɛr; hun ke; tũŋ See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact kũm, kũmkũm kũkũm; kũm; kũm-kũm See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental jãti, jãgti yãti; yãŋti; peti; piŋti See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body kron oŋ; oŋʔoŋ; kron; kron-kron See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body jẽn, ko yɛ̃n; ko See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion kutẽ, vom kutɛ̃ See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental mũmẽg, kamẽg mũmɛ̃ŋ; kãʔu; kamɛ̃ŋ See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion yɨyɨɲ he (IDS) yɨyɨɲ he See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion tẽ, tẽv tɛ̃; tɛ̃w; tɛ̃ŋtɛ̃; tɛ̃ŋtɛ̃w See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state mog moŋ See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental mẽ, mẽgmẽ mɛ̃ŋ; mɛ̃; mɛ̃ŋmɛ̃ See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion pèju, pigju kãtɔn; puŋnɔn; peyu See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact jẽtẽn, jẽgtẽn mrãn-mrãn; nə e; kã nə e See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kãgmĩ, kugmĩ mãn See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact tũg, tèn tɛn; kãŋtɛn See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental kanhrãn kaɲrɔ; ki kaɲrɔ See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental ny nɨŋ See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion fi, vin nã; nə̃; Φi See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body rĩr, nĩ rĩr; Φɛ mrir See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other nor, nognor nor; noŋnor; row; roŋrow See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact mrãn-mrãn; nə e; kã nə e (IDS) pɔ he; pɔke See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental tò, he, ke tɔ; he; ke See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact jarn ke yaɾn ke See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental ve, vigve we; wiŋwe See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact pẽg, pènũ pɛ̃ŋ; pɛnũ; pin See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state nĩ, nĩgnĩ nĩ; nĩŋnĩ See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body nũr, nũgnũr nũr; nũn; nũŋnũr See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body kã´ĩ kãʔĩ; mɛ̃ŋ; mɛ̃ŋ-mɛ̃ŋ See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body sug yãra; suŋ See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ryg, rygryg rɨŋ; rɔm; ruŋrɔm See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact sẽgmĩ yɛ̃ŋmĩ; yɛ̃ŋũ See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kusòn nɔn; kusɔn See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state yɛ̃; yɛ̃ŋyɛ̃ (IDS) yɛ̃; yɛ̃ŋyɛ̃ See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other pigju, pèju pɛyu; piŋyu See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body ũnh ũnh he (onomatopoeia?) ʔũɲ-ʔũɲ he; ũɲ ũɲ hɛ; kãhun See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body fun ke kãɲpar; kãɲpɨnpar See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion tũgnũm mro; tũŋnũm See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental ẽkrèn yɨkrɛn; ɛ̃kren See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact pẽg Φɔn; wãm; wãwãm See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tògfĩn kaŋye See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other jakajẽn wə̃n ke; wĩrn ke; yɨ rã; yɨ ŋĩn See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body è e tũŋtũw; ɛ e See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion tĩ, mũ tĩ; mũ; pasa; pɨŋsa See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other rãnhrãj rãɲrãy See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body ããg he ããŋ hɛ See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body nũnẽ, vĩ nũnɛ̃ See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body jã -yã See Language page PLE
two dos dois number règre rɛŋre See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment goj ŋoy See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ẽg ẽg See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality mrèr, pãgpẽ mrɛr; mrãn; pãŋpɛ̃ See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ne, hẽ ri ke kã nenɛ̃; hɛ̃ ri ke kã; ne See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar kə̃ (IDS) kə̃ See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar hè-tà tə; hɨ̃n; hɛ̃-tə See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour kupri kupri See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ũ; ʔũ-nɛ̃ See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship kofa-fi, prũ-fi -prũ; prũ-Φi; koΦa-Φi See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment kãka kãka; kɔho See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body fẽr #NAME? See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ũ-tỹtà Φi; ũ-tə̃tə; ũ-tətə; ũ-tãtə See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour [mãrɛru] (loan) (IDS) [mãrɛru] See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ãjag ʔãyaŋ See Language page PLE
foot pie body pẽn #NAME? See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar mãn (IDS) mãn See Language page PLE
all todo todos other kar, kankar kar; kankar See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pẽn nàn (pẽn=pé; nàn=nó de osso) pɛ̃n nən See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body yɛ̃rɛ̃ (IDS) yɛ̃rɛ̃ See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jãfa, jãgfa yãΦa; yãŋΦa See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body fe kãnhvy, jẽngèj Φɛ kãɲwɨ; yɛ̃nŋey See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body kãrã kãrã-n See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body krykry, kugmre krɨkrɨ See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment fàr #NAME? See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body nĩggru nĩŋŋru See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body fe ror (fe=chest; ror=?) -Φe; Φɛ ror See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time rã, rãrĩr rã; rãrĩr; rɛ̃rĩr See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment pãnònh krĩ; pãnɔɲ; sɔr See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality tành təɲ See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality rỹ rɨ̃; rɨ̃-yɨ̃ŋɨ See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kãwru (Pt loan) (IDS) kãwru (Pt loan) (IDS) See Language page PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. krygfèj krɨŋΦɛy See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna jẽsĩ sɛ̃sĩ See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. grũ gɾũ See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae kòkoj kɔkox See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kãkò, tò Φəŋ-pɛ̃-krə̃ŋrə̃ŋ See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kã´èg kãʔɛg See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica jògjò, kãto yɔŋyɔ; kãto See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae sòrag sɔrãŋ; ton See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae hũg, tògfĩn hũŋ; tɔŋΦĩn See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae jãtã yãtã; mĩŋ Φɛ̃r; yɔŋɔŋ (?) See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pègmèg pɛ̃n tãper; kuɲhɛ̃ŋ; kuɲhãŋ See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sãkrĩgò sãkɾĩgò See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hoghog hoŋhoŋ See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) jòti yɔti See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri hinh xidnx See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. hãpã (IDS) hãpã (IDS) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pirã pirã See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pèpo pɛpo See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ŋãŋŋre; yãŋŋre 'lizard' (IDS) ŋãŋŋre; yãŋŋre See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura jògè yɔgɛ See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna pỹn pə̃n See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox pỹn pẽ pɨ̃n pẽ See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria pènĩ pɛnĩ See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) kamrĩ kayɛ̃r kasakɨ See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa jàjà yəyə See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. rãgrò rãŋrɔ See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ròrò rɔrɔ; re See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays gãr ŋãr See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum Φũmu (Pt loan) (IDS) Φũmu See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ka ka See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta [mə̃nyɔka] See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum nin; pɛnʔɔ (IDS) ndidn; pɛnʔɔ (IDS) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas nin; pɛnʔɔ (IDS) [matata]; nin; pɛnʔɔ See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) run-ja run-ya See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. peho pɛho; pɛhu See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. mrũr mɾũɾ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ka (IDS) ka (IDS) See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pɛnkriŋ (IDS) pɛnkriŋ See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mỹg mə̃ŋ See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kruj kruy See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae nèr-jẽnje nɛɾ-yẽnye See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera toto toto See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora jònjòn ŋa; nuŋ ŋa; yɔnyɔn See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda pə̃n kakrã (IDS) pə̃n kakrã See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones pỹn kakrã màg (pỹn=snake; kakrã=?; màg=big) pə̃n kakrã məŋ See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea gangavo, katir gadngawo, katiɾ See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kãpò kãpɔ See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ka tành (ka=mosquito; tành=to kill) ka təɲ See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae firèg fiɾɛg See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. jòkynh yɔkɨdnx See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae jòka, jòkaka yɔka, yɔkaka See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ka ka; ka riŋri See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ryg ɾɨg See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tir tiɾ See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita Φɛ̃ŋnu; kɔŋΦo (IDS) Φɛ̃ŋnu; kɔŋΦo See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae sukrĩg sukrĩŋ See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca mĩg mĩg See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kajẽr kayẽɾ See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella kajẽr, pẽgũ kayẽɾ, pẽgũ See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae nɛr-kɔkrɛ; ɲɔr-kɔkrɛ (IDS) nɛr-kɔkrɛ; ɲɔr-kɔkrɛ See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis grer gɾeɾ See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis fògfènh fɔgfɛnx See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua se se See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. kysòg kɨsɔg See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris krãgnãn kɾãgnãn See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ko kamẽ (ko=to eat; kamẽ=?), kryrỹ ko kamẽ (ko=to eat; kamẽ=?), kryrỹ See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus kasĩn (IDS) kasĩn See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae jòtiti yɔtiti See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris òjor ɔyoɾ See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kãme kãme See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kẽj kɛ̃y; kãŋtɨ See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material pri wɛ̃ɲ-nĩŋŋrɛ See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material tẽ-ja tẽ-ya See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material nĩgja nĩŋya See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kãkènh, kãnva kãkɛɲ; kãnwa See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tũgnũg tũŋnũŋ See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kujà kuyə In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material fỹgfỹ-jafã Φɨ̃ŋΦɨ̃ŋ-yaΦã See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kur kur See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other rò may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other pĩ See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kãnhmèg nɛn-nɛ̃ we See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology topẽ topɛ̃; ɛ̃ŋ-yɔŋ məŋ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology hotore (IDS) hotore multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kyfè, rògro kɨΦɛ; rɔŋro See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mèg mɛŋ especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool no no; na hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool rògro rɔŋro See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool vyj wɨy arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport kãkɛɲ wɔŋ yãΦa (IDS) kãkɛɲ wɔŋ yãΦa See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kukrũ kukrũ See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material pènky pɛnkɨ; kukrũ See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sy sɨ; kriŋŋriŋ See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool jẽnjo yẽnyo See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other neɲ (beeswax; IDS) neɲ See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food mỹg mɨ̃ŋ only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture vãfe ṣ̌eya; wãΦe See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ẽkrè fòr ẽkɾɛ fɔɾ See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology rãgre rãgɾe See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology kaɲkã See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation iɲkɔra; wɛ̃ɲ-kaɲrãn-yãΦã (IDS) iɲkɔra; wɛ̃ɲ-kaɲrãn-yãΦã (IDS) See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation wɛ̃ɲ-rə (IDS) wɛ̃ɲ-rə See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology yãti; yãŋti; peti; piŋti (IDS) yãti; yãŋti; peti; piŋti See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ŋarĩɲ (loan galinha?) (IDS) [ŋarĩɲ] krɛ̃ See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wɛ̃ɲ-key; key (IDS) wɛ̃ɲ-key; key See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ŋrɛ̃ 'sugar' (IDS) ŋrɛ̃ 'sugar' (IDS) See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material wɛ̃ɲ-pɛ̃Φĩ (IDS) wɛ̃ɲ-pɛ̃Φĩ See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pɛ̃n nɛ; pɛ̃n to rɔ (IDS) pɛ̃n nɛ; pɛ̃n to rɔ See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mĩŋ sĩ (loan, IDS) mĩŋ sĩ See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation no puŋ; no tɛy (IDS) no puŋ; no tɛy See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress sãpe (loan Pt) (IDS) sãpe See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pãʔi; pãʔe (loan Tupi?) (IDS) pãʔi; pãʔe See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool ka kɨw; ka mrãr (IDS) ka kɨw; ka mrãr See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food sa (loan Pt?) (IDS) sa See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tə̃ɲ; tɨ̃ɲ; tɨ̃ŋtɨ̃ɲ; yãr (vb., IDS) tə̃ɲ; tɨ̃ɲ; tɨ̃ŋtɨ̃ɲ; yãr See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool rògro ɾɔgɾo hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool yɛ̃nwɛn-yaΦã (IDS) yɛ̃nwɛn-yaΦã esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food vim ke (vim=?; que=to do) wibm ke See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food ẽkrènh se; ʔɛ̃kreɲ See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food se wɛ̃ɲ-mɛ̃ŋ Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool run-ja ɾun-ya See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kri-win-ya See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool krèj krɛy See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool kra kra See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kɨΦɛ 'mead/beer' (IDS) kɨΦɛ 'mead/beer' (IDS) prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food mẽn-hu, jònhky [Φarĩɲ] agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food yamĩ; ɛ̃mĩ; pũ 'bread' (IDS) yamĩ; ɛ̃mĩ; pũ 'bread' (IDS) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool gren gɾedn agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ɛ̃ŋΦi-to-sa-yaΦã (IDS) ɛ̃ŋΦi-to-sa-yaΦã (IDS) can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool pãri (loan TG?) pãri See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture pè if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other ĩn ʔĩn; wɛ̃ɲ-nĩŋ-ya See Language page PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Texeira 1988:4 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Texeira 1988:4 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Texeira 1988:4 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Texeira 1988:26 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Texeira 1988:26 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Cavalcante 1987:31 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Cavalcante 1987:31 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no many examples of open syllables Cavalcante 1987:31 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Cavalcante 1987 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Cavalcante 1987 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Cavalcante 1987 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no TAM marked by particles Silva 2011:104 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes reduplicated verbs for plurality Cavalcante 1987:58-65 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes reduplicated verbs for plurality Cavalcante 1987:58-65 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes for mood Silva 2011:104 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no not likely since verb does not have many morphemes Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info not likely Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes Silva 2011:147 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-e/ taken from examples… author does not discuss this topic Silva 2011:62 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Silva 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes ti no discussion but author glosses /ti/ as a definite masculine article Silva 2011:142 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes un borrowing? Silva 2011:180 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Silva 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no no person inflection Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 0 en ~ an - tag proximal - distal Goncalves 2011:289 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no info Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no no prefixes in the language Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no no tones Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no two different pospositions Goncalves 2011:292 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no classification seems very unlikely Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Goncalves 2011:294 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no not likely, since nouns do not mark gender Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes ja Goncalves 2011:40 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /-g/ Goncalves 2011:35 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no author only describes one future Goncalves 2011:73 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes /-j/ Goncalves 2011:73 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no no tones Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no /ra/ seems to have several functions, which includes imperative Goncalves 2011:82 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes vẽ vẽ particle Goncalves 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no not likely Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Goncalves 2011:118-127 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no ra ra /ra/ seems to have several functions, which may include realis/irrealis Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Goncalves 2011:16 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no not likely from examples Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV basic order Goncalves 2011:14 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Goncalves 2011:292 Daniel Smith
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Demonstrative-Noun no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Demonstrative no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked yes Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no info not likely according to examples Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no info not likely according to examples Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no all the pronouns remain the same Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no no person inflection Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes pronoun seems to occupy subject position in examples Goncalves 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes particle Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes particle Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no info Authors do not discuss causatives Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith


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