Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs

Morphology - Incorporation
Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no The description of a verb stem (or any other level) does not contain a slot for some other root (although there are light verb constructions that take adjectival or clausal complements). Allin, 1976: 97, 105-109 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 150-180, 235-268 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521-524 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No discussion of incorporation in chapter on verbs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no The template for verbs does not include a slot for incorporated elements. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800-801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no The overview of predicate structure does not describe any incorporation processes. Aikhenvald 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no info Thre is a section on noun incorporation, but no suggestion that other elements can be incorporated. Language has no adjectives Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes adverbials Payne 1981:3842 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:171 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007: p98-100 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 327-331 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes incorporated locatives Matteson 1965:79 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:58-65 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon yes can you say anything about which ones? It seems that postpositions can be added to verbs to form other verbs de Armellada 1999: 260 to 262 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes verb + directional adverbs Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-145 Daniel Valle
Damana yes adjectives, quality (unique, reiteration), actuality Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:219-237 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:269-72 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:59-88 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no especially prepositions and temporal expressions Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-78 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:45-54, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info "However, there seems to be a possible incorporation but it has a ridig structure and seems to be the product of grammaticalization." Giron 2008: p221 (Table 23; ex. 417a-f) Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info not likely Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.36, 42-44 Christopher Clack Features such as locative (-mo) are attached to the noun via suffix.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes esp. postpositions Weir 1984:97 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no A few possible examples but not productive Martins 2004: 653 Patience Epps
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 76 Amanda Novak A class 2 noun may also follow a stative verb stem or a nominalized adjective stem.
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no adverbs Cook & Criswell 1993, p.80 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Barasano is a verb-adjective language Jones & Jones 1991, p.63 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.100 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Yanomami yes can incorporate noun classifiers, AUG/DIM; "adjectives" pattern verbally, and so they may seem "incorporated" but this might be better classified as a kind of verb serialization. Ramirez 1994: p.130; Lizot 1996: p.32-33 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes adverbs Goodwin-Gomez, p.82-83, 103 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes adverbs Borgman 1990: p.204 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296-317 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:69-118 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a 46-51 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 148-9 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes? 46, 53 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 96 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 48-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 39 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 364 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 201 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 200-202 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 56-60 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 314 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 11 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 405 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 14 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no 221 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 319 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 59 0
Dyirbal No 246 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 85-88 done 0
Djinang No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 38 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 85 done 0
Mathi-Mathi yes 99-101 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 89-91 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 53-63 done 0
Katthang no 73 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 113 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya yes 10.2.1 done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 84 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 113 0
Kokatha No 40 0
Karajarri No 114 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 7 0
Ritharrngu No 60-66 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari No 30 0
Wajarri No 91 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990: Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps