Yindjibarndi

Family
Unknown Australia
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
none


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no 10 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no 10 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 10 done-Dan 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes 10 done-Dan 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no 10 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no 14 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no 40-41 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no 40-41 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no 10 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no 41-44 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no 10 done-Dan 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no info done-Dan x
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes 24 done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no 54, 98-100 done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes cf 104, irrealis example done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no 1 done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes 1 done-Dan 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no 1 done-Dan 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info done-Dan x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes 49-51 done-Dan 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no 176-183 done-Dan 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no 82-83 done-Dan 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes 82 done-Dan 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info done-Dan x
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes 82-83 done-Dan 1
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns n/a 46-51 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP n/a 46-47 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders yes 46-47 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only n/a 71-73 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" n/a done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals n/a done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' n/a done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no 51 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes 52 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no 52 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no 52 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes 73 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no info 71-75 done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no 71-75 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes 71-73 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system no info 71-73 done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes 71-73 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no 72 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no 72 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no 72 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no 72 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes /tyarnku/ 78 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no 54 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes 1, 54 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no 54-60 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes 46, 54 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no 54, 98-100 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no 54, 1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no 54, 1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no 54,1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 54,1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no 58, 60 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes cf texts done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no cf texts done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no 143-147 done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no 144 done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes 143-144 done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no done-Dan 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info done-Dan x
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes 107, 117 done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes 104-120 done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes 83-91 done-Dan 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes 68, 175 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes 97 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no 1, 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 1, 97-104 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes 97-104 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes 167-168 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no 166 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes /kuyu/ 168 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes 98 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes 103-104 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes 129-136 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes 129-136 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no 129-136 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no 129-136 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no 129-136 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion n/a done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info done-Dan x
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes 2, 158 done-Dan 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes cf 206, text 13; 271, text 38; 224, text 50 etc. done-Dan 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes cf 203, text 7; 238, text 62 done-Dan 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes cf 215, text 35, etc done-Dan 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes cf 267, paragraph 2, text 75 done-Dan 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun n/a 46, 78, cf 141 done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes 1, 54 done-Dan 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes cf text 55, line 2, p228 done-Dan 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes cf text 52, line 3, p226 done-Dan 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun n/a done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun n/a done-Dan 0
Word Order Dem-Noun yes cf text 6, p203 done-Dan 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes 160 done-Dan 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes 160 done-Dan 1
Word Order Noun-Num no 160 done-Dan 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes 183-184 done-Dan 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes 164 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes 54-60 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no 54-60 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no 55, 2 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no 54-70 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no 54-70 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes 73-75 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative yes 73-75 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no 73-75 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no 73-75 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no 73-75 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes cf text 6, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes cf text 34, sentence 3 (215); cf 174, sentence 1 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no /-marri-/ 90 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no 78 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes 170-175 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes 89 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no 89 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes 89 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no 89 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes 156-158 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no 156-158 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes #NAME? 157 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes mirta 156-158 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no 156-158 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no 156-158 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes /-nta/ 163 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no 163 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no 163 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes 163 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes 164-165 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no cf texts, e.g. text 7, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes cf texts, e.g. text 7, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes cf text 1, sentence 1 (201) done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no 183 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no 183 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no 183-184 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no 175-183 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info done-Dan x
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? n/a 54 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? yes 54 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? n/a 54 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no 54, 1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? yes 54, 1 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? no info 54-70 done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? n/a 54, 1 done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) no info done-Dan x
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes 51 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 51-54 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? n/a done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? n/a done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? yes 72 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes 77 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes 72 (footnote) done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes 72 (footnote) done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? no done-Dan 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? yes 74 done-Dan 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? n/a done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 156-158 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 156-158 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? no info done-Dan x
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? yes 170-175 done-Dan 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no 79 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no t done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes 86-89 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes 98 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes 97-104 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no 97-104 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? no 2 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no 166 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no 166 done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? yes 152 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? yes cf text 16, sentence 3 (207) done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes 2, 79 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done-Dan 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes 68 done-Dan 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info done-Dan x
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no 73 done-Dan 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? yes 233, text 58, sentence 3 done-Dan 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no info done-Dan x
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? no 2, 158 done-Dan 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done-Dan 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no 10 done-Dan 0