Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Nouns for humans are inalienably possessed, but do not have to occur with another noun. Allin, 1976: 165 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen and Captain (2000) note that nouns can “concatenate,” where the first can be a noun that identifies a referent (when it's a human), the race of the person follows. Examples are “wayuu viejo,” and “wayuu señorita,” to mean something like “el viejo” Mansen & Captain 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Other nouns that refer to things "closely associated with people" are obligatorily possessed, but human nouns do not seem to be among this class. Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no woman,' 'man,' 'male child,' and 'woman child' are all alienable nouns an can occur alone Facundes, 2000: 202 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:4953 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-35 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no info Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p120 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 297-301 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan and Burgess 1979:70 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no This does not appear to be the case from the Macushi texts in Abbott Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:5-11 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no no info actually Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p.21-23 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77-92 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40-41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-18 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.5 Chris Clack In referring to animates, ya (genitive) is followed by gender-number markers.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no discussion, but there are many examples that simply have "man"
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely no mention of this
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no? Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 76 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 78 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 51 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 27 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 55 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 230-232 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 24 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 45 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 313 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No wordlist done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 58 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 175 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 49 0
Dyirbal No 60-61 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 96-99 done 0
Djinang No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 19 done 0
Bularnu no 135 Done-Austin 0
Biri no done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 79 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 72 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 39 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11 done 0
Katthang no 36 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 68 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 313 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 38 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 524 done 0
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 41 done 0
Arrernte No 150 0
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 14 0
Ritharrngu No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 59 Y2 0
Narungga No 65 done 0
Tharrkari No 26 0
Wajarri No 48 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps