Paakantyi

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
drl
Location
-31.13°, 144.22°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ngina unique Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ŋina unique Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ŋadu inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yubalugu loan English Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar imba inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar –ika unique Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar -(a)thu unique Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location [missing] missing Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar nhantama unique Claire Bowern
all todo todos other kutanya unique Claire Bowern
and y e grammar ŋa inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body giḷi unique Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ḏiginja Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental baḻḏa-waŋga- unique Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment 3180 semantic shift Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ka Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body ḏaṇa inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality boolagalli unique Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body burinja Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body gundu unique Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location miŋgada Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality wertoo Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body dhaja_x001E_ semantic shift Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour gugiriga unique Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body gandar Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body waḏa- unique Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality puuRa unique Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body bina semantic shift Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gāḏiri unique Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ŋamo inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ḏawi- unique Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment ḏūba- Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body manda- inheritance? Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human mobo unique Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion biṉa- unique Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ḏūru Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality bundinyella loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion bari-ba- Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 574 Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental yalpa- unique Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental yan-ma- Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact waga_x001E_ Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state buga-la- inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact baḏa-ma- Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna kudill unique Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality 768 unique Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental guṉa- Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body toonjella, dungera unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality ḏaḷa unique Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body yuri doubtful loan Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment nharti loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body kari unique Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna bardi inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body meigi Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body guna inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion yāga- unique Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality baridjiri inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body murni inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship kombitha, gambiji inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental nguuya-la- unique Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna bulgi unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment guniga Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna (non generic name) Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion wamba- unique Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment buṇi unique Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion wingar unique Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ŋaninja unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body tinna inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora manhu Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality kungala Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state gila-ba- unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body therteboolka unique Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body mara inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body dardu Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental bāri- unique Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ḏaguli unique Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion buḷga- unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bulda-bulda- unique Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact parti unique Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other ŋarga-ŋarga- unique Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -ka unique Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body koonawoon inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body mūgi- unique Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact buga-ma- unique Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yuri-(la)- Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment ḏildagara unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental gīnda- inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment baga inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body yaŋgudja Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body garaga Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ŋima- unique Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bindi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body ḏaŋgunja Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality bāluru loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ḏirginja unique Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body ḏalga unique Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human maḷi semantic shift Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna maanpa unique Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment baidjuga unique Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ummaka inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body yelka unique Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human migi inheritance? Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body būmba unique Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality ḏaljba unique Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body parnpa unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality maḏara inheritance Claire Bowern
night noche noite time kailka unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar ŋāḏa unique Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body mindol loan Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality wiḍu semantic shift Claire Bowern
one uno um number nicha Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other biyara unique Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar gāru unique Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human mali unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body thaka-thaka unique Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment nina, mukra unique Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour ŋalgina unique Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ṉurani unique Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture yaṇga unique Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora baḷgara loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality puka inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment ḏiṛi unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental gulba- unique Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact maṛa-maṛa- loan Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental pommi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality budjala Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality yaṇi unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body gaṛḏa unique Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body gaḻila unique Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state narngulla inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body balda loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment galgara unique Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body immerkulla Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality kurtalooko unique Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body būnda- inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment bundu Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body thupa- inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ḏaḷa-ḏaḷa- unique Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ḏura- unique Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact panta- Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dha:rri_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment poolia, burle inheritance? Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other gaṇma- unique Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment garnu loan Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body ḏundi-la- unique Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time yugu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body gaŋaṛa unique Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body bulbula- Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion īga- unique Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body gundara inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar yuna unique Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ḏundju unique Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality ṉindandja unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental yuuri-(la)- Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar iḏu unique Claire Bowern
three tres tres number boola nicha Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body baṇba unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ŋāḍa- unique Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment brinda loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact muni- Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body therlunnia inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body undi unique Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality mari unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ḏamba-ḏamba- unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number bargol loan Karnic Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body maṇḍa- unique Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion tarninjerri unique Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ŋugu inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality guṇgu unique Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar miṉa inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar [missing] missing Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar windjara inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour goba Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar windjiga Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship gumbaga Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment yerdu Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body thurti Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human nongo unique Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other warka- loan English Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bildi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (9)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yara Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna bīburu unique Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna kalku Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna buḷara unique Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna gali inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna molo, muttoo unique Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna dalda loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mulkeri unique Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna mara-maraaka Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kalpalka unique Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool gaṇga unique Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool (not used) missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karkooro inheritance Claire Bowern
house other gundji inheritance Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes 15; 23 Y-Hannah 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes 32-33 Y-Hannah 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no 43 Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no 15 Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no 45 Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes 175 Y-Hannah 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Y-Hannah 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes 158, 181 Y-Hannah 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders N/A Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes 81-82 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-(l)ugu/ 82-84 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no 83 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no 76? Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes Southern Bāgandji, Bārundji, and Bandjigali: /gīgi/, /gid̠u/, /gin̠i/ /gin̠u/ /gin̠a/, /yuna/, /n̠una/ (rare) (sg, nom.); /(gi)d̠uru/, /(gi)n̠uru/, /gin̠aru/ (rare) (sg, erg.); /gigina/ /giguna/, /gid̠una/ /gid̠ana/, /gin̠ana/ /gin̠una/, /yunūna/, /n̠unūn 118-121 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no 109 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no 109 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no 109 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes absolutive: /Ø/; ergative: /Ø/ or /-ru/; dative: /-ṛi/; allative: /-ṛi/ (/-miṛi/ in Guṇu); instrumental/locative/genitive: /-na/; ablative /-(u)ndu/; purposive-benefactive: /-mandi/; comitative: /-(a)mbala/, /-umbula/, /[-amada]/ 54 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no 77, 120 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes 54-55 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no 54; 72 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 yes 84 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no 84 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes 84 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Southern Bāgandji, Bārundji, and Bandjigali: /-ayi/, (-an̠a) (sg 1st); /-uma/, /-ama/, /-ma/ (sg 2nd); /-(a)na/, (-ndu) (sg 3rd); /-alina/ (du 1st); /-ubana/, variant /-ubuna/, /-abana/ (du 2nd); /-ūluna/, variant /-uduna/, /-udana/ (du 3rd); /-inana/ (pl 85-87 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes 75 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes 75 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes /-ma/; /-waḍa/ 177, 181 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info 232 Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes /-dj/ 198, 203 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no /-dj/, /-dji/ (when no bound pronound follows; only verbal suffix that occurs in Guṇu, and only occassionally) (past); /-ŋgu/ (perfect); /-u/ (perfect in Bārundji, added to stems with final /-a/ and replaces thel /-a/); /-wu/ (perfect in Bārundji, added t 198, 200, 203 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no 175, 198 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes /-d/, /-na/ (non-past when no bound subject pronoun follows; can only be used in Guṇu when the subject is a non-pronominal NP) 175, 198, 200, 204, 211- 212 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no 198 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 198 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no 198 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no 198 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /-gu/ 207 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) yes 207 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes 228-229 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes /-nja/; /-ma/; /-ni/ 180, 195, 217 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no 236 Y-Hannah 0
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes 240 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no 236-237 Y-Hannah 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes 236, 239 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no 236 Y-Hannah 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Y-Hannah 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes 75 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes 103 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes 98-99 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes 99 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes 100 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes 100 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Num-Noun yes 84 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Noun-Num no 84 Y-Hannah 0
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes 156-157 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes see question 63 53; 63 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes /-na/ 59 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no 105 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite yes 105, 114, 120 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes 105 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes 156, 159-160 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes 127 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no 163-164 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no 156, 159-160 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes 128 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes 128 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes 128 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 128, 149 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 128 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no 128 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes 127 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no 128 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes 64 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes /-mila/ 186 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes /-d̠iri/; /-mal̠d̠a/ (Guṇu and Bārundji) 187-188 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no 186 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes /-ma/ + /-la/ 191 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix yes 185 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes /-la/ 191 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes /gali/ 228 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no 228 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no 228 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /gila/; /ŋād̠a/ 228-229 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no 228 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no 228 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no /windjiga/ ('who': + -Ø (nom.); + /-na/ (acc./gen.); + /-mandi/ (purp.); + /-umbula/ (com.) ). /windja/, /windjara/ ('where': /windjamaṛi/ (all.); /windjamiṛi/ (all., Guṇu); /windjandu/ (abl.). 'which'). /min̠a/ ('what': + /-na/ (inst.); + /-mandi/ (purp. 167-170 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes 163-165 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no 214-215 Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no 210 Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes 181 Y-Hannah 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? no Y-Hannah 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes 181 Y-Hannah 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no info Y-Hannah X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no info 182 Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no 54 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no /-na/ 54 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? yes 99-100 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? no 99 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes 215-216 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? no info Y-Hannah X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes /-ŋulu/ 82 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 82 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? no 83 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes bound pronouns: /-ā̌ba/ (1st sg, intransitive, subj.); /-ad̠u/ (regular, all tenses), /-id̠u/ (only in Bārundji past tense), /-u/ (preferred for past tense in Southern Bāgandji; /-ad̠u/ sometimes used) (1st sg, transitive, subj.); /-imba/ (2nd sg, intrans 127-128, 148-151 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes free pronouns: /ŋā̌ba/ (1st sg, nom.); /ŋimba/ (2nd sg, nom.); /ŋad̠u/ (Southern Bāgandji and Bandjigali), /ŋad̠u/ (present, Bārundji and Guṇu) (3rd sg, nom.); (/ŋā̌d̠u/ (1st sg, erg.); /ŋindu/ (2nd sg., erg.); /ŋad̠u(ru)/, /wad̠u(ru)/ (Southern Bāgandji 109-115 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes /min̠a/ ('what'); /windjiga/(all dialects except Bārundji), /windjīga/ (Bārundji) ('who'): + -Ø (nom.); + /-na/ (acc./gen.); + /-mandi/ (purp.); + /-umbula/ (com.) 158, 167-168 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? no 107-109 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? no 107 Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? no Y-Hannah 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes 156, 159 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes 156 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? yes 109-110 Y-Hannah 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? yes 128 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes sentence-initial 160-161; 220 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes /gila/ 228 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 228 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? yes Guṇu base forms (prefix /ŋ-/ for present, /w-/ for past, /g-/ for future): /-āba/ (1st sg, nom.); /-ad̠u/ (1st sg, erg.); /-imba/ (2nd sg, nom.); /-indu/ (2nd sg, erg.); /-an̠a/ (3rd sg, acc.); /-ad̠u/ (3rd sg, nom.); /-ad̠u(ru)/ (3rd sg, erg.); /-ali/ (1 122-123, 127 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no info Y-Hannah X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no Y-Hannah 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? no 196 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? no 198 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes /-nja/; /-ma/; /-ŋana/ (Guṇu); /-bani/ 180, 194-196 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no 193-194 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes 128, 125 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no 122-123 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? yes 207 Y-Hannah 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no 207 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? no Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? no 163 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? no 176 Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no Y-Hannah 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no info Y-Hannah X
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no Y-Hannah 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? no info Y-Hannah X
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? yes 102-103 Y-Hannah 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? yes 228 Y-Hannah 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no 128 Y-Hannah 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column yes 21-23 Y-Hannah 1


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium mobile yes