Causative: suffix

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:94 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Productively adds valence to Sa and So verbs Aikhenvald, 1995: 35 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 161-163, 253 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521, Shauer, 1978: 47 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 268 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Several causative morphemes, both are suffixes. Facundes, 2000: 310 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1981:41; Payne 1983:11 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Two different types of causatives: permissive and commanding. Zamponi 2003:43 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:97 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p218 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes There is also a causative suffix in Nanti. Michael, 2008. p. 279 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:23 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972: 5, 89 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965:78 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 128 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes "Some intransitive verbs occur with transitivizing suffixes that may have a causativizing function: -pa". Another type of causative is expressed by the verbal suffix -me'po 'to order'. Abbott 1991: 40-41 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:183 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:262 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:66 Daniel Valle
Kogi no The causative /-gu/ seems to be attached to a kind of auxiliary. This is based on examples Stendal 1976:16 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:183 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes "-yaba" used significantly less often (de Kondo) de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:302-3 Daniel Valle There are two causative: the suffix /-miti(ka)/ and a prefixed vowel which is not predictable. But the suffix is much more productive
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:62 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:12 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Notice that this suffix is similar in form to the transitivizer /-l/. So, it may be possible to argue that the suffix /-l/ has two functions: causative and transitivizer. Salas 1992, p.186 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:103 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:459-60, 609 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes It is only used with underived intransitive verbs Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 203-204 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Girón:222, 360 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 168 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.101 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes add -pu or -po Miller 1999, p. 115 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes causative has been lexicalized (i.e. 'kɨ' means be and 'kɨ-wA' means have Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Barasano forms morphological causatives by affixing -o to the verb root. Jones & Jones 1991, p.101 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes The morphological causitive is formed by adding a causative suffix immediately after the verb root. Strom 1992, p.92 Chris Clack The causee is the object or recipient of the verb.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:145-147 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes suffix -o is most basic strategy, suffix: -kã́ is the same form as switch reference morpheme Ramirez 1997: 271, 349 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 245-248 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 47-51 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:440 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes For transitive verbs Ayala 1996:248-51 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no 11 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes s163 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 89 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 181-5 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 47-9 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 98-9 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info 50 done-Amalia x
Wangkumara yes 38 done 1
Uradhi Yes 376 Y 1
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 205 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 139-140; 146 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 62?; 93 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 163, 165 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 14 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 129-37 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira yes 145 done 1
Marrgany yes 319 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 402-5 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 97 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 412-4 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 15 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 87 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 118 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 306 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay Yes 84 1
Dyirbal yes 91 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 86-7 done 1
Djinang Yes 122 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 73; 159; 168-169 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal maybe 61 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no info 109 done x
Bularnu yes 67 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 40 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 141-5 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 147 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 57 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 47 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 89-90 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 84-88 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 55-6 done 1
Katthang yes 86 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 188-189 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 59 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 153 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 329 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 86 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 71 done 1
Arrernte Yes 193 1
Kokatha no info 31 x
Karajarri Yes 195 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 224 1
Ritharrngu Yes 61 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 77 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 956 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 75-6 1
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 83 Y2 1
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari Yes 37 1
Wajarri Yes 108 1
Warungu yes 391 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:284 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps