Jingulu

Family
Mirndi
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
jig
Location
-16.63°, 133.55°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (129)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis wankurra wankurra unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tyutyutya tyutyutya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus walanybirri walanybirri unknown WW %walanypirri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia patkula patkula loan direction unknown 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba ngatyakurra ngatyakurra unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp marrangkutyki marrangkutyki unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris wurlurnmi wurlurnmi unknown WW %tyireke underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tyurlityi tyurlityi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon parnipukarri parnipukarri unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae jurruwujji tyurruwutyji unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus warlujapirni warlujapirni unknown WW %warlutyapi underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis jikimi jikimi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri yupungari yupungari unknown underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae murlura murlura unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lungkura lungkura loan WW %lungkurt underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii talmurranga talmurranga unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda yalkurrungkuti yalkurrungkuti unknown underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus tirtila tirtila unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula tyakulatyki tyakulatyki inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) tyarritpiji tyarritpiji unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius wirntukurni wirntukurni unknown WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis wanamburrku wanamburrku unknown underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis karninytyii karninytyii unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata kipilimi kipilimi unknown underived 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera marlimarlirni marlimarlirni unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota niliŋkila unique 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera kungmarna kungmarna unknown derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) kirirni kirirni unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda marlangkabirrirni marlangkabirrirni unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae kurrakurriji kurrakurriji doubtful loan Jarragan WW %kurrakurra reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes kilwilwirni kilwilwirni unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species kuwarntanpinyaka kuwarntanpinyaka unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus wamukurni wamukurni unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo yimintyi yimintyi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kunyarrpa kunyarrpa unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae kipilyawurni kipilyawurni unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta minanga minanga unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae kirninginjirni kirninginjirni unknown also kirdijingarrirni underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kakuyi kakuyi inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) yurrku yurrku inheritance WW %yurrku underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera yimarnnga yimarnnga unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) pilkina pilkina unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni kurtityalaka kurtityalaka unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii matyikayi matyikayi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii jamankula jamankula unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) ngalayimityji ngalayimityji unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kilikili(r)di kilikili(r)di loan direction unknown WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) warttyayi warttyayi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) tarralyaka tarralyaka unknown underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp tyurrkupati tyurrkupati unknown underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) kurdalya kurdalya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera kuratyaapa kuratyaapa unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis jiwarurru jiwarurru unknown also tyirrirli underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata wulululungpula wulululungpula unknown underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus tyurturni tyurturni unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus timana timana loan areal WW %timana underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing WW %timana missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus karrintyi karrintyi loan direction unknown Warlmanpa 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet purrutyawurni purrutyawurni unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae jurtama jurtama unknown underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda kalartayi kalartayi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata kuyumarlingkirni, kuyumarlingkirni, unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. pupurlu pupurlu unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera pangkulirni pangkulirni unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) nurnurnumi nurnurnumi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) wangkurra wangkurra unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus tyupurtu tyupurtu unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus pakuru pakuru unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius tirtikpi tirtikpi unknown underived 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia kirriyimi kirriyimi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis malyaku malyaku unknown underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya pityilrla pityilrla unknown underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kularnkurrurti kularnkurrurti unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp binyjayinyja binyjayinyja unknown underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca tirrtirrityi tirrtirrityi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis kurrpalawuji kurrpalawuji unknown WW %kurrpalarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing WW %kurrparu missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea watyirrku watyirrku unknown cf, Gur watyirrki dragonfly underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis kiyilmi kiyilmi unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis pilirna pilirna unknown pilirn WW %pilirna underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi lirrikpirni lirrikpirni unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum jinjaraku jinjaraku unknown underived 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta marrinkili marrinkili unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata tjapurti unique 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones muntarlirni muntarlirni unknown muntarla WW %muntala underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna liyirru liyirru unknown underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus nyinawurtirni nyinawurtirni unknown underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mikintyi mikintyi unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia wampa wampa unknown underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae karrutyi karrutyi unknown karru WW %karru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species wirrimi wirrimi unknown underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia pulumpulurti pulumpulurti unknown pulungpulung reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura wityiparta wityiparta unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna parnmi parnmi unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita pangarra pangarra loan Worrorran? palngarr WW %palngarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale kirirni kirirni unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea nyurrnguli nyurrnguli unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides tyurtuyini tyurtuyini unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera pilaya pilaya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) pilaya pilaya unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina mitilyi mitilyi unknown mirtil underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier tjangana unique 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangkulayi wangkulayi doubtful loan wangkarn WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) tarrangku tarrangku unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma mukurumi mukurumi unknown derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis yiinirrimii yiinirrimii unknown underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax tyarntarringka tyarntarringka unknown underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys tyirntikirritypirrirni tyirntikirritypirrirni loan tyintipirri WW %tyintipirri underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) latyu latyu unknown latyu WW %latyu underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no


Cultural Vocabulary (102)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material piyartu semantic shift <short flat coolamon also in Mudburra WW %piyati Patrick McConvell
body feather decorations culture-mythology tiyartiya loan Mudburra decorational down WW %tiyatiya Patrick McConvell
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool kurrupartu loan Gajirrabeng killer boomerang' WW %kurrupartu Patrick McConvell
bowl (coolamon) culture-material piyartu inheritance WW %piyati Patrick McConvell
cicatrice culture-mythology parturu loan Mudburra tribal scars' another word for other scars, karnkarra WW %paturu Patrick McConvell
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology wapaapa inheritance Wambaya redup of 'skin'; also larnku WW %wapawapa Patrick McConvell
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool parrku inheritance Wambaya parrku; could be loan WW %parrku Patrick McConvell
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool piyartu inheritance short flat coolamon, spoon WW %piyati Patrick McConvell
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation makirti loan English musket, via other lgs WW %makiti Patrick McConvell
hat sombero chapéu dress kulapatyarra unknown looks derived, but no info Patrick McConvell
house (European) other marru loan direction unknown WW %marru Patrick McConvell
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology kutyika loan direction unknown murlkirti circumcision ceremony WW %kutyika Patrick McConvell
love song culture-mythology yilpintyi loan Arrernte WW %yilpintyi Patrick McConvell
red paint culture-mythology kalnga loan Mudburra WW %kalnga Patrick McConvell
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool tiyinu inheritance bloodwood gum; Jaminjung tini WW %tiyinu Patrick McConvell
speartip subsistence tool pinymala inheritance also kiyirru WW %pinymala Patrick McConvell
wax cera cera other tyikala loan direction unknown plant/ear wax; parnmi beeswax; kirnima spinifex wax WW %tyikala Patrick McConvell
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool warritirli loan direction unknown ?Mudburra Mud warrirtlila; WW %warrirtila Patrick McConvell
glue subsistence tool parnmi loan direction unknown sugarbag wax used as glue; Patrick McConvell
drone pipe culture-mythology pampu loan English <bamboo, also kulungkukpi WW %pampu Patrick McConvell
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tyungarri loan Mudburra top grindstone, also piyawutya WW %tyungari Patrick McConvell
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology kutyika loan direction unknown WW %kutyika Patrick McConvell
cat gato gato acculturation putyikarta loan Kriol also kartayi WW cat Patrick McConvell
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
armband dress missing not in M or Jingulu dicts Patrick McConvell
awl subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wurtila unknown stone/steel; also tartawu <Mud,tawutawu; mayingkirni (steel) < Mud. Mayingka Patrick McConvell
bag (string) culture-material wukurtini loan Mudburra semantic shift <marsupial pouch wukurti Mud, Patrick McConvell
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
bottle botella garrafa acculturation murrupala unknown Patrick McConvell
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing likinimi broom bush used for making brooms; Ji 'shellbush' not used to mean broom in Ji apparently Patrick McConvell
canoe canoa canoa transport missing Patrick McConvell
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
clapsticks culture-mythology kuntalnga loan Jingulu loan into Mud kuntannga Patrick McConvell
cook food food wumpum inheritance Patrick McConvell
cook in earth oven food missing could involve lakut bury Patrick McConvell
corpse food kimurti unknown also warritypala Patrick McConvell
damper food kantirri unknown Patrick McConvell
dance (generic) culture-mythology ngarlakatyka inheritance fdancing from ngarla- 'dance' complex Patrick McConvell
digging stick subsistence tool kapila unknown Patrick McConvell
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pankatya inheritance Patrick McConvell
dreaming culture-mythology warraty inheritance rel to Puwarraj dreaming also dream in Wambaya Patrick McConvell
earth oven food putypu inheritance kungkulumi kerosene tree [Premna acuminata] used as f-d and name can be used for f-d Patrick McConvell
fire drill subsistence tool mirtiyinjilmi unknown Patrick McConvell
fire-saw other missing Patrick McConvell
fireplace hogar lareira other yijartkarru unique fire Patrick McConvell
firewood leña lenha other pupa unknown fire Patrick McConvell
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing for barramundi Patrick McConvell
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Patrick McConvell
fish (with spear) food missing Patrick McConvell
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool warrurrku inheritance string Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool limirnmi inheritance fishing log Wambaya lamanma Patrick McConvell
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
flour (bush) food lawa inheritance cf. Jaminjung lawam Patrick McConvell
flour (European) food purnku unique Patrick McConvell
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food nganga unknown also meat Patrick McConvell
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology warrityki inheritance Patrick McConvell
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology lakutpipi inheritance burial <lakut 'bury; complex Patrick McConvell
grog food lungkarru semantic shift < salt, poison, medicine Patrick McConvell
hair belt dress tyatukurru unknown looks like complex loan Patrick McConvell
headband dress nawaya inheritance also pakuri <Kuwarrangu Patrick McConvell
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology mikanykutyi inheritance mikany prob re to mikinji 'snake' complex Patrick McConvell
honey miel mel food turta inheritance Patrick McConvell
hunt cazar caçar food ngirriki inheritance hunting v ngirrik- Gudanji ngirrikpi hunt Patrick McConvell
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology tyurlu unknown Patrick McConvell
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kiyirru unknown also pinymala Patrick McConvell
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pulyawulya unknown also tunkununu Patrick McConvell
mangrove raft transport missing Patrick McConvell
medicine narcotics lungkarru inheritance salt,poison, medicine Wambaya lungkarra Patrick McConvell
message stick culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool lartaranga unknown Patrick McConvell
net subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
nosepeg other kiyala loan Wardaman nose bone; or opposite direction? Patrick McConvell
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Patrick McConvell
ochre culture-mythology kitpu inheritance red ochre;Jam. Kitpi Wamb. Kirrina rel?; also kalnga Patrick McConvell
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology wirrk pil- unique paint Patrick McConvell
paper papel papel acculturation pityilirla unknown Wambaya purrupurru Patrick McConvell
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Patrick McConvell
policeman polícia policía acculturation ngarrampalyaka unknown Patrick McConvell
public song cycle culture-mythology wajarra unknown Patrick McConvell
salt sal sal food lungkarru inheritance Patrick McConvell
school escuela escola acculturation missing Patrick McConvell
shelter (native) other wukuni unknown also yurturruk Patrick McConvell
shoes zapatos sapatos dress yunku semantic shift < foot Patrick McConvell
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Patrick McConvell
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
spear lanza lança subsistence tool karnarrinymi inheritance karna may be inheritedi Jam/Mirdni and loan into Ngumpin Patrick McConvell
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Patrick McConvell
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Wambaya winmurri but apparetly no rel form in Jishort; tyalykatyi long. Patrick McConvell
spearthrower subsistence tool ngarlika inheritance also warlmayi;Wambaya ngarlika/ngarlana Patrick McConvell
spirit child culture-mythology missing Patrick McConvell
string (from hair) culture-material tyatukurru inheritance hair belt Patrick McConvell
string (from vine) culture-material munungkumi inheritance Wambaya munungkuma hair string belt Patrick McConvell
sugar acculturation turta semantic shift from honey Patrick McConvell
tea food tyalurruka unknown also lalitya <Kuwarrangu,/Mudburral Patrick McConvell
tobacco (European) narcotics kilirrmi unknown also warnu (Wambaya) Patrick McConvell
tobacco (native) narcotics wanampurrngu unknown Patrick McConvell
tree coffin culture-mythology tyanpara unknown tyuwuru Kuw, Patrick McConvell
white paint culture-mythology makirra inheritance same in Wambaya ; could be loan Patrick McConvell
windbreak other tumuru loan Mudburra ? Patrick McConvell


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty j done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no done 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes done 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info done x
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no done 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' yes done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders yes 4 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info done x
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info done x
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info done x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info done x
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info done x
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info done x
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info done x
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info done x
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info done x
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no done 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no done 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes done 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes done 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes done 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes done 1
Word Order Num-Noun no info done x
Word Order Noun-Num no info done x
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes done 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no done 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no done 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' yes done 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done x
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done x
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info done x
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no done 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? done X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? done X
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? done X
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? done X
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? done X
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? done X
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? done X
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes done 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes done X
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) done X
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) done X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? done X
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? done X
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? done X
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? done X
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. done X
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no done 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile