Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries

Phonology - Suprasegmental
Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to?


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 16 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 42-75 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 8 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Sudo, 1976 p. 9 and Galindo, 1992, p. 59 Ana Paula Brandao
Yukuna no Shauer and Shauer, 1972, p. 12 Ana Paula Brandão
Yavitero no Mosonyi (1987): p. 31 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes "Nasalization spreads to the right from a nasal vowel, carring through m, n, e w, but stopping just before any other consonant or before epenthetic a. The spread of nasalization crosses the border between prestem and stem." Santos, 2006:58 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes All the words derived from eeju 'to smell' have nasalization all across the word, but nasalization isn't phonemic. Mansen, 1967: p. 58, Mansen, Richard A. and Karis Mansen. (1984). Aprendamos Guajiro. SIL Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes The domain of nasalization is phonological word, incl. any affixes, (not sure about clitics) and is probably due to Tucano influence Aikhenvald 2003: 42 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no info not discussed in phonolgoy or morphology sections Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1980:1020 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Only two nasals (which are less commonly used), so nasal spreading is not apparent. Zamponi 2003:14-20 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Fast 1953:191-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Souza 2008:103 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p67-68 Mitz Perez
Nanti no /h/ triggers nasalization on preceding vowel. Michael, 2008. p. 231 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:32-46 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959 Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 140-148 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no No nasalization Payne 2012:41-66 Daniel Smith
Pemon no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Particularly with clitics Quesada 2008:34 Daniel Valle
Damana yes vowels are usually nasalized when appearing prenasally Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:49-51 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Aguirre 1999:20-21 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:134-5 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Salas 1992, p.73-92 Daniel Valle probably not
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:11-8 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:74 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:36, 39 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979, p.62 Kelsey Neely spreads across some boundaries, including person-marking prefixes
Puinave no Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 65 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.3-4 Christopher Clack not indicated/expected
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004:66-68 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes spreads to the right. only suffixes unmarked for nasality, and it is blocked by inherently oral vowels or consonants Miller 1999, p. 13 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes spreads to the right. only suffixes unmarked for nasality, and it is blocked by inherently oral vowels or consonants. Nasal spreading is also blocked by word boundary. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 8 Amanda Novak Nasalization spreads from a nasal vowel to the right across morpheme boundaries onto vowels which are unmarked for nasality and nasalizable consonants (/b d j w x r/) intervene.
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 79 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Progressive and regressive in the phonological word. Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p. 28 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack Until stopped by an intrinsically oral suffix.
Koreguaje yes Nasalization runs progressively through morphemic boundaries to be stopped by a bilabial plosive. Nasalization runs throughout the word regressively in the same way, but does not cross the boundary between a suffix and a root. Young 1984, p.76 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack
Barasano yes Nasalization may spread throughout a word, on a morphological basis, generally spreading to the right. Jones & Jones 1991, p.13 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Nasalization spreads both progressively and regressively. Nasal spreading is blocked by obstruents (except /dy/) Strom 1992, p.20 Chris Clack
Siona yes Nasalization carries through w, y, h, and glottal stop. Wheeler - 1970:22 Daniel Valle
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 58, 61 Kelsey Neely Nasalization can spread from nasal lexical morpheme to its oral suffixes. A nasal suffix can also contaminate an oral vowel preceding it, but it will not change the entire word or morpheme nasal
Yanomami yes Nasality can spread throughout the morphemes of a word if one of the morphemes is nasalized. Migliazza 1972: p.158, Ramirez 1994: 69 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Nasality is a feature of the morpheme, but there's no clearly stated evidence that nasality spreads specifically from roots across morpheme boundaries Migliazza 1972: p.158 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info nasalization is a property of the morpheme, but there is no info on whether or not this spreads throughout words Migliazza 1972: p. 206 Kelsey Neely morphemic
Surui yes Regressive nasalization Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:17 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:34-7 Daniel Valle
Aché yes But there are few instances of it Rossler 2008:30-67 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 53 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 29, 39-41 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 11 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 12-15 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 316 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no 44-45 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 24 done 0
Martuthunira no 37-42 done 0
Marrgany No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 374 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 1 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 13b Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 36 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no xix done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 15 0
Dyirbal No 283 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 21 done 0
Djinang No 2 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 15 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 57-9 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija No 16 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 85 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 24-25 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 6-7 done 0
Katthang no 17 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 133 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 7 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 15 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K81 120 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 7 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 9 done 0
Arrernte No 67 0
Kokatha No 5 0
Karajarri No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 37 0
Ritharrngu No 9 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 16 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 10 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 30 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 25 Y2 0
Narungga No 31 done 0
Tharrkari No 4 0
Wajarri No 17 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha no Y2 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no is not discussed by the author Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps