Guna

Family
Chibchan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cuk
Location
9.16°, -78.31°
Notes
Features
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Smith, Wikaliler Daniel 2014. A grammar of Guna: A community-centered approach. University of Texas at Austin (doctoral dissertation. Smith, Wikaliler. Grammar notes.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Smith Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Smith Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes aspect, mood, evidentials, adverbial suffixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Smith texts Daniel Smith causative is the only prefix
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes e.g. dunnu - dunnu (wrinkled) Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes e.g. ur-dup, gas-dup, mor-dup Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes verb+positional and verb+directional Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes verb + directional adverbs Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no shape is relevant only in numeral classifiers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes gwa-, mata-, wala-, ga-, sog- round, flat, bulky/oblong, long, general (respectively) Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -mala -mala -mar is short form Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no allows a plural, but not preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes plural enclitic Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes -gan -gan only for a limited # of nouns Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 a, we a, we distal, proximal Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no a coreferential na particle appears before noun/pronoun Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no prepositions that are grammaticalizing into case markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 no core case markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes subject and object not marked. Other arguments are Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes =se, =ga, =bo, =gi postpositional clitics for obliques Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. yes base 20 Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no only imperfective -na on nouns Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes pronouns are affixed on N Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes e= optional for third person Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes small class (e.g. bipi 'small') Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes -d -d Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no -bo comitative Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere no no tense markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes aspect suffixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no imperative verb carries no inflection Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes melle melle different particle for prohibitive Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes nabir particle preverbal Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes -rgebe -rgebe Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes -dae -dae Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes -api, -sokali, -dapi -api, -sokali, -dapi Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes -ye -ye Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes affixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV - strongly preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes both postpositions and case suffixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Dem no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Num-Noun no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Num yes N Cl-Num Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes it can also remain in-situ Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no no core case markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no pronouns are the same as subj. and obj. Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no no person marking on verb Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Smith texts Daniel Smith no person marking
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes =mala =mala =mala clitic may be marked on verb Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes =ga dative marker Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes in rare cases, an indirect object may be unmarked for case Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no there is reflexive/reciprocal particle Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -lege -lege -le is the short form Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb yes o- o- Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes -suli -suli marked on the verb Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes -suli -suli Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes melle, yapa, gege, aku prohibitive, volitional neg., ability negative Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no wissuli Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes zero copula is preferred Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes -d -d Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -bie -bie -bi is short form Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no Smith texts Daniel Smith