Polar questions: interrogative particle

Simple Clauses - Interrogatives
Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 122 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin calls these "corroborative," but all examples are polar questions. They use the same structure as basic declaratives, except for this preposed particle. Allin, 1976: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 46 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 271 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer and Shauer, 1978: 18, 38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no The polar questions in Mansen & Mansen (1979) do not have a special interrogative particle. Mansen & Mansen 1979 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 502 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 536 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1982:20 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:52 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Based on example. The form is the graphemic form which as it occurs in the source Duff-Tripp 1997:116 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:130 Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p370 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 389-390 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:13 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:19 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965:57 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:69; Thiesen - 1996:66 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 344 Melody Ann Ross Example sentences seem to indicate that polar questions can take rising intonation OR interrogative particle- see pg. 344
Makushi no Polar questions do not have any overt marking other than the intonation. The word order remains the same for declarative clauses. Abbott 1991: 46 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes It is not clear if the interrogative particle refers to polar or content question though. Palmegiani 2002:80 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 145 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This particle occurs sentence-finally Frank 1990:6 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bourland 1976:86 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes There are five different interrogative particles Quesada 2008:61-3 Daniel Valle
Damana no Williams 1993:118-9 Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes Buenaventura 1993:46 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:476 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Rising intonation is used along with the polar interrogative particle Mortensen 1999:13 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no Orr et all. 1991:21 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1972:260-1 Daniel Valle
Matses yes These sentences have very often an uncertainty particle on it Fleck:984 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes This seems to be the same interrogative particle used for content questions. But the interrogative particle does not appear always. There may be some polar interrogatives which are only distinguished fron declaratives by intonation. Zúñiga 2006, p. 253-61 Daniel Valle
Páez no Only the mood changes Jung:183-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2004b:154 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:831 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Sánchez and Castro 1977:65 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes uncertain; modal/evidential type prefix on pronouns Landaburu 1979: 119-122 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes This construction is usually for focalized information Giron 2008: 391 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 296 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes follows noun or phrase to ask a question about the expression Miller 1999, p. 8, 133 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 20 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 381 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.61 Chris Clack replaces other suffixes
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.56 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The question markers are -ri, -hari, -di, -ti, one of which occurs on the main verb in both yes-no questions and question-word questions. Jones & Jones 1991, p.115 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Questions are formed by adding a question marker to an indicative clause. The question marker is usually clause initial. Strom 1992, p.141 Chris Clack Yahe does not occur in negative questions. Bai extends only to constituents of the sentence and can occur in positive or negative
Siona yes Wheeler - 1987:160 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 219 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.62 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Only difference is the lack of the sentence-final glottal stop found in declaratives Borgman 1990: 72-73 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes This particle is sentence-finally. However, the interrogative particle is optional. The main difference between interrogative and declarative sentences is that the former does not inflect for many categories as the latter does. Everett 2006:322:3 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:343 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:37-8 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:537 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms7.4.2, ms10.2.1.i done 1
Garrwa yes 78-80 done 1
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes LG52 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 78, 106 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 163 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 32 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 67 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info 57 Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 150 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 54 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 56 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 46 done 0
Uradhi No info 381-2 Y x
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No info Done-Amalia x
Pintupi no info 196; 216 done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 135 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no 259 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 209 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 70 done 1
Martuthunira no 236 done 0
Marrgany yes 339 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 482 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no 195 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 436 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 105 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 207 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 111, 143 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 332 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes 152 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 59 1
Dyirbal No 122 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 108 done 0
Djinang Yes 159 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no 151 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 58-59 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 53 done 0
Bularnu yes 95 Done-Austin 1
Biri no 56 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 46 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no 127 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 84 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 99 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 73 done 1
Katthang yes 100 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 203 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 51 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 215 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 339 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 58 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 128 done 1
Wakaya yes 108 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 504 done 1
Bandjalang yes 133 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 23 done 0
Arrernte Yes 301 1
Kokatha No 67 0
Karajarri Yes 278 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 10 0
Ritharrngu Yes 56 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 83 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 871 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 54 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes? 140-1 1
Bilinarra yes 4.3.6 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 168 Y2 0
Narungga No 92 done 0
Tharrkari No 5 0
Wajarri No 137 0
Warungu yes 2 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes second position clitic Payne and Payne 1990:308 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes káphaa, clause-initial Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps