Western Mono

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
mnr
Location
37.19°, -119.35°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tu/gupa, tugupataa/ inheritance Bethel et al 1993 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar pina/sU cap vowel voiceless inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other nasi/(7)mi/-tU unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar jai/sI; jaisidija "and then" loan Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ta7wizo/go inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ahaqo/tsI loan Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment asiya/by/, esiya/by/, siya/by/ inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -wee unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body pi/qO “lower back” inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality azaani-tU “bad”; inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body qo/hi “stomach” inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -duhe "under" inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality paba/-tU, papaaba/-tU inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ky/jy/- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour tumo7anigi-, tumu7anigi- “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body paa/pI inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body puuhi- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body munabi/7wa “pimples”; inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body o/ho inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body pizi/7 inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body suwaqa- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment ty/nai- inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ky/tsoho- inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tuwapy/7 inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion maaba- (go uphill, mountains, etc.), unique Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment too/pE unknown Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality y/zy/7y/- “to be cold”; inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion -ki, kima-H124 inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact sawa- (by boiling) inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tybizitusU “it's true” unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental tatsiywiy- unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental yaga- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact wi/qobi- “chop up”, inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tabe-wano “in the daytime” inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state edaa- unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact ty/hoowi-; unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna to7a/pE “wolf” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality totsa/bi “dirty one” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nosidabi- inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body hibi- inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality pasa- “to be dry” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality tamahoi/by “object with a dull point” inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment kutusiby/ inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body na/qa(7) inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment ty/bi/pY inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body ty/ka- inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna no/yo inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body pu/sI loan Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body kwida/pY/ inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wi/7i- inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality qwena/7a, unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juhu/bi, inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship nawa inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental syjee- inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna qa/sA inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment qo/sO, inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pa/kwi inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion huu- loan Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment hy/biga/7 inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion yotsi- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pagy/na/pE inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body ky/ky/ inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tu/kU “berries, fruit” unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality tsau inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state naa- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body woo/pI “head hair” inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma/ya; inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ihu, inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body woo unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental naqa- inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality na7ny/kwy/- inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion na7waazi- “hide from”, waziti/gi/- inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tabi- “to strike” inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other matsoga- “clench in one's hand” inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hani/7, hani7i/-tU inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar nyy/ inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -wee unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body sihi inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pihadagi- (2) “to be itchy” inheritance Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact patsa- inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental sUtaby/hi-, sytaby/hi unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment patsija/tA loan Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental jawi- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pi/sI inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ohina-qwety/ inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body hu/qA inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion habi- inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment aqakwitsi7i inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body qati/- inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body ny/wy/ inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality y/dy/-tU loan direction unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna pusi/7a “lice” inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body so/no inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human na/na loan Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tu/kU ; inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment tadamy/7a, tadawy/7a inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship piya inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ty/pE inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human nani/yan inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality -baa, inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ku/tA inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality pydytypY inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time togawa/no “night-time” inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar qa/du7 inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mu/bi inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality muu7atsiyee- “to become old”; inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number sy/my/7 inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other tsitaagi- (using hands) unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ky/ma7a/sU “another” inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body qama- “to be sick” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human nyymY “Indian” inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tabi “to pound” inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tyy/kwa/pE inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour aqabanagi- inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body tsaunaqwety “right side” inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture nyy/my/boyo “path”, po/yo “road” inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ty/dy/na, ty/dy/na/pY/ inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pihi- inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment pasiya/pY/ inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental inee- “say, tell” inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact tsabo7i- unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental poni-, puni- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ky/waa/by/ :object with a sharp edge” inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact kwati-, qwati- (gun, arrow, spear) inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality tapotsitsi7ini/-tU “very short” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body tee/by/ loan Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental nasukwai(7i)- inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state qaty/- inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body py/hy/ inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment missing Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body y/wi- inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality inotsitsi7i/-tU, -tsi7 unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment kuhita7i- “to be smokey” inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body egwi- loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body tuhi- loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pytyhi-, unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact wi/pizizihi- inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tona- “stick w/ sharp object” inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wy/ny/- inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment tazino/pY/ inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other noqaga-, noqoga- unique Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kudu/' “stick” inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment typi inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body pitsi- inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body muusa7i-, muusu7i- loan Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pawa- “to swell” inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pahabi- inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kwazi inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar mahu “that one” inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar mahu/wY/ inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality wogo/-tU inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality ty/gi/by/ “skinny (one)”; unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental sunawi- “to think” inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar i/hu, inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar 7y: inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pahi/ inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body no/do inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact takwy/na7i- inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment toojaga- inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tsaky/na- “to tie up” inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body e/go inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ta/wa inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other mi/naa- inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number waha/-i inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body o7i- inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion ny/wi-, -moo- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa/ya inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nyyqwa inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar taaqwa inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality payaga- “get wet” unique Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar hii/pI/ inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hino7o (is this ? JHH) inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar hau/tI/ (direction), unique Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour tutsidaagi- inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar ha/ge, haqaa/ inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship nody/kwA loan Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hy/kwa/pE; wi- “by the wind” inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body qa/sA inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human hyy/pI inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawahani7i- loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body na7y/dawy/- inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ohobanagi- inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar yy/qwa (you pl.) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. puhiGede abalone shell unique Maybe a compound: Green-money (from *koCti) same phrase puhi “green”?? remainder unanalyzable Bethel et al.:156 no info 2 1 1 “ground up and used as a poison” trade men no info 0 1 used as money no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae soo'yabe ants unique narrower (seems to be plural only) underived stem may be complex Bethel et al.:187 no info 0 0 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana soyonO (Bethel),soiyoti (Gayton 2:223) more like Merriam's, fix Antelope (Antilocapra americana) in Merriam, “elk” in Bethel loan Yokuts Chukchansi soi'-yōl; se'-yōl, Wikchamni soi-ut; Yowlumne soi'-al' soi'-ul' soi'-yul WW %sok same underived Merriam 59:69; Bethel et al. 186 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus Hoo-nă “digger” NB; hoo'-nah badger inheritance *huLa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008:59), he needs to move the southern “wolf” words at S 2503 to this etymology same underived Merriam 59:67 no info 2 1 no info hunted men pelt 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus kwin'-nah a-bah hu-ah-kwe kwi'na' pakwi (pahuupu'i “dive”??? Bald Eagle “White-headed Eagle” unique *kwi'na *pa:-kɨyu Proto-Numic Stubbs 717b, 864 (2008); may be a neologism (Northern Paiute has white-head-eagle) same phrase eagle fish ? Merriam 59:71 a totem animal in Moiety II (Kroeber 1925:588) 1 totem animal 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 chiefs could sell eagle down, eagle leg + claw, but of Bald Eagle??? no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata sowi, sowi' pigeon loan Yokuts Chukchansi so'-win, Yowlumne saw'-win', , Gashowu sho'-win. BUT -- note Tohono O'odham ho:hi “mourning dove” which suggests UA source. Sound-imitative and problematic. same underived must be originally onomatopoeic -wi animal is old classifier but not productive in Mono tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:187 no info 0 1 everybody ate Gayton 2:224 no info hunted men no info 0 0 live pigeons kept in cages for decoys were sold (pigeons caught for food not sold) (Gayton 2:221) no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp ho'nobi bat (mammal) inheritance *ho'napi Western + Central Numic Stubbs 2008:58) (126) same other complex ho'no-pi bat-CL -pi -pi, -pɨ classifiers are "individuating"; I speculate that nouns with no classifier sometimes indicate simply "substance" (as seeds-0 vs. plant -pi/-pɨ Bethel et al.:33 no info 0 1 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor pazuukU beaver loan Sierra Miwok Sierra Miwok cukuH “dog” (see Callaghan 2001 who thinks it's an old loan all over), note Proto-Wintun *cuku plus pa:- “water” same phrase water-dog Bethel et al.:136 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 pelts probably traded no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp kă'-ah; kŭ-ah Beetle, 13-line June Bug inheritance *ku'a Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Perhaps should be coded as semantic shift; S *ku'a “wormy”, attested in Stubbs only in Takic narrower (specific kind of beetle) underived Merriam 59:83 no info 2 0 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus missing (saib' missing missing Gayton 2:260 tule floor mat 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis pohitA skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275); problematic, may be from “stink” verb same underived Bethel et al.:150 no info 2 2 no info hunted men pelt 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus to'apE Timber wolf inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335); in fact I don't think this set is regular, looks like it's been loaned around, but can't identify a source yet same underived Bethel et al.:239 no info 1 Coyote's younger brother in myth times 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ne-vav'-ve tŭ-hŭt “snow deer” nɨbabi tihitA Bighorn sheep unique neologism with PNUA form for “snow”, Numic word for “deer” same phrase Merriam 59:67 CHECK no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tsiipa' bird inheritance Uto-Aztecan Note Yerington hootseba “bird”; Tarahumara cipi “small bird sp.”; Miller put hootseba together with 205c hutti/hutu (Stubs 2008:67). Probably sound-imitative, may not have a good etymology narrower ( I'm pretty sure this doesn't include large raptors, vulture, condor) underived Bethel et al.:254 0 0 most birds hunted for food, feathers also used 0 hunted men 0 0 birds kept as pets bought and sold; regarded as somewhat supernatural, guardian spirits, “tuk” (life) of owner no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger ko'-kon-noi; waw-ko'-noi-i (in hollow trees & logs) black ant loan Yokuts Chukchansi kah'-kow “red ant”; Yowlumne kah-kow (big hairy stinging red ant) same underived Merriam 59:83 no info 2 0 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus wah-san'-nu; (cinnamon); wah-să-nah black bear unique same underived Bethel et al. no info 1 Brown Bear took Jimsonweed so is gentle; bear shamanism 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus qamO jackrabbit inheritance *kaNmu Proto-Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Bethel et al.:162 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 rabbit skins from E. Mono (Spier 1978:427) no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus moonoi blackberries (local name) (possible twinberries, Lonicera involucrata) unique same unknown simplex Bethel et al.:77 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? qahɨ grouse inheritance *kaka “quail, grouse” Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan (Numic “grouse”, Takic “quail”) I'm not sure about this -- Numic is good, but may not go with Takic (Stubbs 1702a (2008:241); note TS kahu and wonder why different from “quail” same underived ultimately onomatopoeic but sound change has obscured tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:161 no info 0 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tonoowi' bobcat loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *t'ungul (Golla 1964:66); this is a very widespread loan but clearly is in Proto-Yokutsan (check Nichols) WW %talom same derived -wi??? -wi is an old animal classifier, rare in Mono Bethel et al.:234 totem in Pakwihu (II) moiety (Gifford p. 37) 1 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera wa'napusa' butterfly loan Yokuts Chukchansi wal-lup'-soo, wal-lap'-soo; Wikchamni wal-wal (Merriam) same underived Bethel et al.:280 no info 2 0 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus nana'yutsi (California) condor unique May be from *nana “man, male” ? plus Yokuts wits (but note nana'yuki in Word structure notes) same derived Note nana'yukI “handsome young man around 25 years of age” (nana “man, male”, maybe Yokuts, maybe < naa- “to grow” ??) Bethel et al.:89 a totem animal Gayton 2:272 1 “First man”; Condors believed to carry away people when they were asleep, taking them up into the blue sky and turning them loose in skyland (Gifford 54) 2 no one ate Gayton 2:223 no info no info no info no info 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? tseeGo'nO Valley blue jay (local name) (probably the scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens) unique same onomatopoeic maybe from tsiko-na “tsiko-says” ?? tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:252 no info 2 1 no info hunted men 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? panaatada' woodpecker (Merriam's “California woodpecker”) loan unknown words of this shape for this bird very widespread in Central California (see Troike 2010 ms.) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Bethel et al.:127 no info 2 scalp powerful feathers 1 old people ate (Gayton 2:223) no info hunted men no info 0 1 woodpecker scalp dance costumes sold? no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae tsaatibi Chia plant (Salvia columbariae) unique same other complex has -CL -pi seed is tsaatI Bethel et al.:241 no info 1 1 In pinole gruel, as thickener in manzanita cider, as flavoring in tea 1 used to get something out of the eye Gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds dried, ground, used in pinole of all types 0 0 not documented for Mono but chia mentioned as trade item for other groups no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. woda' little chipmunk (lives in the valley) inheritance *wo'ta Proto-Numic Stubbs 2100 (2008:289) same underived Bethel et al. no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota isa', iza', swallow inheritance Proto-Numic Note Panamint paz'-zah-noo-pe'-dah W; Merriam 59:335; Yerington Paiute soggobbena “mudswallow”; Southern Paiute pas'-să-ro-vep' “swallow” same unknown Note siGoGohi- “to slide” (as on a rock) Bethel et al.:136 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana pasaya Mud hen inheritance *pa:-saya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69), unproblematic same derived pa-saya water-mud.hen Bethel et al.:130 no info 2 1 surely eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii teewa cottontail rabbit loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *CHhiw (Golla 1964:61) (CH is retro ch); probably from Chukchansi tā'-ŏ (Merriam) same underived Bethel et al.:209 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 rabbit skins from E. Mono (Spier 1978:427) no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. sohopA (Gayton 1941 2:224) Cottonwood, Populus spp. inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Only Numic and Hopi; Stubbs 542a (2008:111) same underived Merriam 59:85 no info 2 0 no info gathered (wild) men, women mainly for wood 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans isa', iza', Coyote inheritance *isa'a(N)pa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 552 (2008:112) same underived Bethel et al.:39 totem for clown lineage (Gayton 2:272), Pakwihu moiety (II) Gifford p. 37 1 Wolf's older brother in old days (Gayton 2:280); invented bedrock mortars (Gifford) 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos sibitɨmɨ final voiceless crow unique This one is REALLY out of line -- a mistake? A euphemism? Gifford gives kaka “crow” p. 37 same underived must be derived somehow, too long for real simplex tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al. a totem animal in Moiety I (Kroeber 1925:588) 2 totem animal 1 some totems not eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii tanaanibɨ jimson weed (Datura stramonium) loan Yokuts From Yokutsan verb “to be drunk” WW %tanai same other complex has -CL -pɨ Bethel et al.:198 no info 1 adolescent initiation, adults also take 1 1 used as narcotic gathered (wild) men decoction from plant parts 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tɨhɨtA deer inheritance *tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121); S links to Southern *ciki “white-tail”; probably not. same underived Bethel et al.:217 no info 2 Deer is a dream helper but not a totem animal (Gayton 2:282) 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tunapɨ, tunobɨ final voiceless digger pine tree (Pinus sabiniana) loan Yokuts or Miwok Proto-NimYokuts *tHo:ngash, ProtoMiwok *to:n, perhaps Patwin t'uwa “pine” if so “Penutian” (Callaghan 2001) same derived tuna' “nuts (generic)” -pɨ Bethel et al.:265 no info 2 1 pine nuts 2 pitch used for medicine gathered (wild) all less desirable nut than pinyon; green cones roasted? 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris pukU pet; totem (moiety symbol or personal spirit helper); dog inheritance *puNku Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 38 (2008:43) broader (includes spirit helpers of all kinds, pets in general) underived Bethel et al.:156 no info 0 0 no info not collected no info no info 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura heewi' dove inheritance *hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) with problems; take out the /o/ forms and assume the occasional /o/ is by assimilation? The -wi may be from the animal classifier same underived must be originally onomatopoeic -wi "animal" is old classifier tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al. secondary totem of messenger lineage 2 totem animal; Gifford says “Mourning dove, not a totem, belonged with the Golden Eagle” p. 37 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae piya, piyu duck inheritance *picV Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) same underived Bethel et al.: English-Mono side only no info 0 1 surely eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus kunugibɨ valley elderberry (bush) (Sambucus sp.) inheritance *kunuki- Proto-Numic Stubbs 180 (2008:64) same derived historically has suffix -ki -pɨ Bethel et al.:53 name of a division of the yayanchi (Eagle) moiety (kunugechi) Gifford p. 34; chief with eagle totem came from this division 2 1 berries eaten in various preparations 1 tea gathered (wild) women women make diverse preparations of berries (also used for wood) 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus soyonO elk loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *sohkoy (Golla 1964:61) WW %sok same underived Bethel et al.:186 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pakwi fish (general term) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived historically compound (*pa:-kɨyu) Bethel et al.;126 no info 0 1 no info fished all no info 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera mutsipI flea inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi/ Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same derived Has diminutive -pi Bethel et al.:80 no info 2 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. yazabana' flicker (bird) inheritance Western Numic only Northern Paiute atzabanna. This has the -banna element that is widely loaned for “woodpecker” WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived contains -pana, widespread woodpecker word. In N. Paiute adzabanna it's probably “red-banna”, but not here. tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:300 no info 2 no mention, but flicker nearly always shamanically powerful feathers 1 old people ate (Gayton 2:223) no info hunted men 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera muwibi housefly inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi/ Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same derived -pi Bethel et al.:81 no info 0 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon ha'wutsa' fox loan Yokuts Note Chukchansi ow'-wooCH (also resembles Sutbbs 557a, Fowler's *woci'a in Numic, but is not cognate WW %kaw same underived Bethel et al.:27 no info 2 2 no info hunted men skin for quivers, leggings, etc. 0 0 Eastern Mono brought fox-skin leggings to trade (Gayton 2:215) no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wazaGa' frog inheritance *wakaCta Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157); Stubbs believes Mono metathesized the two medial consonants same underived Bethel et al.:278 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kwi'na' Golden eagle inheritance *kwi'na Proto-Numic Stubbs 717b (2008:131), looks almost like kwi'-says ?? which would explain why it isn't kwana as expected. This is actually only Western, Central Numic. Southern has kwana same onomatopoeic kwi'-na' kwi'-it.says Bethel et al.:61 Eagle was totem of chiefly families and synonymous with the office (Gayton 2:270); in Moiety I (Kroeber 1925:588) (only Northfork had moieties); Eagle gave each group its type of basket (Gifford p. 26); Gifford gives yayanchi as name of Eagle moiety “one 1 captive eagles displayed, danced over (Spier 1978:427),people paid to see them (Gifford 39), eagle down sold by chiefs, eagle leg & claw traded (Gayton) 2 1 eagle down powerful (Gayton) hunted men no info (for feathers) 0 1 chiefs could sell eagle down, eagle leg + claw ; captive eagles “sold from place to place”, never killed in ceremony (Gifford p. 39; Northfork people did not buy eagles but caught there own and sold them south or to Chukchansi no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. tabapI, taba'ya gooseberries (Ribes sp.) unique same derived taba'ya said to be older word -pi Bethel et al.:193 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer pasiGoqA gopher snake unique Note Sh pasinkokon “water snake”, pa- clearly water here, but may be “big” in bull snake. No clue what the *siN- is. There is a *sinawi southern form. -Goqa is the *koNwa snake word without the Numic to- same derived I think the pa- is visible to speakers, but the rest is probably unanalyzable except historically toGoqa “snake” Bethel et al.:130 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) tɨGo'obe grass (generic term) unique same underived tɨ- may be “earth” Bethel et al.:216 no info 0 0 no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) women seeds dried, ground, used in pinole of all types 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera akisa', akɨsa' grasshopper unique *akɨsa Western Numic only same underived Bethel et al.:4 no info 2 1 probably eaten no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. Ek'-wah, ek'-wă; ekwɨ voiceless final Gray ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group) (Merriam), (golden-mantled) ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) Bethel inheritance *iCkwa/*iNkwa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2099 (2008:289) same underived Merriam 59:69; Bethel et al. 19 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. mawi tree squirrel (local name), western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) loan Chukchansi Yokuts Chukchansi mow (Merriam) same underived Bethel et al.:71 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muhu owl (Merriam's “Great Horned Owl”) inheritance *muhuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227), seems unproblematic although sound imitative same underived ultimately onomatopoeic but very widespread cognacy suggests this is not prominently felt Bethel et al.:78 totem of curing shaman lineage 1 familiar for curers, totem; owls assocated with redwoods, both treated with great respect (Gifford 40) 2 I'm speculating, really no info, but owls not generally eaten no info hunted men for feathers 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis pahabitsI Gayton2:272 has unu'; Gifford 49 has noho (Yokuts “man”??) bear (Merriam's “grizzly” and “bear”) loan *paha Proto-Numic unknown I had this from Stubbs p. 59 in 2008 but this is wrong (his #135??) WW %paha same (but with prototype in Grizzly) derived Has diminutive (respect form?) Bethel et al.:124 totem for Bear Dancer 1 Grizzly did not take jimsonweed, why he is so mean (Gayton 2:282); bear shamanism; bears believed to carry away people and marry them giving 1/2 bear children (Gifford 51) 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae toGoqatai'nupI horned toad (lizard) unique Includes word for “snake”, toGoqa same derived toGoqA “snake”, plus unanalyzable material -pi Bethel et al.231 no info 2 2 1 Merriam 59:81: “catch by tail & hold against forehead, cure headache hunted all no info 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus qawaayu' horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Bethel et al.:166 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pisIkuutu' hummingbird inheritance *piti “Hummingbird, wasp” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1184 (2008:185) has problems. What is source of -kuutu? Note Yokutsan forms: .Yowlumne pā-mum'-koots, Palewyami pā'-mum-kutch, so Proto-Yokutsan and possible source of the kuutU' element -- a loan blend?? same underived perhaps onomatopoeic at some point, and also must be compound, but no analysis available tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:145 not a totem Gifford p. 37 0 although not a totem, “belonged with the golden eagle because in mythical times he talked to the people for eagle” (Gifford p. 37) 0 “too small” no info 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pamo, pamopI cigarette, native tobacco loan Yokuts This is an old loan but not into proto-Numic WW %pa7mo narrower (does not include tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, pipe tobacco, cigars, etc) derived -pi Bethel et al.:127 no info 1 smoking important in shamanistic practice 1 1 chewed for fatigue, dreams; drunk for vomiting/purging Gathered (wild but closely managed) all no info 1 0 Gayton 2:270 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp toho'notsi', toho'no snowbird (this bird appears in winter and is grey with a black top-knot) inheritance *toCmo “winter” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2496a (2008:334); here Mono has toho'-, not attested in Stubbs, but note O'odham tohonno so I think this is OK (O'odham is huge semantic shift, means “desert, sunny place” where winter is sunny season (you see the same thing in Takic) same onomatopoeic toho'-no-tsi' toho'-says-dimin. tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:232 no info 0 1 not listed in Gayton as “too small to eat” no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wa'apɨ Gayton 2:261 is definite that this is “Juniper” inheritance *wa'aC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 415 (2008:94) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:279 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all bark for walls of traditional winter house -- probably is cedar, then, not juniper 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera pusi'a lice (head in Merriam) inheritance *pusi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 1358a (2008:205) same underived Merriam has poo-se'-av-ve with classifier Merriam 59:71; Bethel et al. 156 no info 2 0 no N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos piya, piyu Mallard inheritance *picV Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 706a (2008:130) broader (all ducks) underived Bethel et al.: English-Mono side only no info 2 1 surely eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. aposowabi, oposowabi manzanita bush (Arctostaphylos sp.) inheritance *poso Proto-Numic S 194 (2008:65), cf. Kawaiisu poso-vɨ “desert almond” same derived stem may be compound -pi Bethel et al.:7 no info 2 1 berries used to make cider no info gathered (wild) all no info 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa wisibi string, thread, milkweed (Asclepias sp.) (thinner than tɨGapO “rope”) inheritance *wisu(N) Numic Iannucci's form; Stubbs has *wiki; forms with wi- in “string” very widespread; with -s is the specifically Numic version and may be different increment on *wi- long object broader (includes string of all kinds) other complex has -CL -bi Bethel et al.:284 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) men and women (Gifford) soaked and fibers removed by combing with short stick (Gifford) 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis ah-pe'-ze Milkweed, narrow leaf (Asclepias fascicularis) unique same underived Merriam 59:91 no info 0 1 for chewing gum -- stir in water, heat and pull with hands (Merriam 59:91) no info gathered (wild) women see food notes 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera maa'na' mosquito unique same onomatopoeic maa'-na' “maa' -it.says” Bethel et al.:72 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera hoo'-yah Moth (Sphynx) loan Yokuts Chukchansi hoo-yah “small, fuzzy, good to eat” (Merriam) narrower ( specific caterpillar) underived Merriam 59:83 no info 2 0 its larvae pe-ag'-gah “very good to eat” Merriam 59:83 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wiheesitI mountain lion loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts **wehe:sith (Golla 1964:63) same underived Bethel et al.:283 a totem animal Gayton 2:272 in Pakwihu moiety Gifford p. 37 1 source of special hunting powers (Spier 1978:428) 2 no info hunted men no info 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus tsipitI Mountain quail loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *T'iphith “mountain quail” (Golla 1964:64) (T is retroflex t) same underived tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al. no info 2 1 everybody ate Gayton 2:224 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. wŭg-gup'-pe Fresh water mussels loan Yokuts Note Chukchansk ō>k “fresh-water mussels” (with a classifier) narrower ( only fresh-water variety) underived -pi Merriam 59:81 no info 2 1 no info gathered all no info 0 1 salt water mussel shells used as spoons and traded; no word found no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata powa' olivella shell inheritance *po'owa Western + Central Numic Stubbs 1907 (2008:267) same underived Bethel et al.:153 no info 2 2 no info trade men no info 0 1 used as money, comes from Morro Bay area (as per Bethel) no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? tsohoqotsopai'nu', tso'noqai'nu' (etc.) Mountain blue jay (local name) (probably the Steller's jay, Cyanocitta stelleri) unique same other complex tsoho-qo-tsopai'nu'; hyphens are where elements can be missing; also tsoqai'nu is sequence in some forms tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:260 no info 2 1 old people ate (Gayton 2:223) no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tɨba' pinyon pine nuts (Pinus edulis) inheritance *tɨpat Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA; Stubbs 1583 (2008:231) same underived tree is probably tɨbapɨ Bethel et al.:211 no info 2 1 no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) all nuts from roasted green cone (mainly obtained in trade from Eastern Mono) 0 1 all Mono but Northfork got from E. Mono; Northfork visited eastern slope to collect no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum ooGa clam shell, coin purse, padlock, turtle loan Miwokan Note Chukchansk ō>k “fresh-water mussels” , but no classifier unknown Bethel et al.:117 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mɨyɨ mole, gopher inheritance *mɨyɨN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1009 (2008:164) broader (includes moles) underived Bethel et al.:76 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum tsaagibɨ Poison oak (Toxicodendron diversiloba) unique same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:240 no info 2 2 1 sap used as wart remover gathered (wild) women carefully 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. toGoqA rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-koNwa Proto-Numic UA “snake” word *koNwa is S2009, but this form only in Numic broader (generic for “snake”) underived historically compound (see etymological notes) Bethel et al.:232 no info 1 Rattlesnake did not take jimsonweed so is mean and dangerous (Gayton2:282) 2 venom collected by having snakes strike a deer liver, used for arrow poison no info hunted men see food notes 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tadaGo' red ants unique same underived Bethel et al.:195 no info 1 0 no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus pan-nak'-kor (Merriam); ca:k Gayton 2:223 Red-shouldered blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus loan Yokuts NP pakoddoba?? ; Timbisa Shoshone pah'-ne'-zah'-rah (Merriam); Gayton's chak is Yokuts WW %chak same underived tsiipa “bird” Merriam 59:73 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis puu'na' red-tailed hawk loan Chukchansi Yokuts Chukchansi pu: (approximately -- from Merriam) same onomatopoeic maybe turned into puu'-na', puu'-it.says??? Bethel et al.:157 a totem of the Yayanchi moiety 2 2 Fire fan made of hawk or buzzard tail feathers used to smoke out ground squirrels, cottontails (Gayton 2: 220) no info hunted men mainly for feathers 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus uwi'uwina' roadrunner loan Yokutsan Proto-NimYokuts *ʔoyʔoy (Golla 1964); also in Miwok; UA roadrunners say puypuy; Might also be from Miss WW %uji same onomatopoeic uwi'uwi-na uwi'uwi-says tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:271 totem of lineage that included chief's messenger (Gayton 2:271); totem of Eagle moiety (Gifford p. 37) 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica koo'-sid-dup Sage herb (Artemisia ludoviciana) unique same other complex has classifier, probably -pɨ; stem may be complex -pɨ Merriam 59:91 no info 2 2 seeds may be used 1 used as poultice, not for tea Merriam; at Ghost Dance, people who had not followed rules would fall unconscious and be rubbed with “kosidab” until they regained cs (Gayton 2:290) gathered (wild) women leaves soaked for poultice 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss aaGai salmon inheritance *akai Western + Central Numic Stubbs 868 (2008:148) same underived pakwi “fish” Bethel et al.:1 no info 2 1 no info fished all no info 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? poGo'ya lizard inheritance *poko Western + Central Numic, Tübatulabal Stubbs 1338 (2008:203); distribution looks areal, check Yokuts, Miwok same underived -ya may be detachable (see taba'ya "gooseberry") Bethel et al.:150 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna wulu:lu brown lizard loan Yokuts Yowlumne wil-lā'-le “leopard lizard”?? same underived Gayton 2:224 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna toGoqA “snake (any)” as well as rattlesnake inheritance *tɨ-koNwa Proto-Numic UA “snake” word *koNwa is S2009, but this form only in Numic same unknown Merriam 59:81 (transcription from Bethle et al. 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum soosibɨ soaproot plant (Chlorogalum sp.) unique same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:187 no info 2 1 1 long strokes of brush on back of patient used in curing by Bear shaman (Gayton 2:277) gathered (wild) women The plant is made into a brush called wɨnazU; the roots are used to make a soap 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata kwanunupI sowberry bush, sourberry bush (local name for squawbush)(Rhus trilobata) unique same derived stem may be compound -pi Bethel et al.:58 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women sticks for baskets 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco pik-kid'-de-gĕ; Gayton pikɨdigi “sparrow hawk” Sparrow hawk, Falco inheritance *pik- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan (Mono, Timbisa Shoshone, Hopi piikwa “lesser nighthawk” ???. This form in Central, Western Numic WW %kili same underived must be derived somehow, too long for real simplex Merriam 59:71 Falcon lineages highly respected and a man from such could become chief (Gayton 2:270); but for Waksachi “not a totem” Gayton 2:223) 2 totem animal 2 no info hunted men probably for feathers 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae hapopo', hopopo' spider inheritance *hupapi Proto-Uto-Aztecan A problematic etymology; Stubbs 2058 (2008:285), requires vowel metathesis in Mono same underived probably a complex stem ultimately Bethel et al.:26 no info 0 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 yes (Black Widow, Brown Recluse)
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae otsoqoi' a large variety of toad (unidentified species) loan Yokuts Chukchansi oo-koo'-koo, o-koo'-ko (looks Proto-Yokutsan) narrower ( defined as a kind of toad) underived Bethel et al.:118 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) wɨnɨpɨ final voiceless tree semantic shift *wɨlɨ “to stand” Proto-Uto-Aztecan S2110 (2008:290) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:288 no info 0 0 N/A N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera o:padra yucca (“cactus”) unique same underived Gayton 2:224 no info 2 for Tubatulabal, trees have been changed from woman 1 o:bI yucca blossom stalks, eaten in the bud (Gayton); root eaten (Spier) no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) all no info 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wiho turkey vulture inheritance *wiLhukuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan I think Stubbs 335 is absurd, but there is something going on here, note Hopi wisoko, Serrano wirokt, wiru in southern languages, etc. But wiho is only Western Numic. same underived Bethel et al.:284 no info 2 vulture moiety treated thee birds must the same as eagle moiety treated eagles, with dances (Gifford 40) 2 No one ate (Gayton 2:223); Fire fan made of hawk or buzzard tail feathers used to smoke out ground squirrels, cottontails (Gayton 2: 220) no info hunted men for feathers 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ooGa clam shell, coin purse, padlock, turtle loan Yokuts Note Chukchansi o>k “freshwater mussel” broader (lots of metaphoric extension, see gloss) underived Note that this has no classifier, but “freshwater mussels”, from same source, has it Bethel et al.:117 no info 2 2 no info no info no info no info 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia wiyapɨ California black oak tree (Quercus kelloggii) inheritance *wiya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507b (2008:224) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.285 no info 2 1 makes the best mush (Gayton 2:224) no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, leached, cooked in diverse preparations 0 1 “acorns moved eastward” to E. Mono (Spier 1978:427) no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata sodobɨ Water oak tree (Quercus sp.) (Merriam's Q. lobata) unique Possible Yokuts loan, see Chukchansi sow'-wah “black oak”, same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:184 no info 2 1 no info Gathered (wild but closely managed) all acorns ground, leached, cooked in diverse preparations 0 1 “acorns moved eastward” to E. Mono (Spier 1978:427) no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica humunuwa' valley quail (local term for California quail) (Callipepla californica) loan Yokuts Proto-NimYokuts *humnul “Valley quail” (Golla 1964:64) WW %hum same underived tsiipa “bird” Bethel et al.:34 no info 2 1 everybody ate Gayton 2:224 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis hauhauna' wild geese (Merriam's “Western Canada Goose”) unique same onomatopoeic hauhau-na': hauhau-it.says Bethel et al.: 27; Merriam 59:77 no info 0 1 surely eaten no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos hoi-hoi'-mus Pelican (Brown and White) loan Yokuts Yawdanchi hòhuimuc; note Barbareno Chumash hew' “California Brown Pelican” broader (all pelicans, apparently) underived reduplication, but may be borrowed that way Merriam 59:77 totem of Eagle moiety (Gifford p. 37) 0 Brown Pelican source of dance costumes for Yokuts 2 no no info no info 0 0 speculating -- must have gotten skins from Chumash, Salinan, or BV Lake folks no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica pee'akI grapes (wild and domestic) (Vitis sp.) unique same underived probably a complex stem ultimately Bethel et al.:139 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) all grapes in diverse preparations 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) honooyu', hoonoyu' oats (Avena sp.) loan Yokuts Note Chukchansi ho-nus-min same underived Bethel et al.:32 no info 2 1 no info gathered (wild) women seeds dried, ground, used in pinole of all types 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica patsanabɨ wild rose bush (Rosa californica) unique same other complex pa- may be prefix “big”; has CL -pɨ Bethel et al.:133 no info 0 1 buds eaten no info gathered (wild) women no info 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) akibi last probably ɨ sunflower, wild (unidentified genus) inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same other complex has -CL -pɨ Bethel et al.; only in English-Mono section no info 0 1 seeds in various preparations no info gathered (wild) women no info 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sɨhɨbɨ (Pacific) willow tree (Salix lasiandra) inheritance *sɨhɨ Proto-Numic S2486 (2008:332) same derived -pɨ Bethel et al.:182 no info 2 2 no info gathered (wild) women withes (sticks) used in basket-making; they are the tan withes 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. qawa, xawa woodrat inheritance *kawa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:213) same (centers on packrat) underived Bethel et al.:165 no info 2 1 no info hunted men no info 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) wo'abI Worm, hairy caterpillar (on English-Mono side); worm, maggot, a general term which includes all types of worms, caterpillars, maggots, etc. (on Mono-English side) inheritance *wo'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 2526 (2008:338) broader (worm, maggot) derived -pi Merriam 59:83; Bethel et al. 295 no info 2 2 eaten no info no info N/A no info 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper piyagɨ voiceless final caterpillar (which feeds on sugar-pine trees) (unidentified species) inheritance *pi'akɨC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2527 (2008:338) narrower ( specific caterpillar) unknown Bethel et al.:147 2 2 tree-worm, big fat ones, good to eat (Merriam 59:83) 0 parched with coals in winnowing basket (Gifford), could be stored for long periods 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. pā'-nah; pan'-nah peena (based on Bethel et al. “bee”) yellow jacket, also means “ant” loan Yokuts Yowlumne, Chukchansi pah-o'-ni “Yellow Jacket”. Perhaps a loan into “Californian”??? Note Cupeno paana- “tarantula” ??? Check broader (various insects, apparently) underived may be onomatopoeic Merriam 59:83 no info 2 0 no info N/A N/A N/A 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum tɨhubɨ, tuhubɨ wild peach, yerba santa (Eriodictyon sp.) unique same other complex has -CL -pɨ Bethel et al.:264 no info 2 1 1 leaves used for cough syrup and poison oak poultice gathered (wild) women no info 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna wowa/7 unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tsiipa/7 loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna muwi/bi loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna pu/kU inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna ty/go7o/be; unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna ty/hiytA inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna togo/qA “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna hapopo/7, hopopo/7 unique Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food ekIbe cooked acorn mush other complex eki- 'to eat acorn' Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
ball game food nannataqoo7i- to play Indian shinny (with one another) unique compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress ah-kah'-put-tap ceremonial headband of flicker feathers unique cho-hahv' (usually of eagle or magpie) CHM 45:303 Bishop; pe'-ne-tŏp' Lone Pine 46:443 compound CHM 45:303 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pAja arrow, bullet inheritance *pakaN- Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1778; in meaning "arrow" only in Numic simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation skunU7 school loan English WW %school simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing there is a word for 'soapstone' but not for the bowl, only for wooden bowl Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material apO Apo (?) (coiled cooking) basket inheritance *apo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1711; this type of basket most highly valued simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material pOja treasure basket unique simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material tsopopO7 basket cap inheritance *cappo Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1152, Numic and Tub, perhaps a loan from ? Into this area; Merriam's Northfork consultants said "not here" simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material qakIbi beads inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 other complex qakiya- 'to wear around neck' Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool Edy bow, gun, weapon inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool wa7nAAqa net (any kind), bride's collar inheritance *wa7na Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1521; looks like "rabbit net" word simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation Osa bottle inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation popI7na, popI7ni paper, book loan Spanish Loether thinks might be from English WW %papel simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pohenAby chief inheritance *pohaC Uto-Aztecan power word other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool koo-doo' club inheritance *kuta Uto-Aztecan stick word simplex Merriam 45:307 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food kumajaa- to cook unique compound with.heat-use.hands Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
corpse food te-o'-wit corpse inheritance *tyw Northern Uto-Aztecan other complex Merriam 45:317 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology nyga- to dance inheritance *nykkaC Numic Stubbs 2011 633 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tYnitoobEbI the Creator unique so-ahp' (made the bedrock mortar holes) Merriam 45:319 compound, other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool pOdo digging stick, cane inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 673 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nosidabi- to dream inheritance *nosi Numic Stubbs 2011 717 compound dream-lie.down Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation qainA7, qaiinA7 chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
earring other naqajO7ja earring unique ho'-nim-nah ear pendant of shell about 1 inch long, valuable, got in trade Merriam 45:303 compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool too-to-no-heet, too-tan'-num-nah fire drill of mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus) inheritance *tunuhi Numic See Kawaiisu, S. Paiute simplex Merriam 45:307 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other tup-pe be-dan-no fireplace unique phrase Merriam 45:305 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other kUna wood inheritance *kunnaC Numic Stubbs 2011 884 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pakwiγa to fish unique denominal on 'fish' derived Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool pakwIIsi fishing line inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan or maybe on 'twist'??? compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool tI7ohOno fish hook unique ty7ohOno? Only on English side; does this include the Takic *7ok root??? ompound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
acorn bread food qonowOI7 acorn biscuits (dumplings) unique compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
wheat food piniikU7 wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other tŭ-weep' the counters (10 sticks) unique nannataqapee7i- to play Indian jaks with one another other complex Loether & Bethel 1993; Merriam 45:321 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tso7Ape ghost, daddy-long-legs spider inheritance *co7aC Numic Stubbs 2011 2114 W. and Central Numic, a loaN?? other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tyja grave inheritance *tywi Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1799 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
alcohol food wiski7 whiskey loan English WW %whiskey simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics tanaanIby Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) loan Yokuts WW %tanai other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puhaγEtu shaman, curer, someone with supernatural power inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex puha-ge-tU power-have-ADJ Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other nObi house unknown Western Numic only; from 'cover'?? simplex vb. 'to cover Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food qoinywi- to hunt unique *ko7ya (Stubbs 2011 1190, plus *nymy 'walk'; also toja-nywi 'mountain-stroll' 239 compound kill-walk Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology yah-man'-nah ho'-nah, tŭ-man'-nah ho'-nah puberty dance unique phrase Merriam 45:319 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wIhi knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pAha mortar, pounding place inheritance *paha Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1085 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
necklace other qakijAnu necklace inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 derived qakiya 'to wear around neck' Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool witi awl (made of bone and used in making baskets) inheritance *wicaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2296 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool podAnu cap U pestle, mano inheritance *poto Numic Stubbs 2011 1079 derived poda- to grind,pound, pulverize Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other to7Isi pipe for smoking loan *to7i Numic see SSM to7is-:a- 'pipe' and fix, what is loan direction??see Comanche to7i WW %to7i other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
pitch food sanApi pitch (from trees) inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wituwa cooking pot inheritance *wiC-tuhuwa Numic Stubbs 2011 1713 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool ki'-wah-ne quiver unique simplex Merriam 45:307 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sa7nAAzi cocoon, rattle made from cocoon loan Yokuts also Bankalachi san-net other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology pisApi red pigment obtained from clay inheritance *pisa, *paisa Numic not in Stubbs other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food omAbi salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tsIku, tsIqo basket (used for beating seeds out of plants) inheritance *cikku Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 121 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology natygyn clothing, adornment unique Stubbs 489?? simplex may have na- Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material nar-ro skirt worn by women or men inheritance *nato7o Numic Stubbs 2011 489 simplex Merriam 45:301 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool hoo-yan'-nŭ snare inheritance *hy7aC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2406 derived Merriam 45:307 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hubIja song, music inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool (a)nadywatInu spear unique copound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
stirring stick food tsiqo7Ono stirring stick (for cooking) inheritance *ci-koLi Uto-Aztecan the 'chocolate' word simplex complexity but not synchronically productive Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture wisibi string, thread, milkweed inheritance *wika Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1843 other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kusA bag inheritance *kusa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 396c,d simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
string of shell money other naawAku, nawAku money, traditional shell money loan *nammakku Numic unknown See also T. sho namokku(n) 'money', Comanche 'clothes'; W. Mono naawakU 'string of shell money', N. Paiute namakko 'old kind of beads; also hoi-yah, ahts-ă-kan-nah red & blue beads, probably Hudson Bay Merriam 45:303 WW %waku simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation suγanA7 sugar loan Spanish Loether thins might be from English, but that is probably the alternte form sUγA7 WW %soldado simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
sweathouse other muusa7amatY Sweathouse (a place name) loan Yokuts WW %mosh compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology waja- to tell stories (etc.) inheritance *paya Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1491 -- paya, aya, here is waya, what is going onhere? simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology nav'-ve-tăt-t cremation "my great-grandmother was burned" unique derived na-pitta?? Fire-X?? Merriam 45:319 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
tule boat transport awOnno boat, raft inheritance *akwo Numic Stubbs 2011 1717; could be loan from Yokuts owon??? derived Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology ebI white paint or pigment, chalk; a type of whitish soil; a type of powdered acorn which is white inheritance *apiN Numic Stubbs 2011 2544 simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material jAta basket for gathering manzanita berries, straining basket used for making manzanita cider inheritance *jata Numic can't find in Stubbs simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress moqO shoe loan Sierra Miwok only in W. Numic; Stubbs 2011 1958 WW %moko simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics natysu7Upi medicine inheritance *natysuC Numic can't find in Stubbs compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hUUpy baby basket, cradle-board semantic shift *huu- Uto-Aztecan from 'wood'; Stubbs 2011 63, the arrow word; the hood is qonOpy 169; pas-săk'-ke first baby basket Merriam 45:305 other complex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation suntaatI7, sontaatI7 forest ranger, soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
corn food mAIsi corn, maize (Zea mays) loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
beans food hinoonO7 beans loan Spanish also piinisi WW %frijol simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation qaatU7 cat loan Spanish also kidi WW %gato simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation Edy bow, gun, weapon semantic shift *aCta Uto-Aztecan simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress samaneenA, someneenA7 hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation anawataki7Inu clapper sticks unique woo'-tah-t (hyphen there to keep Excel from respelling) music sticks of split elder Merriam 45:319 compound Loether & Bethel 1993 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ty/ga/pO inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture paha “mortar”; inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool po/do “cane, digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture poda/nU “mano, pestle” inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool e/di/ “bow, gun, weapon” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pa/ga “arrow”; inheritance Jane Hill
house other no/bi inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG low seasonal no