Reflexive: dedicated morpheme

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no A morpheme -u is used but it is also found on unaccsuative verbs and as a marker on the reciprocal marker Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 112 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 128 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 38 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes For reflexives as well as intransitivizing. Shauer 2000: 308, Shauer 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Unclear: there is a morpheme -ira which is identified as a “reciprocal.” No discussion of whether this can also be used for reflexives (or what is used for reflexives, but since there is no separate reflexive morpheme pointed out, I assume there is no suc Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes This morpheme appears in the same slot as other object markers. Facundes, 2000: 407-408 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes These are dedicated morphemes that also correspond with tense (future vs. non-future). Payne 1981:11,12 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:45 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes However, it seems that this is not always a valence change suffix; instead, it is required with the so called reflexive verbs Duff-Tripp 1997:70 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes The form /-pu/ is used for negative sentences Souza 2008:112 Daniel Valle
Baure yes This suffix has the same form as the perfective suffix Danielsen 2007:262 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Reflexives are formed with a reflexive pronoun. Michael, 2008. p. 278 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:6 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:48 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 173 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 37-38 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Based on examples and part of the discussion. A detransitivizing verbal suffix is used to form a reflexive verb Thomas Payne 1989:40 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no reflexive pronoun Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:71 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bourland 1976:71-72 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:71 Daniel Valle
Damana yes varies Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Verbal prefix. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:48; Queixalós - 2000:206 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:45 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:311 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1998:85 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:12 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Same form as reciprocal Salas 1992, p.129 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:80 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:88, 101-120 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:603-7 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Puinave no Reflexive is marked by adding an extra person agreement affix in the verb. Giron 2008: p366 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes particle Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no The passive impersonal, or passive reflexive, may be indicated by certain suffixes. (chapter 18) Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes reflexive pronoun. Precedes the verb root, and forms a single phonological word. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 118 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info referential' -ta can have reflexive function? Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.69-80 Chris Clack
Barasano no The second syllable may indicate whether or not a transitive verb is directed toward the agent (reflexive) or elsewhere. Jones & Jones 1991,p.46 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Overtly marked reflexives are rare in Retuarã. Strom 1992, p.133 Chris Clack Instead, when the subject receives the action of a verb that could be transitive, the absence of an object noun phrase makes the reflexive implicit.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no reflexive pronoun basi/basu or use of middle voice Ramirez 1997: 250, 350 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no no dedicated morpheme, discussions of reflexive uses are not clear Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no no special form for reflexive Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 43 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):14 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Everett 2006:445-51 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Zarratea 2002:98 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 105-6 done 0
Garrwa no 25 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no s163 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 88 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 78 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 123 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 49-50 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 73 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 109-110 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 47 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 43 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 37 done 1
Uradhi Yes 374 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 187-188 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 120 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 112 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 166 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 150 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 55 done 1
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 320 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 412 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 104, 145 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 398 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 10 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 86 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 152-9 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 343 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes 142 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 83 1
Dyirbal yes 92 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 87 done 1
Djinang No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 75 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 37 done 0
Bularnu no 101 Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 42-3 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 38 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 152-3 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 57 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 80 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 99 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 81 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 53 done 0
Katthang no 83 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 160 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 29 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info 223 done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 330 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 94 Done- 0
WesternTorres no K85b 68 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 503 done 0
Bandjalang No 91 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 61 done 0
Arrernte Yes 191 1
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 127 0
Ritharrngu No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 867 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 76 0
Bilinarra no 5.2.4 done 0
Wiradjuri yes 17 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 90 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No info 36 x
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu yes 516 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no reflexive/reciprocal coreferential marker Payne and Payne 1990:271 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps