Southern Paiute

Family
Uto-Aztecan
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
ute
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location pa7a-N “high, way up in air” (?) Note: The transcription is modified Sapir so “c” is “sh”, not ts. N means “nasalizing transition” inheritance Sapir 1931 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -c:u- (encl) unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other man:o-, man:u inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar =ngwy inheritance Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tangwi7at:a-S; -wi7at:a-S unique Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body so:r7oa-S unique Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment qut:ca-G “light gray; ashes” G is geminating transition inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -pa inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body oa-vi inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality yvy-g e.g. yvy-pa: “bad-water, whiskey” inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body sap:y-S; sagwia:-S S is spirantizing transition inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tuq:wa-G “under” inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality pia- main, big inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body qy7y- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour to:-G inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pay-G inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body oo-S inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body piitsi-vi inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body cua-G inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment -qut:cy7a- “to burn” inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body tcogw7ai- inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tua-G inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pagin:a-S inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality -pyra- (with cy-S "to be cold" cy-p:yra- "to be cold"; cy-G inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion pitsy “arrive” inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact qwac:y “ripe, cooked” inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality togi “just, right” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental jaga- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact qap:i-, qavi- “to cut (e.g. w/ point, knife)” inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time tava- “sun, day” inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ja7ai-S inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact ora- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna cyn:a-7avi-S wolf, dog inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental non:oc:i-S inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body ivi-S inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality tavacu:u- to dry (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment uq:umpu- Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body nangqava-S inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment tyvi-G inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body tyq:a-S inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna not found Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body py-G, pu-G (pu7i-) inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body qwitca-p:y- inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion wy7i=y “to fall, to drop” inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality mio- “far off”, -miu- “at a distance from” inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body juu-S inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship mowa-S inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental ija-S, ja:-S, jy7y- (iterative); inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna wyc:ia-S inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment qun:a-G inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna -qyu-S (always with pa- "water") inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion noq:i-N unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment cy7y-G inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion nontsi-S unique Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pagin:a-S inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body nampa-S, nampa-vi; ta- instr pref inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pogo-N “currant” inheritance Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7at:y-N inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state nan:a- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body paygi-S hair of the head unique Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma-S, G; mo7o-S inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar manga- he, that one (an.vis.) inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body tot:si-S loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental nangqa- inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion 7a:ga-G “in hiding” compounded w/ vb stem inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact qwip:a- hit, strike, throw” inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other yangwi-q:ai "have in hand, hold when not walking" inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar aga-n:i “how? to act how? to do what? inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ny7, ny-, =ni inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar so:va unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -pangwi-G unique Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact paq:a “to kill, to beat” (sing & dual obj); inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental put:cutcugwa-S inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment pagaryry inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental kia- inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment missing Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body qwi:-S inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body jy7u-S, ju7u-S “leg” inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion avi-S (sing); inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment angqa-xwicapry7 “red flashing obj, lightning” inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body nyngwy-N inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality pa7a-t:ogo-N (pa7a-N “high”) inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna po7a-S “louse” inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body soo-S inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human tang7wa- “man” inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna tuq:ua-S inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment mya-G inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pia-S (j) inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body tympa-S inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human nia:-S inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body untsigi-S unique Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality tcagi-p:a inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body qura-S inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality ay- e.g. ay-xani “new house” inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time tugwa-S inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar qa; qatcu inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body mu-S,G, muvi-G; movi-G inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality i:-G old, only in comp: i:-p:ungqu-ni my old horse; inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number syy, cuu inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other -cara:- to open, bare inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kymma inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body paq:a “to be sore, have a pain” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ny-N; nyngwy-S inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tap:oru7 “to pound w/ stone”; unique Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ungwa-S to rain, storm inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour angqa-S angqa-ga- to be red inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body pyra-S right side inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture po:- inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tyn:a-s “stump”, tyn:a: “bottom, base” inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment at:a-S (at:a-vy) inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ai-S “to say, to make a sound” inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact -ung7wai- to scratch (needs inst pref) unique Jane Hill
see ver ver mental pyn:i- inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact quq:wi-G “to shot at, shoot” inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality tovi7-, -top:i7- inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body antyngwya:vu-vi unique Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental tuq:wi- inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state qary-S “to sit, dwell” inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body as:ia:-S “outer covering, skin, bark” asia:-ni “my skin” inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment tugu-N inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body ap:yi-S “to sleep (sg)” inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality mia7-G usually mia7-p:y-tsi- inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment qwi:-G inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ugwi- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact -qwivy-; -tco:- (needs instr pref) unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ton:a-S, ton7na- inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wyn:y-S inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment po:tsi-S inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other yjyngqa- inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora quq:wa-G inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment ta-G instr pref; ty-N; tympi-G inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body paq:a:-S inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body qwas:i-S inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ma- (vis.) inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar am:y- “they, those” inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental cum:ai “have in mind, think, remember” inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar i-, 7i- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar im:i- inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number pai- inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body pangwi-S loan direction unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact tyravi- (cf. tavi- "to throw" inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment un:ua- “to thunder” inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tap:it:ca inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ago-N agom-pi inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body tangwa-N inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other mynic:i-G to turn over, several turn back inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number wa:- inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pip:it:a7ni- inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion pagi-N to go, walk inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment pa:-S inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar -nym:i inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar tangwa-, inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pan:o:q:ai- “to be wet” unique Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar aga- “what” (w/ post pos); inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar an:oq:o- inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar missing Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour toc:a-G,S inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar anga- inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship pingwa-S inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment nya-ry inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body qas:avy- “striking wing” of hawk; qyc:avy-S inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human mam:a7u- “woman, young woman” inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour oa-G inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mym:i- you plur; -ngwy (encl) inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae aŋa·vi Ant inheritance *anɨN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 44 (2008:44) same other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:548 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana wantsI Antelope (Antilocapra americanaa) inheritance *wantsi Proto-Numic Note T. Shoshone wanzi, possibly a loan, of course same underived I don't think that's -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:712 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ɨnampɨtsI badger (Taxidea) inheritance *huLa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 132 (2008;59); this form suggests reconstructing *huLaN, no? same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:559 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus si'-kwah Bald eagle (Halioetus leucocephalus) unique may contain kwana “eagle” underived? looks phrasal etymologicaly but I can't figure out si'- /say/ or /sa'i/ right now) Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:359 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata mah-ki'-o-ve A; mah-ki'-uv M “Wild pigeon” ma'kaiyovi Band-tail pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata) inheritance *ma'kawV-hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Combines Stubbs 676 *ma'kawV and Stubbs 675 hayowi (2008:126); compound is Southern Numic same underived old compound but maka appears only in this word Merriam 59:463 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pa:tcatsI Sapir's tc is ch bat inheritance *pati'a/paCti'a Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 124 (2008):56 narrower (I'm sure this is a species of bat) other complex pa:tca-tsi bat-ABS (non-possessed noun) Sapir 1930:608 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor paontsI Beaver (Castor) inheritance *pa'wVN Proto-Numic Stubbs 156 (2008:61) I concur with Stubbs that it looks like “water-fox” same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:609 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp we'-paw-sits M Beetle inheritance *pippusi Proto-Numic Stubbs 311 (2008:83) same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 59:473 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus to'oivɨ Bulrush (Merriam:Big round tule (Schoenoplecgus acutus) semantic shift *to'i Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1738 (2008:246); Merriam has a hi- increment (“hetaw”); this is elsewhere always “flat tule, cattail” (Typha latifolia), but Merriam's form seems clear. same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:685 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis poniA Skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275) same underived Sapir 1930:620 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus tɨvatsI wolf (677) inheritance *tu'apa Proto-Numic Stubbs 2503 (2008:335) same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:660 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis nagA Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) semantic shift *nakV “meat” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1392 (2008:209) same underived Sapir 1930:581 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna witsitsI bird inheritance *wi(t)tiki Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 205 (2008:67) narrower (does not include large raptors) other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:716 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger aŋa·vi Small black ant sp. inheritance *anɨN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 44 (2008:44); I think this is a semantic shift; this is usually red ant narrower (a kind of black ant) other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:548 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus kwe-ahnt' A bear unique *kwiya Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 136 (2008:59)(this is same word as Sapir's “grizzly”) same derived looks like a deverbal derivation with -tɨ Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:343 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus qamɨ Black-tail jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) inheritance *kaNmu Proto-Numic Stubbs 1710 (2008:243) same underived Sapir 1930:628 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? qaampɨtsI Ruffled grouse unique same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:627 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tuqutsI Bobcat (Lynx californicus) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan WW %tuku same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:693 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera aɨcɨvɨtsI Butterfly inheritance *asipu- Proto-Numic Stubbs 326 (2008:85) Central and Southern Numic only same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:546 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus pah-wung (A “very rarely seen” pa'wɨŋI California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) unique this is the Chemehuevi “bald eagle” word meaning “water eagle”, but here must be “big eagle”. Only in far west in CR dialect continuum same phrase big-eagle Merriam 59:461 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? tco'iŋk Arizona jay (long-tailed and uncrested) unique Southern Numic only Note Kawaiisu čoɁiki-ži “Pinyon jay”; possibly from the cha'i word?? same underived Sapir 1930:698 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pipung'wantsI red-headed woodpecker (Merriam for Kai-va-vits says “all woodpeckers” 61:361 unique Colorado River Numic, same as Harrington's Chemehuevi same other complex has -tsi ABS; derivation in stem unclear Sapir 1930:612 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pa:cI seeds of a certain weed, used for mush loan Cupan Stubbs 1599 (2008:2333), Cupan, Gab, Sr, Tb; TS probably a loan; this may be cognate, so TS good??). But this is clearly the Cupan word; note Chemehuevi even has the -ly suffix! WW %pasv same underived Sapir 1930:606 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. o'itsitsI very small, yellowish, white-striped “chipmunk” (Tamias dorsalis? Spermophilus?) Merriam: Chipmunk (Eutamias) inheritance *wo'ta Proto-Numic (maybe PUA) Stubbs 2100 (2008:289) same other complex note -tsi ABS plus -tsi DIM Sapir 1930:594 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota wah-pas'-so-pe (M; to-wah pas'-să-ro-vep' “Rain.cloud swallow” pa'sagovipI Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon) inheritance pasVkopi- Proto-Numic Note Panamint paz'-zah-noo-pe'-dah W; Merriam 59:335; Yerington Paiute soggobbena; W. Mono (Northfork) paziGopiina'; “mudswallow”; Southern Paiute pas'-să-ro-vep' “swallow”; Southern Ute tŲpá-sǫǫ-cI unknown Merriam 59:465 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana sah'-sit saapɨtsI Coot (Fulica) inheritance *saya Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 217 (2008:69) same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:365 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tavutsI Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus audobonii) inheritance *tapuC/*taput Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1707 (2008:242) same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:670 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. so:vimpɨ Cottonwood (Populus spp.) inheritance *sohopin Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 542a (2008:111) only Numc & Hopi same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:662 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans cɨnangwavI Coyote (Canis latrans) unique derived from Stubbs 554 (2008:113); I think Comanche might be a Ute loan so may just be southern Numic same other complex cɨna-ngwa-vI is the ngwa the possessive element? Meaning someting like “owned by wolf???” has -vi ABS Sapir 1930:660 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos atapɨtsI Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) (may be raven) inheritance *atta-wɨ-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 582 (2009:116), this version with -ka in Southern Numic only: Southern Ute taq'o-ci (Givon); Southern Paiute 'ata-G, 'ataqwotsi “crow”; note Mojave 'atqaaq “type of crow” same other complex ata-pɨtsI crow-ABS (Sapir says it's not clear that -tsI here is the -tsi ABS) Sapir 1930:553 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus tɨgia Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) inheritance *tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same underived Sapir 1930:681 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana yɨvimpɨ Long-leafed pine (P. insignis?) (Merriam: Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) -- on Mt. Charleston) inheritance *yuwiN Southern Numic only Stubbs 1580b (2008:231), perhaps related to Cupan *yuyi-la same other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam 59:473 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris sari:tsI dog inheritance *sati Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan may be an arealism; Stubbs 674 (2008:126) in NP, C. Numic, S. Numic, Hopi unknown Sapir 1930:654 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura iyovI Mourning Dove (Zenaida macrocura) inheritance *hayɨwi Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 675 (2008:126) same underived probably sound-imitative in origin; here the -vɨ is NOT the ABS but is an old part of stem, given the etymology Sapir 1930:558 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae tcɨgA duck inheritance *cɨka Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 705 (2008:130) same underived Sapir 1930:702 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus qunuguivɨ Huckleberry (this is the cognate JHH) inheritance *kunuki Proto-Numic Stubbs 180 (2008:64) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:642 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus parɨia elk (Cervus elaphus) inheritance *pa-*tɨkɨya Proto-Numic Stubbs 625a (2008:121) same phrase big deer (Sapir says it's “water deer” but pa: here is surely “big”) Sapir 1930:597 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pagɨU Fish (any) inheritance *paNkwi/pakkwi < pa:-kVyu Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 865 (2008:148) same underived historically a compound pa:- kɨyu Sapir 1930:638 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera aŋivitsI flea unique looks like the ant word same other complex diminutive of “mosquito” Sapir 1930:548 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. qwa:nangwantsI Flicker (Colaptes sp.) inheritance Sapir has only in compound with angqa- “red” for “robin”, but the uncompounded form is definitely Merriam's word; same as Chem kwanaw'wantsI “flicker”; Colorado River S. Numic dialect-continuum word. same other complex has -tsi ABS; qwa:na-”eagle” -ngwa-owner?-ntsI ABS (Sapir's ngwa not indicated with nasalizing transition) Merriam 59:463 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mo:pitcA fly inheritance *muwi-/*muCpi Proto-Numic Stubbs 887 (2008:151) same underived I don't know what the tcA is! Sapir 1930:573 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei tcamavipɨ Yucca-like plant (Hesperoyucca whipplei?) whose stalk is roasted for food and root is used for food; Merriam 61:377 confirms Y. whipplei inheritance Southern Numic only probably related to Ka. cawarabɨ same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:697 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon tavangwaimpitsI Fox unique See S. Ute tavíic?ą-cI narrower (surely one of the 3 kinds of fox; Sapir doesn't say which) other complex has -pɨtsI ABS; Givon 1979 suggests the tav- here might be “sun” Sapir 1930:669 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wa·gotsI Frog (Rana) inheritance *wakaN-ta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 940 (2008:157) WW %wakat same other complex Said by SP's to be onomatopoeic, but old; has -tsi ABS sapir 1930:713 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos qwan·atsI Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) inheritance Southern Numic only Stubbs 717a (2008:131), really looks like *kwi'na, and like other UA *kwa words, but problems same other complex has -tsi ABS (showing clearly this is not a diminutive but homophonous with it) Sapir 1930:646 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. pogompivɨ currant bush inheritance *pokoN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 183 (2008:65) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:620 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ogompɨtsI bull-snake (general term, apparently, for non-venomous snakes that resemble rattlesnakes but are without rattles) unique broader (diverse large snakes) other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:595 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ugwivɨ grass inheritance *huk(w)i Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1027 (2008:167) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:709 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera a:rangqapitsi Grasshopper inheritance *attaNkaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1036 (2008:167) same other complex has -pitsi ABS Sapir 1930:553 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. sikutsI Squirrel (Merriam: Gray ground squirrel (Citellus beecheyi group) loan into protolanguage *sika(wV) Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown Stubbs 2094a (2008:288), I think transparently unitable with these S. Numic forms WW %sik same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:657 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. ah-wun' tahvat Gray tree squirrel (Sciurus fossor) inheritance *tapa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2095 (2008:248); S. Paiute and Ute both have this compound same phrase pine.tree-chipmunk-ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:355 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus moopɨtsI Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) inheritance *muhuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1542 (2008:227) same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:571 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis qwiagantɨ Grizzly bear unique *kwiya Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 136 (2008:59) same derived looks like a deverbal derivation with -tɨ Sapir 1930:648 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae paqatcatsI Horned toad (Phrynosoma) inheritance *makaCta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1333 (2008:202); here this has been folk-etymologized with initial pa-, not ma- same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:604 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus qava horse loan Spanish Note that a horse owned by someone is pungku (the old “dog” word) WW %caballo same underived Sapir 1930:632 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae moontutcatsI Hummingbird inheritance muttanaC Proto-Numic Stubbs 1181 (2008:185) same other complex has -tsi ABS; Sapir suggests mo:a “to hum” but is a Proto-Numic etymon. Obviously a complex stem Sapir 1930:571 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. qwo'api Indian tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) unique Colorado River Numic only; Stubbs 2293 (2008:310) same other complex has -pi ABS (so perhaps not the plant??) Sapir 1930:652 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp nɨvarampoqwitsI Junco (Junco) (Merriam); Sapir: chickadee (?); Merriam confirms for Kai-va-vit (ne-war'-rum po'-kuts 61:363) inheritance Southern Numic only probably same as Merriam's Kawaiisu nu-vă rah'-ko-cha with tako and some metathesis same phrase has -tsi ABS; nɨva-snow- tampoqwi ??-tsI Merriam 59:465; Sapir 587, 666 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica wa'apɨ cedar (Merriam: Juniper (J. californica)) inheritance *wa'aC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 415 (2008:94) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:711 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera po'avI louse inheritance *po'a Southern Numic only Stubbs 1358b (2008:205), possibly related to the pusi'a “louse” forms in other Numic same other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:619 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos o:tcɨgA large duck sp., mallard ? unique same phrase o: arrow? Sapir 1930:702 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. ki'-ap'pe Manzanita (Arctostaphylos viscida) unique same phrase mountain-X-pɨ ABS ? Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:373 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa wɨ'ivɨ milkweed inheritance *wiki/*wisi “string” Proto-Uto-Aztecan Note Kawaiisu wɨɁivɨbɨ; Stubbs 1796 (2008:254), or Stubbs 1475; I don't like the set but this is where Stubbs has these forms same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:717 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos yampA Mockingbird (Mimus) inheritance *yampa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 216 (2008:68) Numic and Hopi same underived Sapir 1930:722 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera aŋivi, mo:angivi Mosquito unique see “flea” same other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:548 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera tɨvɨcɨratsI Moth inheritance *tɨpi-simuCta Proto-Numic Stubbs 325 (2008:85) Central and Southern Numic same other complex has -tsi ABS; old compound Sapir 1930:679 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tuqumumutsI Panther (Merriam: Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) inheritance *tukkuC Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1306 (2008:200); this is an ancient loan. T Shoshone has same increment WW %tuku same other complex tuqu-mumutsI; -mumutsI only in this item (Sapir 1930:572); has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:693 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus too'-wit A Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) inheritance Numic Also in Merriam's Round Mountain Shoshoni (61:41), although perhaps a loan. Note N. Paiute took-tah; too'-hoo-tah same underived Merriam 59:463 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata caraga'nɨmpI shell, little rattle-like shell (with -tsi) inheritance *cata Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan goes with Stubbs 1910 (2008:267) with Takic “bark” words, *cata, not *caLa broader (apparently any small shell) other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:655 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? a·ŋA Pinyon jay (Cyanocitta stelleri?) inheritance Proto-Numic Colorado River Southern Numic; Stubbs 220 (2008:69), but also Yerington anga “Pinyon Jay”! Add to Stubbs. same underived Sapir 1930:548 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla tɨvapɨ Pinyon pine (P. monophylla) inheritance *tɨpat Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1583 (2008:231), probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:677 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys mɨyɨmpɨtsI Gopher (Thomomys) inheritance *mɨyɨN Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1009 (2008:164) same other complex has -pɨtsi ABS Sapir 1930:570 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. togoavi Rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) inheritance *koNwa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2009 (2008:279); the to- “earth” prefix widespread in Numic same other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:688 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tacɨavi Red ant (Merriam: “big kind”) inheritance *tasi'a Proto-Numic Stubbs 49 (2008:45) Centrland Southern Numic only narrower (a kind of red ant) other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:671 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus pagatcaqapI Red-shouldered blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) inheritance, loan *paaka- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan unknown this looks like a compound from the *pakka word (Cupan *paaxiŋi-sh, Kitanemuk ˈpakoŋjat; ; Tumpisa Shoshone pakkwatoppe); incorporates %chak; but note BSVS pakancukki; saaipakantsukkih “red-winged blackbird” Duckwater 282, so might just be vowel assimilat WW %chak unknown paga- “cane”? -tcaqapI “to make a click-like sound” 699 but see below for “yellowbird” Sapir 1930:605 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis qwanatsits: Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) unique unknown Sapir 1930:546 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus wɨtca Road runner (Geococcyx californianus) unique note Chemehuevi ʻɂətsA same underived Sapir 1930:720 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis pi-ah'-kiwits Ruddy duck (Erismatura) unique same phrase smooth-? (water bird of some kind, can't find)-tsi ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:365 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? tcanga: Lizard (Merriam: Scaly lizard (Sceloporus) inheritance *caŋa Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1331 (2008:202); may be arealism, cognates in Chemehuevi, S. Paiute, Serrano same underived Sapir 1930:698 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna cɨgɨpɨtsI common small lizard 661 common small lizard inheritance *sVkV (< *suku) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2019b S. Numic but I agree should be united w/ 2019a PUA (2008:281) same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:661 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kwe-ets' L, M, A; kwe-etch L snake (any) unique this is a western form otherwise unique to Chemehuevi -- loan? Euphemism? same other complex has -tsi ABS Merriam 59:471 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata cɨɨvɨ Squawbush (stems used for basketry) inheritance *sɨʔɨvV Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Luiseño $ooval, Hopi sɨɨvi “sumac”'; underived the -vi is not the ABS; see Cupeno, Luiseno forms Sapir 1930:658 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco qɨrin'nangqatsI Sparrow hawk (?) unique same other complex has -tsi ABS; stem clearly compound but meaningless elements although Sapir speculates that nangqa- may be “ear-ring”??? Sapir 1930:638 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae uqwampI Spider (big black, tarantula?) inheritance *hukwaN Southern Numic only Stubbs 2059 (2008:285) narrower (a species of spider) other complex has -pi ABS Sapir 1930:709 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis kah'-bo-nā (M) Spotted skunk inheritance *po(C)ni Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1983 (2008:275) with increment also in Chemehuevi from *kawa rat?? same phrase rat-skunk? Merriam 59:457 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae paqwan'A frog, toad inheritance *kwa'Lo Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 941 (2008:157); wouldn't pa: “water” give pagwano??? broader (frogs and toads) phrase water-frog/toad (maybe) Sapir 1930:6o4 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) mah-ahv a tree, brush, chaparral inheritance *maha Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1614 (2008:234); this is new S. Paiute in that set broader (probably encompasses “brush”) other complex has -pɨ ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:381 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera o:sivɨ Yucca baccata unique same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:710 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura wiqumpɨtsI Turkey buzzard (Cathartes) inheritance *wiLhukuN Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 335 is really problematic, but clearly something is going on same other complex has -pɨtsI ABS Sapir 1930:715 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ɂayA Turtle inheritance *ayaC Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2359 (2008:316) same underived Sapir 1930:554 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia qwiyavɨ scrub oak inheritance *kwiN/*kwi- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (2008:224) probably a Kiowa-Tanoan loan into PNUA same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:651 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata pagwi:avɨ red oak growing along rivers inheritance *kwiN/*kwi- Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1507a (with pa- “water”? increment) same phrase water-oak Sapir 1930:597 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica qaqara Quail (Merriam: Gambel Quail) loan unknown wide-spread Californian form WW %kaka same underived Sapir 1930:633 confirmed in Merriam's Kai-va-vit 61:359 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis tcAqoaru Wild goose unique same underived Merriam 59:467 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos pă-goo-moo'-e-nav White pelican (Pelicanus erythrorhynchos) unique same phrase fish-?-pi ABS Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:363 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nahn-kahk Wild grapevine (Vitis californica) unique Is this the “earring” word?? same derived nangqa:qA “its branches) (from ear?); also possibly “its ear.ornaments”? Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:379 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica tsi'ampivɨ wild rose bush inheritance *ci'an Proto-Numic T. Shoshone tsiapippüh; Kawaiisu čiyavipɨ; Stubbs 190 (2008:65) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:700 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) aqɨmpɨ sunflower plant inheritance *(pa)-'akka(C) Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2191 (2008:299) same other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:551 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. qanavɨ willow (Merriam: Willow sp. (small, red, on Colorado R.) inheritance *kana Proto-Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2487 (2008:332), some issues with the set narrower (a species of willow) other complex has -pɨ ABS Sapir 1930:629 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. qa:tsI Round-tail woodrat (Neotoma) inheritance *kawa Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 1423 (2008:242) same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:627 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) wicitsI caterpillar unique Might be a loan involving Stubbs 2525a *kwici same other complex has -tsi ABS Sapir 1930:715 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper tivinaqwitcutsI earthworm unique qwitcu- part probably from Stubbs 2525a same phrase earth-worm-tsiABS Sapir 1930:581 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. pangwutcavI Yellow jacket (Vespula spp., Dolichovespula sp.) inheritance *wita/*wiCta Proto-Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 159 (2008:62). this has increment pang- which is what??? same phrase some increment on “bee” Sapir 1930:602 2 0 Larvae a delicacy CHM 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia kan-now'-we-chet Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique same phrase willow-bird? Merriam's Ki-vav-vit 61:363 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna anga:-S (anga:-vi small black sp.) inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna witsi7- loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna mo:p:itca-tsi loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna sari:-S inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna ugwi-vy inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna ty-S “game,, deer” from tygia-S inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna togoa-S rattlesnake inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna uq:wa-N inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food sa7appI, shy7appI mush inheritance *sa7a Uto-Aztecan This is different from the %saw set derived sa7a 'to boil' Sapir Jane Hill
ball game food nanauappy root shinny game unique derived, other complex from hya chase, trap? Sapir Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress wIshiakaichokU feather hat unique compound feathered.thing-hat Sapir Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7o:, u- S; uqqwi-S arrow inheritance *huca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 63 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7oshA basket (in qanna7oshA "willow basket" inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material shy:gaichokkU squaw bush cap, woman's basket-cap inheritance *kaCcokoC Numic Stubbs 1151 compound shyy 'squawbush' Sapir Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material choi-N bead (used for any purpose), beads inheritance *coiN Numic Also in W. Shoshone, Comanche; Stubbs 1513 siplex Sapir Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool atcy-S bow inheritance *aCta Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 275 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool janto7oshshA a carrying basket of open-work twined weave unique related to jatta, osa copound Sapir Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation ot:shA water jar (after gum is put on) inheritance *hoCca Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 118 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology avit:a root, has other stuff compounded e.g. tangwaavit:a-i7 "men's chief" chief unique also nia:vI 'captain, chief, war leader" simplex Sapir Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food missing missing Jane Hill
corpse food missing missing Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology wy7y- to dance (identical with wy7y- to fall?) inheritance *wy7y Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 833a; Southern Numic only in sense of 'dance', means also 'to fall"; llnHka- plur. Subj. 146 for S. Ute simplex root Sapir Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology tyvatstsI wolf, powerful one (as mythological being) inheritance *tu7apa Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2570; also tuttukua-vI 'guardian spirit' 696 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology non:oc:i-pI dreams inheritance *nosi Numic Stubbs 2011 717 derived, reduplicated Sapir Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wy-pon7noa-iH drums unique other complex pon7noa 'to drum' Sapir Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation chikkinnA-S chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Sapir Jane Hill
earring other nangqA wooden earplug, ear ornament in general inheritance *nangka Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 752a simplex Sapir Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7yny-G evil spirit, devil, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool qutnuni to drill for fire inheritance *tunuhi Numic See Mono simplex tunnu- to drill hole Sapir Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other quqqwappI wood unknown *kukkwaC Stubbs 2011 2410 S. Numic only other complex Sapir Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other to:ppI counter in hand game unique but note the *typo word in Californian; could be a vowel assimilation; also mai-yangwi-numpi gambling bones used in the hand game 723 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing only as instrumental prefix ty- "probably contracted from tykia- Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7yny-G evil spirit, devil, ghost inheritance *yny- Numic Stubbs 2011 2116 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
alcohol food 7yvwy-ppa: bad water, whiskey unknown also in S. Ute; also wi:ssikkiI (715) compound Sapir Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology puaganty having supernatural power, medicine man inheritance *puha Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1160a derived, other complex poa-S-kaN-tY Sapir Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other qan:i-S house inheritance *kaLi Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1213 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food ngwai-N, jai-N, tynna- (plur) root to hunt inheritance *tynna Numic Stubbs 2011 1014 *yahi Stubbs 2011 1239 is only S. Numic (looks like the *ya7i 'run' word to me, though) simplex Sapir Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wiitstsI knife inheritance *wikiC Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1267 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
mat culture-material sa7mappy something spread out, like blanket unknown also in Chemehuevi other complex sa7ma to spread out Sapir Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
necklace other qagI necklace, collar inheritance *kak(k)i Numic Stubbs 2011 1506 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool wiH awl inheritance *wicaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2296 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
pinole food wa7aishy7appI mush made of grass seeds unique compound, other complex wa7ai-sa7a-py 'grass.seed-boil-ABS Sapir Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other chungu-G pipe (only in compounds?) inheritance *chungu Northern Uto-Aztecan Yok-Utian Stubbs 2011 2222b, maybe loan from Yokutsan *soko word ultimately WW %sokon simplex Sapir Jane Hill
pitch food sannappI gum, pine-gum, sap, juice inheritance *salaC Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1634 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pampynni bucket, mud or clay basket without handle inheritance *paM-pi Numic Stubbs 2011 1156 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool u-qunnA arrow-sack, quiver inheritance *hu-kuna Numic arrow-sack; see Cupan huki-la forms compound Sapir Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food oavI salt inheritance *omCa Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 1865 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool tykannympy seed beater unique derived, other complex Sapir Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ma:vy, maa-fy clothing (identical with ma:- thing) unique the "things, possessions' word; also naro7o-N (psd) clothes (582) other complex Sapir Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool tanga7atcy kick bow, sinew-backed bow unique literally, sinew-bow compound sinew-bow Sapir Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology uvia-vI song inheritance *hupiya Numic Stubbs 2011 1985 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool sigishshI spear for spearing bears, sword inheritance *sik Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 2318 reduplicated Sapir Jane Hill
stirring stick food tsIqwan7nonnompy stirrer used in boiling mush unique derived, other complex qwan7nu 'to stir mush' Sapir Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tyshshavY rope unknown Southern Numic only, Stubbs 2011 1844 other complex Sapir Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material qunnavy sack inheritance *kuna Northern Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 114a other complex Sapir Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other nAHsa7a-qqanI sweat house unique all Numic seems to have X-house; this similar but not identical to Comanche form compound, derived na-sa7a self-boil Sapir Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tygwi:nna- to tell a story inheritance *tykwi Numic Stubbs 2011 1876a simplex Sapir Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics qwo7appI Indian tobacco unknown Stubbs 2011 2351 S. Numic only; I think prob from 'burn' other complex Sapir Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material taqqwii7U basket tray, roasting basket tray unknown Southern Numic only, Chem tako7o simplex Sapir Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pattshA moccasins, shoes inheritance *paNca Numic Stubbs 2011 1957 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
medicine narcotics pushttUqqwi-vI medicine, poison, supernatural power unique compound, other complex Sapir Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material qonO cradle of basketry inheritance *kono Uto-Aztecan Stubbs 2011 142 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation so:7itstsI soldier loan English WW %soldier other complex Sapir Jane Hill
corn food qummiH corn (old Indian name for corn, rarely used now) inheritance *kummi Uto-Aztecan also qoi7nI from English simplex Sapir Jane Hill
beans food mo:ri:H beans loan Hopi WW %mun simplex Sapir Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation qattatsI cat loan English? Spanish? WW %cat other complex Sapir Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tympWijU iron-arrow, gun unknown same in S. Ute compound Sapir Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress qaichokkO hat inheritance *kaCcokoC Numic Stubbs 2011 1151 simplex Sapir Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tyc:a-S inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture mara-tsi- inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool poro- “cane, staff”; inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture tyga- “to beat out seeds, harvests seeds?) unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture mo7a-tsi, mu7a-ts, mwo7a-ts inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool atcy-S bow inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool o:-S, u-S “arrow” (uq:wi-S) inheritance Jane Hill
house other qan:i-S inheritance Jane Hill


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] Jane Hill
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? Jane Hill
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] Jane Hill
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Jane Hill
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment Jane Hill
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 4 Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Jane Hill
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes Jane Hill
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction Jane Hill
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Jane Hill
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Jane Hill
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Jane Hill
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Jane Hill
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Jane Hill
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Jane Hill
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Dem no Jane Hill
Word Order Num-Noun yes Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Num no Jane Hill
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Jane Hill
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Jane Hill
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Jane Hill
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Jane Hill
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Jane Hill
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium AG low mobile no