Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes There only seems to be a distinction in "deictic" pronouns. Allin, 1976: 115-117 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Not in subject prefixes. The pronouns in Arawak languages are built on subject prefixes. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42, Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes mainly by older speakers Mihas 2010:160 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:61 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no No discussion, but based on what I have seen in the examples the answer is NO. Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes 1st person singular and 1st person plural exclusive take same form, 1st person plural inclusive is distinct. Michael, 2008. p. 348 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:3-25 Daniel Valle
Yine no Matteson 1965:106 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:52-55 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes incl., excl. Hall 1988:282 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 89 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes However, the inclusive form seems to be rare. The exclusive form is the most frequent. Frank 1990:26 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bourland 1976:56 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:69 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Inclusive: waxáitsibeje; Exclusive: paxánëbeje de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000:72 Amanda Meeks Queixalós shows that the suffix "-behe" can be used to show duality for all nouns.
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:44 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:154 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:42-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:243 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:136 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:45-100 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p170 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 81 Shannon Dardis "We" is either exclusive (without you) and two inclusive (either with you or with you and with everyone else)
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no dual form indicates two participants Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Daniel Smith distinction between male and female (rarely used)
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984:89 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak They may occur as head in a noun phrase or as a modifier of a head noun.
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes For the first person plural personal pronouns, we distinguish the inclusive and exclusive pronouns. Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Barasano has personal pronouns that distinuish between first person plural inclusive and exclusive. Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes This free form of the pronoun generally occurs as an abbreviated answer to a question, or when it is the subject of certain types of clauses.(yiha-1p pl excl. bãrã-1p pl inclusive) Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack The personal pronouns are not frequently used, perhaps because the person marker prefixes are preferred.
Siona yes inclusive, exclusive Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no incl/excl is distinguished, however, in the possessive pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):7 Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:300-1 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:61 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:71 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:201 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes ms7.2 done 1
Garrwa yes fpro1 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 73 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 71-73 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 12 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 56 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 15 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 70 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 84-86 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 37-8 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 28-29 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r4-6 done 1
Uradhi Yes 354 Y 1
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 104-110 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 76 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 123 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 90, 118 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira yes 100-107 done 1
Marrgany No 303 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 87 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 73 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 397 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 31-2 Done-Dan 0
Jaru yes 64-5 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 66 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 283 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Maybe 51 1
Dyirbal yes 50 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 51 done 1
Djinang Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 49-50 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 29 done 1
Bularnu yes 50 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 24 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala No 212 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana yes 112 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 92 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung yes 75 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 90 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 40-41, 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati yes 23 done 1
Katthang no 64 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 157 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 74 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 87 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 138 done 1
Wakaya yes 143 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 515 done 1
Bandjalang No 78 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara N/A 52 done 0
Arrernte No 100 0
Kokatha Yes 48 1
Karajarri Yes 236 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 18 0
Ritharrngu Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 39 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 907 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 51 1
Bilinarra yes 1.1000000000000000888 done 1
Wiradjuri yes 32-3 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 62 Y2 0
Narungga No 58 done 0
Tharrkari Yes 16 1
Wajarri Yes 71 1
Warungu no 1 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:370 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001:377 Patience Epps