Karajarri

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
gbd
Location
-18.71°, 122.03°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar -yarna inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar -nya inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar ngaju kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar -nyurra inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar nyuntu inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar -ya loan Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kinyangka loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location kantingka unknown Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 4229 unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other wakaj inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar pa inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body 4818 loan Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kalnginy doubtful loan Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental talu inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment pulkaru loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location 4534 inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body 4914 unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality jati unknown Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wankayi inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body ngarlu inheritance CHECK Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 3865 inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality wurtu inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body 4075 inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour 4078 inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body warrupu loan CHECK Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body pu janpa (1) loan Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality tumu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body jiyi unknown Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture 4341 inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngamarna inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body 4155 doubtful loan Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment kampana (5) inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body japal punya ngujilakuny (2) loan Yawuru Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human 4148 inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion kanti (4) inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ringu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality jarrjarr unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion jayi (4?) unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kampanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental 4194 missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ngajakanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact kati punya (2) loan Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state 4071 unknown Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact kali_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna kuriti loan Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality yurli unknown Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental pukarri manpa (1) doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body 4020 missing Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality purayi inheritance Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment kurnturr inheritance Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body 4243 inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment ngurra semantic shift Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body jaku yungunya (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna nyuma inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body pani inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body puta inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion 3927 inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality kajari inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body laya loan Nyulnyulan; Warra? Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship japulu loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental gadjal unique Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment karita loan Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna [missing] missing Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion djororo unknown Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment wam wam loan Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion wanminy loan Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment 4747 inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body jina inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora mai loan Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality 4697 doubtful loan Eastern Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state 4550 missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kunkulu unknown Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body papirr inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body 3807 inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental pinakarri (4) inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality minkurr inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion yarrka pati (4) unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact jinkanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact ngunngun unknown Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other muru manpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar wanyjarra inheritance Claire Bowern
if si se grammar 3921 unknown Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location -ja inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body pirlu inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body dinga dinga unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 3995 inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment 4138 missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental nyarru punya (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment ngalyawata loan Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ngakaraman inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body midi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion wanti (4) Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment 3926 inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body 4222 unknown Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality 4483 inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna linjarr inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body wangalwangal inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human 4250 inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 4390 inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment kirrirti inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 4346 unknown Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body 4712 inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human 3970 unique Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body purta loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality lani unknown Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body tumpa Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality djanj Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ngatura unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar molal unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body milya inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality purrku Claire Bowern
one uno um number waraja inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other pal inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar 4815 loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human 4927 inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body 4814 inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment 3906 inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour 4502 inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body jurunguny inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture makurr loan Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora wanal inheritance Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality pirniny inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment walaŋgar loan Yawuru Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental yintanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wer-ēdj inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental nyanganya (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jawa kaniny inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wiranja inheritance Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality kunku unknown Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body gondidjena loan Nyulnyulan? Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body tataly unknown Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state mana wanti (4) unknown Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body karnu inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment kurrwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body kartaka karti yanya (3) inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality wupartu loan Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body bandi mana inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ngurrun inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body julpayi yintanpa janguly (1) loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact gar inheritance Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact julypunya (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact [missing] missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state karrpila karri (4) inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment wiriny inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other ngurru manya (3) inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment karra inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body djam bunja unknown Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time parra inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body jirrmil inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body ŋor unknown Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion walgoro inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body marrkara inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar pala inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality walpurra Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality rawurrmarta inheritance Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental bidjal mana unknown Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar naudu inheritance Claire Bowern
three tres tres number kujarra warany inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body kunankunan unknown Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ilbanja unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment djidama loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kurrminpa (1) unknown Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body djalanj inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body djawa inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality yija inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pirrp yintanpa waranykarti (1) unique Claire Bowern
two dos dois number kujarra inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body djanombana inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion mandi inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment ngapa inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality japula inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar ngana inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyangara inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar wanyjani inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour lali inheritance Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ngartu inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship nyupa inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment wangal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body djalban inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human wakala inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other wargam loan English Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body ngala manpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour karntawarra inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (137)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis gadgumba gadgumba unique unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pingka pingka inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus bilari bilari loan direction unknown Pilbara underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii badjalbara badjalbara loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora pirrkapirrka pirrkapirrka unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia nalkumiti unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba wiraju wiraju inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer manti manti inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp ŋariminjaminja ŋarriminyaminya unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bandalmada pantalmata loan direction unknown Yawuru WW %bandalmarda compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus olgodanj olgodanj loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis munkarliny inheritance missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri pirlawarl pirlawarl loan Nyulnyulan WW %pilawal underived 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae winywiny winywiny doubtful loan reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species bĭleri bĭleri unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii galgaruru galgaruru unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus iŋalwa iŋalwa loan direction unknown WW %ingalwa underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurturr kurturr inheritance underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus kirrkirr kirrkirr unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula läŋgur läŋgur loan Yawuru underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) mirbolol mirbolol loan direction unknown Yawuru 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius malewera maliwirra unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis janyungu janyungu loan Walmajarri underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis bargara kalimataci loan Yawuru WW %pakara underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera benda benda benda benda loan Yawuru reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota paninypurru paninypurru loan 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera jularn jularn unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) wirtany wirtany inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ganbar ganbar loan Bunuban WW %kanparr underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes jalarapalpal jalarapalpal loan Walmajarri reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus mayangarra mayangarra unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo goredi goredi inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris nalja nalja loan Walmajarri altnerative word in Walma underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae ŋaraŋara unknown 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong ŋanar ŋanar loan direction unknown underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta winywiny winywiny unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae pijarta pijarta loan direction unknown Yawuru underived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guya guya inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) bōbo bōbo loan direction unknown WW WW %pupu reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera bandal mana bandal mana unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wadarbin nimankurru inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni linkura linkura loan with meaning change Nyulnyulan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) putuwanin putuwanin unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla pitara unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) jalayapulu jalayapulu unique derived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp ŋolbalo ŋolbalo unique underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) bidilj bidilj unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera djinbalga cinpalka loan Yawuru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis djiwi djiwi unique underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas gulebil gulebil loan Yawuru underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus linjarr linjarr loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawada yawada loan areal WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wirunywiruny wirunywiruny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae calputari wirunywiruny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae yaṛi yaṛi loan Pilbara underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic jurru jurru loan Yawuru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus tyintirr tyintirr unique 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae bardjaniṇ bardjaniṇ loan Yawuru underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. pujanayiti pujanayiti unique compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera ŋīgarano ŋīgarano inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) rurru rurru loan direction unknown WW %rurru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) piyarapin piyarapin loan Pilbara compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus parrtjita parrtjita inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus nalgomidi nalgomidi loan direction unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia bandal bandal loan direction unknown underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis walmiṛimiṛi walmiṛimiṛi unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis djermidanj djermidanj unique underived? 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya bada bada unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida djogo djogo djogo djogo loan Yawuru reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp riji riji inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis budaraburu budaraburu unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus iwau iwau unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea lerwai lerwai loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species puntaru puntaru loan direction unknown WW %puntaru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi darial darial loan Yawuru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus parntirrparntirr parntirrparntirr unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum berberinj berberinj unique underived 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda ranja ranja doubtful loan Walmajarri also sandpaper fig underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata piyalpiyal piyalpiyal loan WW %piyalpiyal reduplicated 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones bidinja bidinja loan direction unknown Yawuru underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shell (generic) flora-fauna ŋadjimana ŋadjimana unique underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djinboga djinboga unique compound 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djuṛu djuṛu loan Nyulnyulan underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae waŋgarraŋgarra waŋgarraŋgarra inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species garal garal unique underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae galo-galo-bigi galo-galo-bigi unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides juli juli loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera mintipa mintipa unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) bīna bīna loan Nyikina underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata kanpurr kanpurr unique underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina purla purla unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier pilkiliny pilkiliny loan direction unknown underived 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru waŋgedi waŋgedi loan WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) balomoro balomoro unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis gololo gololo unique underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax walagoro walagoro loan direction unknown WW %walakurru underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys wijulu tulurl wijulu tulurl unique phrase 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) pirna pirna inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna paka inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna winyputu loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bandalmada loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna rawal inheritance CHECK Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 4873 inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna jalngu unknown Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna bardjaniṇ loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna jurru inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna waŋgarraŋgarra loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology ŋu:rra semantic shift Claire Bowern
armband dress kuntiltyi loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool warraŋkatya loan Nyulnyulan WW %warankatyi Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool katyu loan direction unknown areal Pilbara word but also found in Marrngu and Nyikina Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material kutan loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool kanytyilkunyi unique Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material yarrpityi unique Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool karli doubtful loan Ngumpin-Yapa WW %karli Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool warraka loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material kapara inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport yantyilyparra loan Nyulnyulan cf yandilybar WW %yandilybara cf yandilybar Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology papurr loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool punuma loan direction unknown Yawuru Claire Bowern
cook food food kampanpa inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food matimirri loan direction unknown Pilbara WW %martumpirri Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology maru unique means ‘black’ in other languages in the region Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool gananj semantic shift Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pukarri manpa inheritance Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology kapukurri inheritance no sure what the ka- prefixal part is. Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool tyimarri loan Claire Bowern
fire-saw other yanutany loan direction unknown Nyikina Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other tampal loan with semantic shift Nyikina hot stone for cookiing WW damper hot stone for cookiing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other tyuŋku loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool pantyuta loan Yawuru Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wiliwili loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool kurrtyuŋu inheritance Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food yurntara loan Pilbara Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuyi inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology palaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology pirri unique Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress tyirrtyi semantic shift pubic tassle Claire Bowern
headband dress pilantu unique Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology tyalŋkaŋurru loan direction unknown WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food kirrpatyu unknown Claire Bowern
house (European) other maya loan WW %mayaru Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food kuntyurrtarn unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology yuna loan direction unknown areal Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology paṛa loan direction unknown areal WW %para Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tyinputarri loan Malay Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress lulya loan direction unknown Yawuru Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology tyarrata loan WW %tyarrarta Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport kalpaya loan Nyikina WW %kalpiya Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology tirrmtyaŋka unique Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool wiranyamarta unique Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology tukul loan direction unknown Nyikina Nyikina ‘red ochre’ Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tyuŋari inheritance Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology punturr punturr unique Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food karimarta unique Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology waŋka semantic shift ‘say’ Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool tyinal loan direction unknown areal WW %jinal Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool watyirri loan direction unknown Kariyarra Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool ŋapaliny loan Nyulnyulan WW %ngapale Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool tyimpala loan Nyulnyulan WW %tyimpila Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material purrurru inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation tyukarta unique Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋamarri loan Nyulnyulan also means ‘liver’ in some languages. Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics ŋamari loan areal Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology rayi loan direction unknown areal WW %raya Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other karaly unique Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other watuka unique Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation miranu tyanayiti maya semantic shift Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation mili mili loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food karrikan inheritance Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology larnparri warra unique Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tyina putu inheritance Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics tyalŋka loan Walmajarri WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
earth oven food tampal inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation limpa loan WW %limpa Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation matu kunkulu unknown Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tyilaman loan Kriol WW %tyilaman Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress markiti unique Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mirrilyi doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture 4862 unknown Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool kanany loan Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture yapina inheritance Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture jungari inheritance Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool warlparra inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool yantanpa (1) inheritance Claire Bowern
house other maya loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] No 5 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast No 5 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels No 5 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme No 50 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] No 50 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? No 49 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony Yes 60 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] No 218 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word Yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes Yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Yes 107 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection No 164 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word No 107 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' Yes 90 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Yes 188 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment No 114 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns No 114 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only No 81 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Yes /-(a)rrangu/ 144 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker No 246 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you Yes 236 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) Yes 236 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system Yes 252 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) No 252 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns No 236 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns No 236 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns No 236 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix No 234 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun Yes 113 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) Yes 113 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic Yes 113 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' No 113 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 Yes 304 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Yes 304 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used Yes 304 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? N/A 302 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? N/A 302 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' Yes 142 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' No 142 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Yes 309 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Yes 309 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Yes 73 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb Yes 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Yes /-yiti/ 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Yes 87 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' Yes 141 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) Yes 177 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses Yes 177 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something No 184 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction Yes 184 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking No 184 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis No 186 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction Yes 186 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking No 186 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") Yes /pangkuly/ 282 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality Yes 215 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' Yes /-karra/ aversive 143 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Yes /-nya/ irrealis 215 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. No 112 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' Maybe 239 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in transitive clauses No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Dem-Noun Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Dem No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Num-Noun No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Num Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') No 396 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' No 396 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause Yes 347 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker Yes 115 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs Yes 82 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Yes 227 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Yes 228 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes N/A 302 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Yes 118 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb Yes /-warninya/ 233 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Yes 195 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Yes 348 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Yes /malal/, /jami/, /majarra/ 348 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase No 254 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle Yes 278 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology No 278 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) No 278 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only No 278 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) No 241 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position Yes 75 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) Yes 389 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. No 389 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) No 176 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. Maybe 147 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined No 404 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence Yes 397 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? Yes 105 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? Yes 100 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? No 100 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? No 105 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? Yes 105 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? No 100 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? No 100 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? No 100 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? Yes 115 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? Yes /-kura/ 142 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? Yes 111 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? No 290 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? Yes 290 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? Yes 91 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) Yes 238 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? No 153 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? No 153 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? Yes /-jarri/, /-jarra/ 153 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? Yes /-(ka)rrangu/ 153 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? No 153 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? No 154 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? No 154 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB Yes 6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? Yes 225 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? Yes 241 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? Yes 6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? Yes 6 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? No 6 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? Yes 226 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? Yes 229-230 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes Yes initial 293 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no info Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Yes 348 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Yes 348 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? No 226 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) No 75 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. Yes 233 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A 8 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? Yes /-(n)pa/, /-nya/ 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? No 165, 217 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? No 177 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? No 88 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? Yes 161 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? No 161 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? No 112 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? No 24 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? No 153 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? Yes 293 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? No 293 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column No 47 Done-Amalia 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile yes