Grammaticalized visual

Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Chemehuevi no
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91
Resígaro no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69
Wapishana no Santos 2006
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 289
Apurinã no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4
Kinikinau no info
Baure no info Danielsen 2007
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 323-326
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003
Yine no list of affixes does not mention evidentials Matteson 1965:71-80
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Use of various verbs convey this. Carson 1982; Abbott 1991
Eñepa no There is an evidential which indicates first-hand information (called "direct" in the source) opposed to inferred information (called "indirect" in the source). There is no a specific evidential for visual information. Evidential distinctions are fused in Mattei-Muller 2002:154-156
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika yes This is a verbal suffix or it can also be attached to the auxiliary verb Frank 1990:77
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no info
Damana no
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549
Northern Emberá no But information that is believed to be true or certain by the speaker takes the verbal suffix /-a/ Mortensen 1999:86 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:25
Matses no But direct experience is coded in the evidetial system Fleck:394-405
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 155-9
Páez yes Jung:75-6
Quechua Ayacuchano no However, there is a clitic /=mi/ which expresses that the speaker is commited to the truth of his/her statement Parker 1965:88-97
Tikuna no info
Urarina yes Olawsky:496
Waunana no info
Andoke no info
Puinave yes expresses visual evidence with surprise; can be used as a free morpheme; can appear bound to pronouns, nouns, and verbs Giron 2008: p281
Central Aymara no Levin 2004: 7 Aymara does not seem to distinguish between visual and non-visual experience of an event.
Kakua no visually acquired info is not marked. Plain form of sentence Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 This indication is not affixed to verb but covered using demonstrative pronouns.
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984
Dâw no Martins 2004
Desano yes The visual evidential lets the hearer know that the speaker himself experienced the event or was a witness to it. It is used also to express truths or states that the speaker can attest to from his experience. Miller 1999, p. 65 The verb kari- with the visual evidential indicates that the speaker obtained his information from senses other than the visual. (the verb can occur alone but most often occurs with other verbs)
Cubeo no The witnessed evidential indicates that the speaker's knowledge of the action comes from his sense perception(s), e.g. sight, hearing, etc. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 no distinction made for visual (separate from other senses)
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 345
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47 Evidential categories including witnessed, heard, inferred, reporting, conjecture, and future.
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86 Unlike other Tucanoan lanugages, Koreguaje does not contain evidential suffixes.
Barasano yes The present nonproximate indicates that the speaker views participant(s) of the event to which he is referring as visible yet removed from himself. Jones & Jones 1991, p.83-84 The suffix -ha is also a present nonproximate.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Unlike many Tucanoan languages, the evidential system in Retuarã is small and not frequently used.
Siona no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987
Tukano yes unmarked Ramirez 1997: 120, 150
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 316-317
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 165
Surui no info
Karitiana no Everett 2006:281-4
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:308-56
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri no 0
Nyulnyul no 0
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra no ms15 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no info x
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no 0
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no 0
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 0
Wemba-Wemba no info x
Warumungu no 0
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 363 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 0
Pintupi no info x
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa yes 275 1
Ngayawang No 0
Muruwari no 0
Mayi-Yapi No 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 0
Marrgany No 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 0
Kuku Yalanji no 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 0
Kaurna No 0
Kalkatungu no 0
Jaru no 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No 0
Duungidjawu no 0
Djinang No 167 0
Diyari no 184 0
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 0
Bularnu no 0
Biri no info x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana no 0
Alyawarr no 0
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija No 35 0
Wathawurrung no info x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 0
Thanggati no 0
Katthang no 0
Panyjima no 0
Ngarinyeri No 0
Kurrama no info x
Yingkarta no 0
Githabul No 22 0
Gunya No 326 0
Kunjen No 0
WesternTorres no 0
Wakaya no 0
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 165 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 0
Warluwarra no 0
Warnman No 45 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no 0
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 0
Narungga No 74 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001