Grammaticalized visual

Category
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Notes
Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Warekena no No evidential system Aikhenvald, 1998: 334-386 Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 323-326 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no list of affixes does not mention evidentials Matteson 1965:71-80 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Use of various verbs convey this. Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no There is an evidential which indicates first-hand information (called "direct" in the source) opposed to inferred information (called "indirect" in the source). There is no a specific evidential for visual information. Evidential distinctions are fused in Mattei-Muller 2002:154-156 Daniel Valle
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This is a verbal suffix or it can also be attached to the auxiliary verb Frank 1990:77 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no But information that is believed to be true or certain by the speaker takes the verbal suffix /-a/ Mortensen 1999:86 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:25 Daniel Valle
Matses no But direct experience is coded in the evidetial system Fleck:394-405 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 155-9 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:75-6 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no However, there is a clitic /=mi/ which expresses that the speaker is commited to the truth of his/her statement Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes expresses visual evidence with surprise; can be used as a free morpheme; can appear bound to pronouns, nouns, and verbs Giron 2008: p281 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis Aymara does not seem to distinguish between visual and non-visual experience of an event.
Kakua no visually acquired info is not marked. Plain form of sentence Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack This indication is not affixed to verb but covered using demonstrative pronouns.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The visual evidential lets the hearer know that the speaker himself experienced the event or was a witness to it. It is used also to express truths or states that the speaker can attest to from his experience. Miller 1999, p. 65 Amanda Novak; edited by Chris Clack The verb kari- with the visual evidential indicates that the speaker obtained his information from senses other than the visual. (the verb can occur alone but most often occurs with other verbs)
Cubeo no The witnessed evidential indicates that the speaker's knowledge of the action comes from his sense perception(s), e.g. sight, hearing, etc. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Amanda Novak no distinction made for visual (separate from other senses)
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47 Chris Clack Evidential categories including witnessed, heard, inferred, reporting, conjecture, and future.
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86 Chris Clack Unlike other Tucanoan lanugages, Koreguaje does not contain evidential suffixes.
Barasano yes The present nonproximate indicates that the speaker views participant(s) of the event to which he is referring as visible yet removed from himself. Jones & Jones 1991, p.83-84 Chris Clack The suffix -ha is also a present nonproximate.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack Unlike many Tucanoan languages, the evidential system in Retuarã is small and not frequently used.
Siona no info Conveyed with word choice/semantics. Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes unmarked Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 165 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:281-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:308-56 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms15 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu no done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 275 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 done 0
Marrgany No Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 184 done-Hannah 0
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 326 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps