Tukano

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tuo
Location
0.58°, -69.58°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Ramirez, Henri. 1997a. A Fala Tukano dos Ye'pâ-Masa. Tomo 1: Grámatica. Manaus: Inspetoria Salesiana Missionária da Amazônia, CEDEM. Ramirez, Henri. 1997b. A fala tukano dos Ye'pâ-masa. Tomo 2: Dicionário. CEPLA Working Papers in Amerindian Linguistics. Guajará-Mirim: UNIR. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Welch, Betty & Birdie West. 2004. Gramática pedagógica del Tucano. 1st ed. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia: Fundación para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Marginados.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location buʔî buʔ î unique loan w/ Hup - Tukano source? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
all todo todos other peʔti, niî peʔti peʔti, niî peʔti inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
ankle tobillo tornozelo body dɨʔpô diʔi-, jẽkâgɨ kua dɨʔpô diʔi-, jẽkâgɨ kua unique; unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kẽeka kẽeka inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment nohâ nohâ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
back espalda costas body sẽʔêma sẽʔêma unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
belly barriga barriga body páága páága inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
big grande grande quality pacasé pakasé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bite morder morder body kũʔrí kũʔrí inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
black negro preto colour ñisé ñisé inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
blood sangre sangue body diî (hr) diî (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
blow soplar soprar body putí putí inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bone hueso osso body õ'á õ'á inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
breast pecho, seno peito body cutíro kutíro inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
breathe respirar respirar body ehêri mii ehêri mii inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
burn quemar queimar environment ɨ̃hɨ̂ ɨ̃hɨ̂ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body jaʔgé jaʔgé inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
child niño, niña criança human wĩ'magʉ́~, wĩ'mʉ̃ wĩ'magɨ́~, wĩ'mɨ̃ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cloud nube nuvem environment õʔbẽ-kurá-ri õʔbẽ-kurá-ri unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cold frío frio quality yʉsʉá (hr) jɨsɨá (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
come venir vir motion aʔtî aʔtî inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cook cocinar cozinhar impact do'á (HR 97) daʔrâ baʔari tũku; doʔá (HR 97) unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality waro waro unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
count contar contar mental baʔpâ keo baʔpâ keo unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cry llorar chorar mental utî utî inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cut/hack cortar cortar impact dɨtê dɨtê inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
day día dia time nùmà nùmà inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
die/be dead morir morrer state wẽrĩsé wẽrĩsé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dig cavar cavar impact seʔê seʔê inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dirty sucio sujo quality ũʔîro, ũʔîri ũʔîro, ũʔîri inheritance Carib See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
drink beber, tomar beber body sĩ'rí (hr) sĩ'rí (hr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dry seco seco quality bopô (gr) bopô (gr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ɨsojohá-ti (H&R) ɨsojohá-ti (H&R) missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dust polvo poeira environment diʔta poʔka diʔta poʔka missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
ear oreja orelha body o'mépero o'mépero inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
earth/soil tierra terra environment di' tá di' tá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
eat comer comer body ba'a ba'a inheritance Andoke See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
egg huevo ovo fauna dié (hr) dié (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
eye ojo olho body capéa kapéa inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fall caer cair motion bɨrɨ̂ bɨrɨ̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
far lejos longe quality joâ joâ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fat/grease grasa gordura body ʉ'sê (hr) ɨ'sê (hr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
father padre, papá pai kinship pakɨ pakɨ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fear miedo medo mental uî uî inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
feather pluma pena fauna poâro poâro inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fire fuego fogo environment me'e me'e inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fish xx xx fauna wa'î wa'î inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion sipî sipî unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
flower flor flor environment oʔôro oʔôro inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fly volar voar motion wʉʉ́ wɨɨ́ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment õʔbẽ́ õʔbẽ́ missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
foot pie body dʉ'pócã dɨ'pókã inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fruit fruta fruta flora dɨká, juki dɨká dɨká, juki dɨká inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
good bueno bom quality añusé añusé inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
grow crecer crescer state bɨkɨâ, masá bɨkɨâ, masá inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body poári poári inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hand mano mão body ómócã (arm, hand) ómó kã (arm, hand) inheritance E Tuk; compare similar forms to amo in some Carib lgs See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
head cabeza cabeça body dʉpóa dɨpóa inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hear oír ouvir mental tù'osé tù'osé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
heavy pesado pesado quality nɨkɨ̂ nɨkɨ̂ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hide esconder esconder motion nɨó nɨó inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hit golpear, pegar bater impact paâ, kẽê paâ, kẽê inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨo kɨo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
how? como como grammar deʔró deʔró inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location poʔpeá, poʔpeápɨ poʔpeá, poʔpeápɨ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨʔta-misí ɨʔta-misí inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
kill matar matar impact wẽhé (hr) wẽhé (hr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
lake lago lago environment ditâ- ditâ- inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
laugh reír rir mental buhí buhí inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
leaf hoja folha environment pũrî pũrî inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kũû kũû inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion etâ keʔa, ehâ keʔa; kãhĩ- etâ keʔa, ehâ keʔa; kãhĩ- doubtful loan (into protolg?) Arawak See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨpô jaʔbarí daa bɨpô jaʔbarí daa inheritance cf. thunder See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ni ni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
liver hígado figado body ñe'meturí ñe'meturí inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
long largo comprido, longo quality joâ joâ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna i'i- i'i- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
lung pulmón pulmão body ehéribĩ-rĩ ahuro ehéribĩ-rĩ ahuro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
meat/flesh carne carne fauna di'í (hr) di'í (hr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
moon luna lua environment mujĩ́ pũ muhĩ́ pũ inheritance Branch 1, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship pakó pakó inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
mouth boca boca body ʉéro ɨéro inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
name nombre nome human wãmé wãmé loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body kãátɨ kãátɨ unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
near/close cerca de perto quality pɨʔto-ákã pɨʔto-ákã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
neck cuello pescoço body wãbɨ̃́ta wãbɨ̃́ta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
new nuevo novo quality wi'má (hr), mamá (inanimate) wi'má (hr), mamá (inanimate) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
night noche noite time ñámí ñámí inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
no/not no não grammar bãrĩ- bãrĩ- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
nose nariz nariz body ẽ'kê (hr) ẽ'kê (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
old viejo velho quality bɨkɨ-(animate), mehá bɨkɨ-(animate), mehá inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
one uno um number ni'cṹ ni'kṹ inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
open/uncover abrir abrir other pãâ pãâ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
other otro outro grammar apĩ, apé- apĩ, apé- inheritance Arawak See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body doʔâti doʔâti unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
person/human being persona pessoa human masṍ (fem.), masʉ́~ masṍ (fem.), masɨ́~ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
rain lluvia chuva environment akô ('water') akô ('water') inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
red rojo vermelho colour sõ' á- sõ'á- inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
right/right hand derecha direita location/body diakhɨ̃́ diakhɨ̃́ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
road/path camino caminho manufacture ma'á ma'á inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
root raíz raiz flora nʉ'kô (hr) nɨ'kô (hr) inheritance Andoke See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
rotten podrido podre quality boa- boa- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sand arena areia environment nukû-pori (hr) nukû-pori (hr) unique cf. Ticuna? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
say decir dizer mental dĩ- dĩ- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
scratch rascar rasgar impact jãʔké, bɨá jãʔke jãʔké, bɨá jãʔke inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
see ver ver mental ĩ'yâ ĩ'jâ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ɨsojohá- ɨsojohá- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact doké doké unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
short corto curto quality ɨʔmɨáti ɨʔmɨáti unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
shoulder hombro ombro body ako-poró ako-poró inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sit sentar(se) sentar state duhi- duhi- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
skin piel pele body caséro kaséro inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sky cielo céu environment ɨ̃ʔmɨ̂se ɨ̃ʔmɨ̂se inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sleep dormir dormir body cãrĩsé kãrĩsé inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
small pequeño pequeno quality cã' rõácã kã'rõá kã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
smoke humo fumaça environment o'mé o'mé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩhî wĩhî inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
spit escupir cuspir body ɨʔse putí ɨʔse putí inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pááwaʔa- pááwaʔa- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bipé bipé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact pĩʔô pĩʔô unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state dũʔkũ-, mií wãʔko dũʔkũ-, mií wãʔko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
star estrella estrela environment ñocõáwâ ñokõáwâ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
steal robar roubar other jahá jahá inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora jukɨ́ jukɨ́ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
stone piedra pedra environment ʉ̃tá (hr) ɨ̃tá (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
suck chupar chupar body uhû uhû inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sweat sudar suor, suar body asi tuú u'a asi tuú uʔa inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
swell hincharse inchar body bipiá waʔa, doke dɨpó bipiá waʔa, doke dɨpó inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
swim nadar nadar motion baasé baasé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩkṍ-rõ pĩkṍ-rõ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
that ese/esa esse grammar inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɨ̃se bɨtí ɨ̃se bɨtí inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
thin delgado fino quality ɨ̃se mirí ɨ̃se mirí inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
think pensar pensar mental tɨʔó jãʔa tɨʔó jãʔa inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
this este/esta este grammar a'tí, a'té a'tí, a'té inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
2sg xx xx grammar mʉ'ʉ́ mɨ'ɨ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
three tres tres number i'tiár'ã i'tiár'ã inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
throat garganta garganta body wamɨ̂-pee wamɨ̂-pee inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kõʔâ kõʔâ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨpô bɨpô inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact diʔo diʔo inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tongue lengua lingua body ñe'mérõ ñe'mérõ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tooth diente dente body upíca upíka inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other mahâmi mahâmi inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
two dos dois number pʉárã pɨárã inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
vomit vomitar vomitar body etoá etoá inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
walk caminar, andar andar motion wa'a wa'a inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
water agua agua environment ocó okó inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
wet mojado molhado quality puû puû unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
what? que, qué que grammar yẽéʔ (hr) jẽéʔ (hr) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
when? cuando quando grammar deʔró niikã́ deʔró niikã́ inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
where? donde onde grammar noʔó noʔó inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
white blanco branco colour butisé butisé inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
who? quien, quién quem grammar noáʔ (hr) noáʔ (hr) inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
wife esposa esposa kinship nɨmó nɨmó inheritance E Tuk, at least Branch 2 See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
wind viento vento environment wiʔ̃ró wiʔ̃ró inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
wing ala asa body wɨɨró, wɨɨrí dɨpɨ wɨɨró, wɨɨrí dɨpɨ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
woman/female mujer mulher human númíó númíó inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
work trabajar trabalhar other daʔrá daʔrá inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
yawn bostezar bocejar body jaʔâritihi jaʔâritihi inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sõ' á- sõ'á- unknown shared form in Tuyuca See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bad mal mal quality ña' asé ña' asé, jãʔâro (bad/evil) inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar cṹ, có (ella) kṹ/ kó inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
1sg yo eu grammar yʉ'ʉ́ jɨ'ɨ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
leg/foot pierna perna body dɨ'pô-kã dɨʔpô-kã inheritance E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
man/male hombre homem human ʉmʉ́ ɨmɨ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental masî (hr) masî (hr) inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mãrĩ́ mãrĩ́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ʉ̃sã́ ɨ̃sã́ inheritance at least Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mʉsã́ mɨsã́ inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bark corteza casca environment caséro kaséro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fingernail uña unha body seero (hr) seero (hr) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
heart corazón coração body ejéripõ'rã ehéripõ'rã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sun sol sol time mujĩ́ pũ muhĩ́ pũ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yehê (hr) jehê (hr) unique See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
green verde verde quality ya' sasé ja' sasé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hot caliente quente quality asisé asisé inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana mosâ mosâ, bũsã́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. mene mene inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Probable loan into Hup uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. buû buû, bú inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨsó ɨsó inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis akó-puti-sité-ro [water-blow-scatter-NMZ] akó-puti-sitéro inheritance or calque? Shared at least between Tuyuca, Tukano, Wanano, who all intermarry relative clause water-blow-scatter-NMZ See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus bi'î bi'î, biʔí (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (rat and mouse) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes diâ-u'tî'karo ['water-ceremonial.cigar'] pĩ́rṍ (H&R), diâ-u'tî'karo ['water-ceremonial.cigar'] unique Calqued into Hup? Also pĩ́rṍ (H&R) phrase 'water-ceremonial.cigar' See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ãhu- ãhu- inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽkã́-wɨ̃ bẽkã́-wɨ̃ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨkô bɨkô inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri pamô pã́bṍ, pamô inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ãrɨ̃́ ãrɨ̃́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Witoto kaní uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana ũyû ũjû inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ohô ohô semantic shift? Proto-Tukanoan Chacon 2013: markedness shift from sororoca Likely family-wide semantic shift from 'bastard plantain' (wild banana look-alike) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. osó (h&r) osó (h&r) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mumiâwɨ̃, mumîkɨ̃, mumɨ̂ -bɨkɨ mumiâwɨ̃, mumîkɨ̃, mumɨ̂ -bɨkɨ, bũbĩã́-wɨ̃ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Also mumîkɨ̃, mumɨã -bɨkɨ, uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bĩrĩkɨ̃́ bĩrĩkɨ̃́ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala pi'î-kãro piʔî-kãro unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba jumû jumû inheritance East Tukanoan Same term also means 'seje palm' uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae wesé-ko'tero wesé-ko'tero unique relative clause one who waits in the manioc field' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wahá ('cuia', 'Crescentia cujete', Ramirez dict) wahá ('cuia', 'Crescentia cujete', Ramirez dict) inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (also means squash) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha sêe-, seuniami (R95) sêe- inheritance East Tukanoan seuniami (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing missing See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera momôro momôro inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris diâ-wekɨ diâ-wekɨ inheritance East Tukanoan phrase river-tapir' (calqued into Hup) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum sõrâ sõrâ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. misî misî inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca paâtu paâtu, pátu loan direction unknown - WW %patu Wanderwort; shared Arawak (also various others) WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kasi- kasi- inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yesê-bu'ru jesé-buʔru inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua mipí mipí inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yutâ bu'sa jutâ bu'sa semantic shift East Tukanoan original meaning kapok busa is kapok, so this must refer to kapok cotton Narrower (kapok cotton) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ãpɨ̂ ãpɨ̂ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kii-puú-wihiro kii-puú-wihiro unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wã'rôpĩ wã'rôpĩ, wãʔrṍphĩ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus yamâ jã́bã́, jamâ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris diâyɨ diáji, diâjɨ semantic shift/calque/loan w/in ET? East Tukanoan from jaguar + ? uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family diâ-kata, diâ-koma (there are more species) diâ-kata, diâ-koma (there are more species) inheritance East Tukanoan Also diâ-koma and other species terms Narrower (one type) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wa'î wa'î inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ehû ehû inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera dɨ̃ʔkõẽ́-wɨ̃ dɨ̃ʔkõẽ́-wɨ̃ (h&r) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera bekoá-wɨ̃, mɨtê-po'ro bekoá-wɨ̃, mɨtê-po'ro inheritance East Tukanoan Also bõã́rã-wɨ̃ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana we'é weʔé inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis diâ-yo'o diájo, diâ-jo'o inheritance East Tukanoan phrase river-? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans tɨ̃ɨ̂tɨ̃ tɨ̃ɨ̂tɨ̃ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti bosô bosô unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. katâ-kaa-õ'aro, wagaró katâ-kaa-õ'aro, wagaró, katákasõʔrõ (H&R) inheritance East Tukanoan Also wagaró, katákasõʔrõ (H&R) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kapi kapí loan - WW %kaapi Wanderwort; e.g. Nadahup, Kakua-Nukak, Guahiban, North Arawak WW %kapi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens biâ biâ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] emô; seunimi (R95) ẽbṍ, emô inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Doubtful loan into Piaroa (imú). Also seunimi (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mimî mimî, bĩ́bĩ́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak, e.g. Baniwa pími uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. joasṍ (h&r) joasṍ (h&r) inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca yaî jaî, jáí doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar Compare similar Arawak forms uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura ba'tî ba'tî unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra bu'sá bu'sá inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. mipî mipî inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ya'mû 'generic (there are other names for several species) ja'mû 'generic (there are other names for several species) inheritance Same as 'yam ' Broader (also means yam) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae sãrâ sãrâ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. bia-põrá, bo'koro-, dɨpó-tĩ'a-, duhûsa, jamîkã bia-põrá, bo'koro-, dɨpó-tĩ'a-, duhûsa, jamîkã inheritance cf. Wanano Also bo'koro-, dɨpó-tĩ'a-, duhûsa, jamîkã Narrower (no generic) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae keró keró doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW East Tukanoan, Branch II %kute uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. mahâ mahâ, bãhã́ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Guahiban Proto-Guahiban; e.g. Macaguan máha uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ohôka ohôka semantic shift (in protolg?) East Tukanoan from banana; cf. Hup, Bora uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. iki iki inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kií (generic) kí, kií (generic) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak forms w/ ka Broader (generic manioc) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kií kií missing Proto-Tukanoan Possible semantic shift? Broader (generic manioc) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ne'ê ne'ê inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bɨ̃tẽ́ã-wɨ̃ bɨ̃tẽ́ã-wɨ̃ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) [no generic], eheka' [type] [no generic], eheka' [type] unknown Narrower (no generic) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis diátibĩ diátibĩ inheritance East Tukanoan Means both giant otter and small otter across various ET languages; not clear which meaning may have been original uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown East Tukanoan Tikuna Tikuna öwa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bɨpɨ̂-pako bɨpɨ̂-pako doubtful loan into protolg - WW? onomatopoeic? East Tukanoan %pupu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) semê sẽbé̃, semê inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana muhî muhî inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Same morpheme found in 'sun/moon'; probable cognate in Orejon uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wekó wekó inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea watá watá unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃rê ɨ̃rê inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus sẽrá sẽrá inheritance East Tukanoan possibly from TG nana? uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bɨ'ɨ̂ bɨ'ɨ̂, bɨʔɨ́ inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae wa'tô wa'tô doubtful loan (into protolg?) East Tukanoan Carib, cf. Wai Wai waaro, also Yukuna walo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum yãpî jãpî inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (potato) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones kutîpa kutîpa inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua yumû jumû inheritance East Tukanoan Same term also means 'black palm' uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. wɨ̃rɨ̂ wɨ̃rɨ̂ inheritance East Tukanoan, Branch II uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda sɨ̃'ɨ̃ sɨ̃'ɨ̃ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna pĩrô ã́jã́, pĩrô inheritance In other ET languages, this means boa/anaconda. Also ã́jã́ (cognate with other Tuk) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ãyâ sõʔkṍ seʔero, ãjâ inheritance Also sõʔkṍ seʔero uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. oreró oreró unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bɨpɨ̂ bɨpɨ̂ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. wahá-ro wahá-ro missing East Tukanoan Broader (also means bottle-gourd) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae dɨ'tɨ̂ dɨ'tɨ̂ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ãyâ ãjâ semantic shift East Tukanoan, Branch II from poisonous snake uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yãpî jãpî inheritance East Tukanoan Broader (also means cara) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wekɨ̂ wekɨ̂ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera butu- butu-, butuá-wɨ̃ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tẽhẽ tẽhẽ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. doê doê inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura taárokɨ taárokɨ, taʔrókɨ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum mɨ'rô mɨ'rô, bɨ̃ʔrṍ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ûhuri ûhuri inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Not entirely certain; other forms are uu or guu/kuu uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dasê dasê doubtful loan into protolanguage Proto-Tukanoan North Arawak See e.g. Mandawaka da:se, Baniwa dzatte uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yucà jukà, jukɨ́-gɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella akê-yĩi-; akenisame (R95) aké, akê-jĩi- inheritance Proto-Tukanoan akenisame (R95) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana wapɨ wapɨ unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui pupiâ pupiâ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae yukâ jukâ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita uti- uti- inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons masa-aké; seupeupunimi (R95) masa-aké unique seupeupunimi (R95) phrase people-capuchin' (?) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus u'kuâ- waʔú, u'kuâ- inheritance Also waʔú uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari yesê-sɨtigí jesé siti-gɨ́ inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ɨ'sê ɨ'sê inheritance East Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kõré kõré inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kapô kapô, jãʔbṹ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola wîho wîho See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak, Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna diâyɨ diâjɨ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna yamâ jamâ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool bɨe-khɨ́, ãrɨ̃́ (h&r) bɨe-khɨ́, ãrɨ̃́ (h&r) inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Also: ãrɨ̃́ Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool komé komé inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ãhú ãhú unknown Simplex can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material siíõ'a siíõ'a unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material baá Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material yãkê jãkê inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bed cama cama culture-material kãri-pesáro kãri-pesáro unknown calque? Phrase See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kumu kumu loan - WW %kumu Signal drum: Bora, Muinane, Resigaro, Yucuna, (Paez?); bench: ET: Macuna, Tukano, Tanimuca, Bará, Waimaja (also means 'benzador' in some of these lgs; definitely related to 'canoe', may derive from tree sp.?); canoe: ET: Bará, Carapana, Macuna, Yuruti, Si WW %kumu Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bupu-wɨ́ (h&r) ['paxiuba'] bupu-wɨ́ (h&r) ['paxiuba'] inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan May derive from Iriartella palm, also possibly related to 'blow' Derived bupu, “juputi”; -wi derivational affix currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bottle botella garrafa acculturation garáfa garáfa missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bow arco arco subsistence tool biɨê'ka tẽhe biɨêʔka tẽhe inheritance from bui 'shoot'? Other complex biɨê'ka, unclear; tẽhe “arc-shaped” arco See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
broom escoba vassoura culture-material o'arí boka o'arí boka inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Prob. from 'sweep' Phrase unclear, boka is “to throw out” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
canoe canoa canoa transport yukɨ̂sɨ jukɨ-̂sɨ inheritance? sem shift? Derived from 'tree', but similar forms in Piratapuyo and Tuyuca - calquing, inheritance, or parallel innovation? Derived jukɨ, “wood” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
cat gato gato acculturation pisána pisána loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kãrêkẽ' kãɾêkẽʔ loan - WW %karaka Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex separate terms for male and female chickens See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology sɨ'ôri niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) siʔôɾi niig´ɨ, wiogɨ (HR) unique From verb 'lead'. Also: wiogɨ See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
coca narcotics paâtu Doubtful loan Local Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food doʔá inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Also: daʔrâ baʔari tũku Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology boraró boraró unknown Also found Wanano malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
dance (generic) culture-mythology basâ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology õ'akɨ̃hɨ õ'akɨ̃hɨ calque, direction unknown North Arawak? 'Bone-Son' Compound õ'a-kɨ̃hɨ 'Bone-?' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kẽ'ê (v.) kẽʔê (v.) dream (v.) unknown See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology toʔátɨ toʔátɨ loan - WW %toto (onomatopoeic?) See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wẽrîro wẽrîro inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Compare similar terms in Carib esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology bu'sâ bu'sâ unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology bará bará unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
firewood leña lenha other pekâ pekâ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food po'o poʔo inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food wehé wehé inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool ehû inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool dîi daa, weherí daa (HR 97) dîi daa, weheɾí daa (HR 97) unique Also: weheri daa Compound dii 'meat, fat'??; daa 'string, line' See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ãhû ãhû inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food po'ká poʔká inheritance/sem shift Proto-East Tukanoan from 'powder' Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology buuaeɨˊ, mawáku, yamâ-dɨpoa buuaeɨˊ, mawáku, jamâ-dɨpoa type of flute unknown Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wa'îkɨ waʔîkɨ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Does not include fish, but contains wa'i 'fish'. Other complex Contains wa'i 'fish' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
genipap culture-mythology weʔé inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wahá wahá inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool sõkôro sõkôro inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology masâ pee masâ pe: Calque common among Vaupes languages, different forms in ET Compound person hole See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kasâ-wa kasâ-wa inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan, Eastern branch Similar form in Wanano; see also Kakua kâyaʔ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool ata ata inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation peka-wɨ peka-wɨ calque from 'fire' from wood/fire; possible calque - common complex form among Vaupes languages See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pũûgɨ pũûgɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hat sombero chapéu dress sapéa (HR 97) sapéa (HR 97) loan Port chapeu Possibly via Arawak; Baniwa tsapéwa; Pemon sapewa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology jáí jáí shaman semantic shift from 'jaguar' Also means 'jaguar' b/c of belief that shamans turn into jaguars Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics peêru yukɨ̂sɨ, peêruwɨ peêru jukɨ̂sɨ, peêruwɨ Calque Local Also: peêruwɨ Compound peêru, “caxiri,” jukɨ̂sɨ, “canoe” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
honey miel mel food mumî mumî inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
hunt cazar caçar food desû, nɨrɨˊ desû, nɨrɨʔ unknown Also: nɨrɨˊ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
knife cuchillo faca culture-material di'pĩhí diʔpĩhí inheritance shared Piratapuyo Likely inherited with loss of first syllable Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress wasôro (HR 97) wasôɾo (HR 97) unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool dikekɨhɨˊ dikekɨhɨʔ inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms Based on verb 'pound' or noun 'log'; similar form in Tuyuka can also use “pamôga dikekɨhɨˊ” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fence, palisade cerco cerca other sã'rî-ro sã'rî-ro inheritance shared Tuyuka Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology wẽôpa'a, wãrí pa'ma, karísu; weherí wãso (HR 97) wẽôpa'a, wãrí pa'ma, karísu, weheɾí wãso (HR 97) unknown Also in Tukano and in regional Port; not clear whether a loan or native Tukanoan. Also: wãrí pa'ma, wẽôpa'a Compound weherí, “fish,” wãso, some sort of shape classifier? See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
paper papel papel acculturation papéra papéɾa loan Span/Port 'papel' Spanish/Portuguese > Nheengatu > others? Ninam liplo (metathesis); Arawak (e.g. Yucuna papera); Macaguan papéna; Tukanoan (Cubeo papela, Wanano papera pû, Tukano papéra); Nheengatu papera; Yanomam, papʰeo WW %papera Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pamôga dikekɨhɨˊ pamôga dikekɨhɨʔ unique Compound dikekɨhɨʔ, “mortar” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material bapá, paa bapá, paa inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan, Eastern branch 2 Also: paa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kiipútɨ, kometɨˊ kiipútɨ, kometɨˊ inheritance cf. Siriano Also: kometɨˊ See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kitió kitió, jãsã́ (h&r) unique; inheritance Also: jãsã́ Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool opê opê inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
salt sal sal food moâ' (HR 97) moâʔ (HR 97) inheritance/sem shift? original meaning 'salt plant' Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
school escuela escola acculturation bu'eri wi'i bu'eri wi'i missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surára suɾáɾa loan - WW %surara Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology basâmo (HR 97) basâmo (HR 97) inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Derived bâsa, “to sing” See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jõsẽ-rĩ́ phĩ́ jõsẽ-rĩ́ phĩ́ inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Or maybe family-internal loan See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food wetá wetá inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ãrɨ̂ 'cane' ãrɨ̂ 'cane' missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food yumúka jumúka inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Doubtful: found in 3 intermarrying ET languages and Tariana; loan Tuk > Tariana? Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material muhî muhî inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food wãtî-kẽ'e wãtî-kẽʔe inheritance Proto-East Tukanoan Doubtful, only attested Desano and Tukano (contact) looks like it should be compound, but the parts aren't identifiable word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tobacco (native) narcotics bɨ̃ʔrṍ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also: mɨ'rô Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool yamâ ['deer'] jamâ ['deer'] Calque, direction unknown North Arawak deer=tripod occurs in all regional ET and where attested in Arawak lgs Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool nimá nimá inheritance Proto-Tukanoan cf. %namo Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
wax cera cera other mumi ɨ̂'ta (HR 97) mumi ɨ̂ʔta (HR 97) unique Compound bee excrement' See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool tõhôpaha tõhôpaha unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material baá baá inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology su'tí su'tí inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wẽrî'kɨ wãti wẽrî'kɨ wãti inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
paddle/oar remo remo transport waha-pĩhi waha-pĩhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture (dɨʔterí) daa, pṹ-dɨ̃bõ da (dɨʔterí) daa, pṹ-dɨ̃bõ da inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture peêru peêru loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %pajaru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
house other wi'í wi'í inheritance E-W Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes West and Welch 2004: 4 Kelsey Neely pre-nasalized stops (voiced and voiceless) after nasal vowel
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely glottal stop permitted as coda (Ramirez 1997: 39), Waterhouse, Viola G., editor. 1967. Phonemic systems of Colombian languages. -- reports CVC as syllable type
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones 3 Ramirez 1997: 68 Kelsey Neely these appear to be underlying tones, not surface tones
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments yes Ramirez 1997: 57 Kelsey Neely nasalization is a property of the morpheme. It's either all nasal or all oral.
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Ramirez 1997: 58, 61 Kelsey Neely Nasalization can spread from nasal lexical morpheme to its oral suffixes. A nasal suffix can also contaminate an oral vowel preceding it, but it will not change the entire word or morpheme nasal
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no West and Welch 2004, Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this, except for nasal harmony/spreading
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely West and Welch analyze these as portmanteau, but Ramirez segments them. Tense/aspect and person/gender/animacy/number seem to be only two cases where categories are combined
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes tense, aspect, person/number/gender/animacy, evidentials, directionals, negation, and others West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 107 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 107 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 107 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes NN compounding common and productive, but it's not clear if some compounds are free N + free N or free N + bound N/Classifier Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely from various sections
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no Ramirez 1997: 95-96; 116 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes serialized verb compounds; certain verbs must be part of a serialized verb compound (pp. 95-96) Ramirez 1997: 95-96 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no good evidence for this
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes weʔe, waʔa, eja we'e, wa'a, eja auxiliary used with verb 'to do/make' to indicate aspect (we'e), and to indicate going to do something (wa'a) or coming from doing something (eja) West and Welch 2004: 36-37; Ramirez 1997: 112 Kelsey Neely
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes 3: masc. animate, fem. Animate, inanimate West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders yes 3: masc. animate, fem. Animate, inanimate West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes nominal suffixes: -ga (spherical), -gʉ (large and upright), -dʉ (pot), -wʉ (vehicle or instrument), -wa (torrent/rapid or a sieve) nominal suffixes: -ga (spherical), -gʉ (large and upright), -rʉ (pot), -wʉ (vehicle or instrument), -wa (torrent/rapid or a sieve), plus over 350 "dependent nouns" (= classifiers) various based on form, function, other; "dependent noun" classifiers are a large (350+) open class. West and Welch 2004: 85; Ramirez 1997: 234-6 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes masc: kó, fem: kɨ̃́ masc: có, fem: cʉ̃́ West and Welch 2004: 19-20; Ramirez 1997: 123 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no West and Welch 2004: 85 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes West and Welch 2004: 85 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" yes all inanimate count nouns can be used as "dependent noun" type classifiers Ramirez 1997:237 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no classifier suffixes are commonly used with numerals, however Ramirez 1997: 333 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes esp. with suffix -sehé esp. with suffix -sehé especially with classifier suffix -sehé Ramirez 1997: 282 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups yes suffix: -wɨ̃; partitive suffix: -ro can be used with any animal that typically lives in groups. Plural number can also be marked on these nouns. Mass nouns can take partitive suffix -ro. West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 206, 210 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes suffixes: -a (animate pl), -dã (animate pl), -di (inanimate pl) various suffixes depending on agreement. -a (animate pl), -rã (animate pl), -ri (inanimate pl) West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 93, 204 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 93 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 93 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no West and Welch 2004: 78; Ramirez 1997: 93 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no West and Welch 2004: 82-84 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Ramirez 1997: 322 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no there is a specific marker -ta used for emphasis, however (this very one, etc.) Ramirez 1997: 222-223 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no no definite marker Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no not distinct from interrogative words Ramirez 1997: 328-330 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no West and Welch 2004: 25-26 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 2 West and Welch 2004: 98-99 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes visibility, time (if thing in question was in past) West and Welch 2004: 98-99 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes masc: kó, fem: kɨ̃́ masc: có, fem: cʉ̃́ West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no nã́ West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no 1sg: jʉʔʉ́, 1pl.incl: márĩ́, 1pl.excl: ʉ̃sã́, 2sg: mʉʔʉ́, 2pl: mʉsã́ 1sg: yʉ'ʉ́, 1pl.incl: márĩ́, 1pl.excl: ʉ̃sã́, 2sg: mʉ'ʉ́, 2pl: mʉsã́ West and Welch 2004: 19-20; Ramirez 1997: 123 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes basi/basu basi/basu reflexive pronoun basi/basu Ramirez 1997: 250 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely evidence from examples throughout text
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2+ locative -do, referential (oblique) -de locative -ro, referential (oblique) -re locative -ro, referential (oblique) -re Ramirez 1997: 204 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Ramirez 1997: 204 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely based on examples
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Ramirez 1997: various pages/examples Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Ramirez 1997: various pages/examples Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Ramirez 1997: various pages/examples Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Ramirez 1997: various pages/examples Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Ramirez 1997: various pages/examples Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes classifier: -bẽʔda classifier -me'ra classifier/dependent noun -me'ra Ramirez 1997: 249 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes 5 = one hand Huber and Reed Kelsey Neely based on comparing forms to other words listed in Huber and Reed Swadesh list
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no numerals go up to 20 West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no numerals go up to 20 West and Welch 2004: 64 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes clitic: =jaá clitic: =yaá proclitic =yaá on head Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no clitic: =jaá clitic: =yaá but sometimes clitic =yaá= connects dependent to head Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely there is no evidence for special forms for possession
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes examples are all with pronominal possessors, marked with "referential" (to, of, toward, etc) suffix -re; this strategy can presumably also be used with some alienable relationships, but Ramirez only says that it is used as a marker of possession "especial Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes jaá= yaá= clitic yaá= Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely as evidenced by examples
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely as evidenced by examples
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Adjectives appear to be underived, but this is not stated outright West and Welch 2004: 62-63 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes animacy and number at least West and Welch 2004: 62-63 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes suffix -se suffix -se suffix -se derives N from V, plus many other forms for deriving different genders/animacies with reference to time (current, past or future) West and Welch 2004: 69; Ramirez 1997: 114, 277-8 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes suffix: -gɨ́ (masc. agent), -gó (fem. Agent), -rã́ (pl. agent); suffix -se suffix -se suffix -se derives N from V West and Welch 2004: 69; Ramirez 1997: 114 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes suffix: -sehé (object); suffix -se suffix -se suffix -se derives N from V West and Welch 2004: 69; Ramirez 1997: 114 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes suffix: -ti suffix: -ti suffix: -ti; usually means "to have N" Ramirez 1997: 353 Kelsey Neely
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes coordination marked by juxtiposing nouns with rising intonation on each member, comitative (=instrumental) -me'ra Ramirez 1997: 116, 250 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes West and Welch 2004: 12-13, 50 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes forms vary by agreement at least 2: recent (minutes ago to 3 days ago) and distant (more than 3 days ago) West and Welch 2004: 12-13, 50 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no future tense markers have various aspectual and other distinctions, but not distance in time West and Welch 2004: 111-115; Ramirez 1997: 166-168 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no future is expressed with blend of three suffixes marking person/number and non-present non-visual modal Ramirez 1997: 166-168 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes direct: -ja/-ña/-a; indirect: -ató; prohibitive -kãʔ direct: -ya/-ña/-a; indirect: -ató; prohibitive: -kã' various forms, indirect used to report somone else's command West and Welch 2004: 16, 120; Ramirez 1997: 145 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes prohibitive: -kãʔ; declarative: -ti prohibitive: -kã'; declarative: -ti Ramirez 1997: 145, 151 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes first person plural inclusive suffix: -dã; also -bã for "let me/let us" first person plural inclusive suffix: -dã; also -bã for "let me/let us" Ramirez 1997: 145, 147 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this as distinct from epistemic
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this as distinct from epistemic
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this as distinct from epistemic
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes verbal suffix: -sa verbal suffix: -sa above all expresses uncertainty West and Welch 2004: 25: Ramirez 1997: 159 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no above all expresses uncertainty West and Welch 2004: 25: Ramirez 1997: 159 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no above all expresses uncertainty West and Welch 2004: 25: Ramirez 1997: 159 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes suffix: -kãʔ suffix: -kã' unexpected action Ramirez 1997: 155 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes suffix: -bĩ suffix: -bĩ Ramirez 1997: 156-157 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes suffix: -ʔkũ suffix: -'kũ habitual, durative, repeated Ramirez 1997: 157 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes suffixes: -a-pa suffixes: -a-pa used to express that one should prevent something from happening by taking care Ramirez 1997: 145-146 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes toward: suffix -ʔti, away: suffix -aʔ toward: suffix -'ti, away: suffix -a' West and Welch 2004: 118-119; Ramirez 1997: 151, 160-162 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker yes unmarked unmarked unmarked Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) yes suffix: -sa, -kãti suffix: -sa, -kãti Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes suffix: -pa suffix: -pa Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes suffix: -paʔ suffix: -pa' Ramirez 1997: 120, 150 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Ramirez Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes suffix, various forms depending on person/number/tense West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no West and Welch 2004: 10-11, entire text Kelsey Neely no evidence for this for any verbs
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely inferred from examples
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Ramirez 1997: 109, 367-9 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Preposition-Noun no West and Welch 2004: 35 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes West and Welch 2004: 35 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no West and Welch 2004: 62-63 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes West and Welch 2004: 62-63 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Dem-Noun yes West and Welch 2004: 99 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Dem no West and Welch 2004: 99 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Num-Noun yes West and Welch 2004: 66 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Num no West and Welch 2004: 66 Kelsey Neely
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely most common order; from examples
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely most common order; from examples
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely most common order; from examples
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely most common order; from examples
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Ramirez 1997: 328-331 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no nominative-accusative with neither full NP marked. Verbal agreement marks S of intrans and A of trans Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no nominative-accusative with neither full NP marked. Verbal agreement marks S of intrans and A of trans Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes often marked with 'referential' suffix Ramirez 1997: from examples (like the one on p 313) Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Ramirez 1997: from examples (like the one on p 313) Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes West and Welch 2004: 22; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes often as a part of a portmanteau suffix West and Welch 2004: 10, 22; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no West and Welch 2004: 10, 22; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120, 123 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120, 123 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120, 123 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no marked as part of tense/evidential/person marking system West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes objects not marked West and Welch 2004: 10-11; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no possession is Pn N, not bound West and Welch 2004: 28 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes West and Welch 2004: 10; Ramirez 1997: 108, 120, 123 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes recipient/beneficiary marked with "referential" -de Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no info Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no reflexive pronoun basi/basu or use of middle voice Ramirez 1997: 250, 350 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no info Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely if distinct reciprocal marking does exist, it may not be morphological
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes bound verb nõʔo bound verb no'o bound verb no'o Ramirez 1997: 186-7 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes suffix: -ti suffix: -ti middle voice verbal suffix -ti Ramirez 1997: 350 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes suffix: -bosa/basa suffix: -bosa/basa suffix: -bosa/basa Ramirez 1997: 184-5 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb yes suffix/ bound verb -duti suffix/ bound verb -duti suffix/ bound verb -duti "to send/order" someone to do something Ramirez 1997: 184-5 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Ramirez 1997: 271 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes suffixes: -o, -kã́ suffixes: -o, -kã́ suffix -o is most basic strategy, suffix: -kã́ is the same form as switch reference morpheme Ramirez 1997: 271, 349 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Ramirez 1997: 271 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Ramirez 1997: 271 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes suffix/bound V: -duti suffix/bound V: -duti applicative suffix/dependent verb -duti "to send/order someone to do something" Ramirez 1997: 184-5 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes suffix: -ti suffix: -ti suffix Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes verbal suffix: -ti (-we), future negation: -some verbal suffix: -ti (except present 1st, 2nd, and 3rd inanimate -we), future negation: -some West and Welch 2004: 23, 116; Ramirez 1997: 151-154 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no West and Welch 2004: 23, 116; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes weʔe we'e negation can be encoded with a negative aux verb West and Welch 2004: 23, 116; Ramirez 1997: 151-153 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no West and Welch 2004: 23, 116; Ramirez 1997: 151 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes mãdĩ- marĩ- West and Welch 2004: 14 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase yes ṹbaʔa, mãsĩ́tisaʔa ṹba'a, masĩ́tisa'a West and Welch 2004: 17 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes tense/evidence/person marking -ti tense/evidence/person marking -ti Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no intonation is used, but in addition to -ti marking Ramirez 1997: 143 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes subject pronoun and verb are inverted West and Welch 2004: 22 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely examples from 4.5
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely examples from 4.5
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no copula: verb "to be, to say" obligatory [dĩî] Ramirez 1997: 116 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Ramirez 1997: 279 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no it's hard to tell which strategy is dominant, but it doesn't appear that this strategy is clearly more used than RCs with heads Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes This is somewhat unclear since there are few examples of relative constructions and there are many repeater classifiers Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely from examples
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes combination of suffixes: gender/number-ti-ʔ combination of suffixes: gender/number-ti-' not a single dedicated suffix, but uses a combination of suffixes: gender/number-ti-' Ramirez 1997: 167 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no each of clauses with switch reference appears to have the same amount of verbal morphology Ramirez 1997: 256-8 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes same subject: -gɨʔ, different subject: -kã́; pronominal suffix -peʔe same subject: -gɨ', different subject: -kã́; also pronominal suffix -pe'e Ramirez 1997: 115, 256-8 Kelsey Neely
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
2000 medium AG medium sedentary Riverine Linguistic exogamy used as lingua franca