Polite imperative morpheme

Verbal Categories - Mood
There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 100 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 353-355 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Polite imperatives expressed via some sort of verbal construction. Galindo, 2002: 270-271, 303-304 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes This is homophonous with the "present visual interrogative" marker. Aikhenvald, 2003: 378 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 542 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no info Payne 1981; Payne 1982:910 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:39-42 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no It seems that the subjunctive mood marker has this meaning since it is used for "un deseo o una petición cortés" (polite wish or request) Duff-Tripp 1997:115 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes "irrealis marker -ʃa used for suggestions and more polite requests" Danielsen 2007: p347 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes The polite imperative is differentiated from regular imperatives by the use of a person marker. Michael, 2008. p. 400-401 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes There is a particle which is used with suggestions Brandão 2010:48 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965:72-73 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 346 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 49 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012:364-371 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 9 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:117-120 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Verbal prefix (3s), functions as object marker of transitive verbs. de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:46; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:350 Daniel Valle more likely not
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:85, 96 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1978:11-23 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info probably not Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:89 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Polte imperatives are formed by using the second person of the verb Soto 1976:55 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:569-92 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p395 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 163 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Hup yes alternative use of Perfective aspect marker Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes courtesy form Miller 1999, p. 72 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.62-64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.59 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.75-82 Chris Clack epps - an event that has beginning and end point. Not ongoing so "go get water" is not as a command but something that already is completed
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.135-139 Chris Clack The indirect imperative is also used for courtesy; it seems to soften a command.
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:93,104-105 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004 Kelsey Neely no evidence of this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 324-329 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 73-76 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes This is also called "friendly" imperative Zarratea 2002:108 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:559 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 167-168 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha yes 137 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no 76 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 116-119 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 44 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 33 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 36 done 1
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 207 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 201 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 158 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 56 done 0
Martuthunira yes 148-149 done 1
Marrgany No 315 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 382 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 93, 195 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 438 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 17 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 299 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 61 0
Dyirbal No 110-1 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 81-82 done 0
Djinang No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 44 done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 182-3 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 80 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 98 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 74 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 47-50 done 0
Katthang no 80-81 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 214 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 42 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 126 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 31 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 108 Done- 1
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 95 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 32 done 0
Arrernte No 172 0
Kokatha Yes 30 1
Karajarri Yes 177 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 53 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 868 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari No 40 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps