Worrorra

Family
Worrorran
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
unp
Location
-15.70°, 124.84°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar unknown Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nyangga, nyingge (FM), nyungga (C&C) nyangga, nyingge (FM), nyungga (C&C) loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Claire Bowern
all todo todos other missing Claire Bowern
and y e grammar missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body unique Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental missing Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment unique Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location unique Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality inheritance Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location unique Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality unique Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body kardurr, -aningga- (C&C) kardurr, -aningga- (C&C) loan Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour waguma:da waguma:da doubtful loan Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body missing Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality unique Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture karli, jalimang'gurrya (FM) karli, jalimang'gurrya (FM) loan into proto-language Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body missing Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment inheritance Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human missing Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment unique Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality missing Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion missing Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact unique Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact inheritance Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna unique Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental unknown Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body unique Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality missing Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment unique Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment unique Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna missing Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion unique Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body unique Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship missing Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental missing Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna unknown Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment 'marrugu (FM) 'marrugu (FM) loan Bardi Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion unique Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Claire Bowern
foot pie body unique Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality unique Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body unique Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body unique Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality unique Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion unique Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact unique Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment unique Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body missing Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna unique Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human missing Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna unique Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship missing Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human missing Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body inheritance? Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body unique Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar unique Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body unique Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality missing Claire Bowern
one uno um number inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar missing Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment missing Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture missing Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora unique Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality missing Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment unique Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental missing Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental unique Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality unique Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body unique Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment unique Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body gulun (FM) gulun (FM) loan Bardi Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body unique Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state unique Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment unique Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment unique Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body missing Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion missing Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body unique Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar missing Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality missing Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental missing Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar unique Claire Bowern
three tres tres number inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body unique Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact inheritance Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment jandaria jandaria loan English Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body unique Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality missing Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Claire Bowern
two dos dois number unique Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality missing Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar angu(w)iji angu(w)iji loan Bardi Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar missing Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour missing Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar angguwi(y)a angguwi(y)a loan Bardi Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship mangganya (C) mangganya (C) loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment unique Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis ba:gi ba:gi inheritance *pa:ki proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae garlarla garlarla inheritance *garlarla proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus mayarda mayarda inheritance *mayarta proto-Worrorran WW %mayarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora nyaliganya nyaliganya inheritance *nyalika proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia missing 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba dumbi dumbi doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Gooniyandi %TUMPI Gooniyandi too far but others are barely closer eg Jarragan WW %dumbi uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer ilerra ilerra inheritance *ilaC proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp barn.galya barn.galya inheritance *parnkal proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna br'rnarra burnar'riya (FM) unknown proto-Worrorran onomatopeia? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae marlabudyuk marlabutyuk inheritance *marlapityuk proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus mawun.gunya mawun.gunya unknown proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species lirrirr'inya (FM) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii garragarroya garragarroya unknown proto-Worrorran Wardaman?/Walmajarri? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda gurronggalinya gurrang'garlinya (FM) inheritance *gurrVC proto-Worrorran WW %kurrantal gender suffix -nya uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula burlgumba burlgumba inheritance *purlkumpV proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius gumrlinya gumrlinya unique *gumrli proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis dyubagunya dyubagunya unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis banadya banatya inheritance *panarr proto-Worrorran gender suffix -tya uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata garnmanggu garnmanggu inheritance *mangku proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) ngamangama unique proto-Worrorran reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ma:nya ma:nya inheritance *-ma- proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes gunbalawadya gunbalawadya unknown proto-Worrorran Wardaman? gender suffix -tya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species bilwinya bilwinya unknown proto-Worrorran Nyikina? gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo arroli arroli inheritance *orroli proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris gananggurri gananggurri inheritance *kanangkurr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae dyipuliwa dyipuliwa inheritance *tyipuli proto-Worrorran WW WW %tyipily uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong balgudya balgudya inheritance *palngurr proto-Worrorran gender suffix -tya uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae dyebarranya dyebarranya inheritance *tyeparra proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna dya:ya dya:ya inheritance *tyaya proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) marrugu marrugu inheritance *marraku proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ngarnawarra ngarnawarra inheritance *ngarnawarra proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) miniwarra 'gawarri (FM) unknown proto-Worrorran Gurindji? Don' know this from Gur uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni morarlerlengarri morarlerlengarri unknown proto-Worrorran Bunuban? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii rdalanyarri rdalanyarri unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) dyirrandya dyirrandya doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Nyikina? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla gurlingurlinya (FM) gurlingurlinya (FM) loan direction unknown onomat cf Gur kilyingkilying WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) diyagurri unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing proto-Worrorran missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp barndom barndom doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Nyulnyulan WW WW %paarni uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) madyalba madyalba unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera rdarrgenya rdarrgenya inheritance *rtarrke proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis dyuwibandya dyuwibandya inheritance *tyuwiparn proto-Worrorran WW %tyuwity gender suffix -tya uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas rlanonya rlanonya unknown proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus 'murndu'warra (FM), lurn.ga (FM) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan *yawarta proto-Worrorran WW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae murnumbanya murnumbanya inheritance *murnumpa proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus missing 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae wara wara unknown proto-Worrorran Bunuba? uncoded 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata grirrgirriya grirrgirriya unknown proto-Worrorran onomatopeia? uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. burdadya burdadya unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera bidyile:nya bidyile:nya inheritance *pityili proto-Worrorran gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) a:inangga a:inangga unknown proto-Worrorran Kajirrabeng? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus garimba garimba inheritance *karimpa proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis dyanggularru dyanggularru unknown proto-Worrorran [related to Ngumpin tyangara/] uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya wunggurn'bima (FM) unique proto-Worrorran 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gurlugogu gurlugogu inheritance *kurlu- proto-Worrorran cf. kurlututu Ngumpin etc onomatapoeic reduplication? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp dyaguli dyaguli inheritance *tyakuli proto-Worrorran WW but this is the origin WW %tyakuli uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca dir'raarnma (FM) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gurra:rdardoya gurra:rdardoya inheritance *kurrartarto proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis warnandya warnandya unknown proto-Worrorran Nyulnyulan? gender suffix -tya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species dyuro:lba dyuro:lba inheritance *tyurul proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing proto-Worrorran missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi darra:nma darra:nma inheritance *tarran proto-Worrorran WW %tirra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus 'banjurru (FM) unique proto-Worrorran 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum dyindim dyindim unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda bundyuma bundyuma doubtful loan *bintjiC- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta burrunyburrundya burrunyburrundya unknown proto-Worrorran reduplication and gender suffix -tya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus irlarlanggarra irlarlanggarra inheritance *arlarlangkarra proto-Worrorran uncoded 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing proto-Worrorran missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones 'baarnja (FM) 'baarnja (FM) loan into protolanguage proto-Worrorran make it %PAARN - distinct from 'goanna' >spider in some lgs but probably this is the older meaning WW %paarni 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha garnamarri garnamarri inheritance *kanamarr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus mirimiringarrinya mirimiringarrinya unknown proto-Worrorran reduplication and gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing proto-Worrorran Ngarinyin missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia marnda marnda unknown proto-Worrorran [wrong word but cf, marnta 'gum' in other languages] Jarragan mernta paperbark uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae gu'rriwa (FM) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species dyardi dyardi inheritance *tyarti proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia 'jarda (FM), paralalya (C) unique proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae balgudja inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing proto-Worrorran missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita balngerri balngerri inheritance *palngerr proto-Worrorran if -ngarri in original could be <cov pal or parr WW %palngarra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides barrom barrom inheritance *parro proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera missing missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) 'gara'murlu (FM) unique proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina murndulya murndulya inheritance *murntul proto-Worrorran like scorpion word in Jamnjung etc WW %muntarla uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier andari (C), burrgumba (C40) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wangguranya wangguranya inheritance *wangkura proto-Worrorran WW %wangkurri gender suffix -nya uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) nguwanu nguwanu inheritance *ngu- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma gulo:rr gulo:rr unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax arndangarrinya nyina arndangarrinya nyina unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys dyindibirrindya dyindibirrindya inheritance *tyintipirri proto-Worrorran ?<clitoris/uvula WW %tyintipirri gender suffix -tya uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) lambar'ranya (FM) unique proto-Worrorran 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna unique Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna unique Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna unique Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna unique Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna unique Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool unique Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jinalya jinalya loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
house other mayarum mayarum loan Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no 2-3 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no 2-3 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast yes ty 2-3 done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes 2 done 1
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no 2-3 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes ms2.4.1 done 1
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no ms2.4.1 done 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no 2-5 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no 2-5 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no 4-5 done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no done 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes 16-7 done 1
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes 83 done 1
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no done 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes done 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no? done 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different yes? done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes 42-3 done 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes 25 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced yes 6.3 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes ms11.2.1 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes 40, ms11.1 done 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info done X
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes 40 done 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no ms11.4.1 done 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info done X
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes 22 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders yes 22, 25 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes ms4.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes 23-4 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes 23 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes 23 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only yes ms7.2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes ms4.1.3.ii done 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no ms4.1.3.ii done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info done X
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes? ms4.1.2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-ya/ 25 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun yes 25 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no 25 done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no 25, ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no ms7.3.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no ms4.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no ms7.3.1, ms17.2.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes ms7.2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Appendix 3 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes 56 done 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) yes 56 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes ms7.2 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no ms7, 105-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no ms1.7 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun no info done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes? 44, ms1.7 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes 44-6 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no 44-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no 44-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no 44-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 44-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no? 45-6 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes ms9.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes ms9.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no 90-1 done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes 90-1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no 90 done 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info done X
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes 91, ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes ms13.1 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no done 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes 47 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes 47 done 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info done X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb no info done X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info done X
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info done X
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes 44-6, 108-9 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes 31 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no 60 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes 60-1 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes? 60 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes 31 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes? 87 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info done X
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes 64, 88 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes /-(yi)nya/ 62-3 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no ms5.5.2.v done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no ms5.1 done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking yes ms5.1 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes ms8.4.3 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no ms8.2.2 done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes 74 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no ms5.5.2.ii done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' yes? 68 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes /ba-/ 64 done 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no done 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes 32 done 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes ms15 done 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes ms15 done 1
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no ms15 done 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction yes ms1.3 done 1
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes 107 done 1
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes done 1
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes 107 done 1
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes done 1
Word Order Preposition-Noun no done 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes done 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes ms13.1 done 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes ms13.1.2 done 1
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no info done X
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes ms6.2.3 done 1
Word Order Dem-Noun yes ms7.3.3 done 1
Word Order Noun-Dem yes ms7.1 done 1
Word Order Num-Noun no info done X
Word Order Noun-Num yes ms6.2.6.i done 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes ms17.1.1.i done 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes ms17.1.1.i done 1
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info done X
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info done X
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no ms7.4 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes 107 done 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no 28, 76, ms11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no 28, 76, ms11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no 28, 76, ms11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no 28, 76, ms11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes examples throughout done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes 31, 84 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no info done X
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes ms5.1 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes ms5.1 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes ms5.1 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 28-30 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no 84-6 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no 30, 84 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no 90 done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes 28-30, 84-6 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no 97 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no 97 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently yes 97 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no 105-6 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no 105-6 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes /-ye/ 105-6, ms16.0 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no ms16.2.4 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no ms16.2.2 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no ms16 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info done X
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no 11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no 11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no 11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization yes ms11.3.3 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no 11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no 11 done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no ms11.4.4 done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes 64 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no 64 done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no 64 done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /waa/ 64 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no 64 done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no done 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info done X
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info done X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes /=aani/, /jee(wa)/ ms7.4.2, ms10.2.1.i done 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no info done X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no info done X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no info done X
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info done X
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no ms17 done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position yes ms17 done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes ms17 done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no? ms17.1.1.i done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no? ms17.1.1.i done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes ms17.1.1.i done 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no ms17.1.1.i done 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes? ms4.1.2, ms17.1.1.i done 1
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no done 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes? 118-21 done 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes ms10.6.3.iii done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? yes ms11.2.3 done 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? yes 25 done 1
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? no done 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? yes? 11.2.3 done 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? yes 42-3 done 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? no done 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? no 50 done 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? no 50 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? no done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? no ms13 done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? no info done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? no info done X
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? yes ms11.2.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? n/a done 0
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) yes ms1.7 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? no ms9.1 done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? yes ms9.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? yes 99 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? yes 25 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? yes 100, ms9.1 done 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? no ms9 done 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? no ms9 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB yes 29-30, 76 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? yes 29-30, 76 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? no ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? no ms7.2 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? yes 58, ms4.1.6 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes 55 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? yes 55 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? yes 55-8 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? yes 28, 76, ms11 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? yes 76 done 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? no? 44-6, ms7 done 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? no 28, 76 done 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes no ms17.5.2 done 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes yes sentence-initial 107 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 64 done 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) yes 64 done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? yes ms10.2.1.i done 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) no info done X
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. yes ms16.2.1, 16.2.2 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? yes? ms16.2.2 done 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? no done 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? no info done X
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? yes? ms11.3.1 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? yes 31, 84 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? yes 41 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? no 32 done 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? yes 31-2 done 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? no 62, 68 done 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? no 68-9 done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? yes 117 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? no info done X
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? yes 28, 76, ms11 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? yes ms7.8 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? yes? 31, 84 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? no done 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? yes 32 done 1
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? no done 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? no done 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? no info done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? no info done X
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? n/a done 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no done 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no 2-3 done 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
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