Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 318 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Independent pronouns are used more frequently that in other North-Arawak languages Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Pronominal subjects appear prefixed t verb. Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes There are "complete pronouns" in addition to verbal prefixes, but no examples or indication of their uses. However, no differences are noted in word order for sentences with NP subjects and pronominal subjects. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 60-61 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes In addition to pronominal prefixes. Do not usually co-occur; prefixes typically occur when there are multiple arguments, rather than just a subject/object. Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes No distinction between pronominal subjects and subjects that are full NPs in the sentence structure given in Mansen and Captain (2000). Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Pronouns seem to have special restrictions on their placement, usually preceding the predicate. Aikhenvald, 2003: 565 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes doesn't discuss this directly. However, in a corpus analysis, subjects (both NP and pronoun) were overwhlemingly preverbal. Facundes, 2000: 464, 557 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1982:2324 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:61 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Nanti no There are free pronouns that can be used, but these are focused pronouns that occur along with a verbal person-marking proclitic, whereas non-focused referential NPs and person-marking on the verb are in complementary distribution. Michael, 2008. p. 345 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:3 Daniel Valle
Yine no rarely, they are mostly verbal markers Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no normally, subject is marked as prefix on verb Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes However, the pronominal subject can also be an affix on the verb, occuring as a classifier. The recipient would then take an accusative affix in the subject position. Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes free pronouns can occur Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 99-100 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes in non-past perfective, only O is referenced on the verb Payne 2012:153 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes may also be attached to V Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:25 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Alphonse 1956:8, Quesada 2008:69 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes can occur, can also be marked on verb Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:214 Daniel Valle However, pronouns usually appear to mark contrast or disambiguate a sentence
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:43 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b. Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p. 96-9 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Soto 1976:65 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:135 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes However, pronouns are usually used to express enphasis Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:83-84 Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p169 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes pronoun seems to occupy subject position in examples Goncalves 2011:34 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no no evidence Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31 Chris Clack
Barasano yes A personal pronoun is very often a noun phrase in the subject position and is used in the noun phrase to enhance definiteness. Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Subject pronouns are usually cliticized and prefixed to the verb. Strom 1992, p.115 Chris Clack Free subject pronouns are always postverbal in negative declaritive sentences.
Siona yes Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 22; Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes not obligatory as free pronouns Ramirez 1994: 209-213 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes not obligatory Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borman 1990:149 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):7 Daniel Smith
Karitiana yes Everett 2006:302 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:141 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:28-9 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Rossler 2008:74 Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes examples throughout done 1
Garrwa yes examples throughout done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83, 104 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes cf text 6, sentence 1 (203) done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 12 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 47 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 73-74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 73-4 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 50-51 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 55 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r26 done 1
Uradhi Yes 352 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 156, 159-160 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 214 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 103 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 88 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 10 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 91 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 53-54, 64 done 1
Martuthunira yes 100-109 done 1
Marrgany yes 335 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 216 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 397 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 16 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes? cf 43 (3.37 and 8) Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info 211-2 Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 65 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 342 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 51 1
Dyirbal yes 291 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 52 done 1
Djinang Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 49-50 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 28 done 1
Bularnu no info 87 Done-Austin x
Biri yes 23-7 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 3 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes examples throughout Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 129 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 29 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 76 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 91 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 45 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 81 done 1
Katthang yes 63-65, 106 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 156-159 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 43 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes cf 76, 3.1 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 42 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 335 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 92 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes examples throughout done 1
Wakaya yes done 1
Yindjilindji yes 509 done 1
Bandjalang yes 106 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 55 done 0
Arrernte Yes 101 1
Kokatha Yes 65 1
Karajarri No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 22 1
Ritharrngu Yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 13 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 51-2 1
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 67 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 74 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 16 1
Wajarri Yes 77 1
Warungu yes 452 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no almost always Set I clitics Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps