Matses

Family
Panoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mcf
Location
-5.74°, -72.63°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Fleck, David. 2003. A Grammar of Matses. PhD Dissertation, Rice University. Fleck Zuazo, David W. and Bëso, Fernando Shoque Uaquí and Huanán, Daniel Manquid Jiménez. 2012. Diccionario Matsés-Castellano. Iquitos, Peru: Tierra Nueva.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location abuc abuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
and y e grammar ma ma See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment isisapuc isisapuk unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location nantan (en) nantan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
back espalda costas body cacho catʃo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality icsa iksa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body pukú pukú inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tëdion, tsidion tɨdion, tsidion unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
big grande grande quality nua nua unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
black negro preto colour tʂɨʂɨ tʂɨʂɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body intáʔ intáʔ doubtful loan, direction unknown Yagua nda See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body canite kanite unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body shicdiadquid ʃikdiadquid unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human bacuë bakuɨ inheritance/Tacanan Tacanan *baka See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment abu abu doubtful loan Tacanan *bo See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality dauebud, iquen dauebud, iken unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality abimbo abimbo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
day día dia time ushë ushɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality bëchish bɨtʃiʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality tanun tanun inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality cuënma kuɨnma See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment putu putu See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body pabiate pabiate inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment mannied, nidaid mannied, nidaid inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna bacuë bakuɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body ëshë ɨʃɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality ënapen, u, uanno, umbo ɨnapen, u, uanno, umbo unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body bëchi bɨtʃi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship amë, papa amɨ, papa unique; inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna podo podo loan, direction unknown Candoshi See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment cuëte kuɨte unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment bacuë, cuëte bush bakuɨ, kuɨte bush unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment cuen, pushudquid, senadën cuëte kuen, puʃudkid, senadɨn kuɨte See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora bacuë, mapi bakuɨ, mapi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality bëda bɨda unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body bu bu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hand mano mão body mëdante mɨdante inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar a a inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body mapi mapi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality iuë iuɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
how? como como grammar midapad, mitsipad midapad, mitsipad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar ë ɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
if si se grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ëduëduc, nantan ɨduɨduk, nantan unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body chichueden, tsimicsin tʃitʃueden, tsimiksin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment chian tʃian inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment bëpucte, podo bɨpukte, podo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body opioc opiok unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body nite nite unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bed-bedquequid bed-bedkekid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body isese, tacua isese, takua unknown; inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality ënapen ɨnapen unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna matish matiʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human dada; bɨnɨ daɾa, bɨnɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna nami nami inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment iba, ushë iba, uʃɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship tita tita inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body ana, ana shëcuë (parte interior) ana, ana shɨkuɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
name nombre nome human cuëmëdaid kuɨmɨdaid unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality abi, ëna, nëbi, u, ubi abi, ɨna, nɨbi, u, ubi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body tënite tɨnite inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality chuca tʃuka unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
night noche noite time inchësh intʃɨʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar pada, padenquio pada, padenkio unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body pa pa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality shëni ʃɨni inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
one uno um number abentsëc abentsëk unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar utsi utsi doubtful loan Boran See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body nënë, paë nɨnɨ, paɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human matses matses unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment ue ue inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour shin ʃin inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body abiuc abiuk unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture podquied podkied unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora tapun tapun inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality pisen pisen inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment masi masi inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality cuënu kuɨnu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
short corto curto quality bushcu buʃku unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body canti chiadte kanti tʃiadte unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental natia natia unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
skin piel pele body bitsi bitsi inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment abu abu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality ania ania unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment pushudquid puʃudkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment uispa uispa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora cueste kueste unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment cuënote kuɨnote unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body incuente inkuente inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar aid, uid aid, uid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar a, abi a, abi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality nua nua unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality ania, casi, micsin ania, casi, miksin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar nëid nɨid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar mi mi inheritance/Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body chepacte tʃepakte unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
three tres tres number abentsëc choec, abentsëc chonoc abentsɨc tʃoek, abentsɨc tʃonok unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment abu abu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bite morder morder body pe pe unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body bushca buʃka unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body tiboque tiboke unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment nëdënka, pichika, taui nɨdɨnka, pitʃika, taui unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body namiua, quiad namiua, kiad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion dectato dektato unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
come venir vir motion cho tʃo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact codoca 'boil/cook in water' kodoka 'boil/cook in water' unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
count contar contar mental tan (contar cantidad) tan inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental sedenque, shubi, uin sedenke, ʃubi, uin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact sën, te sɨn, te unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state uënës uɨnɨs unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact cheshca, uëdëshca tʃeʃka, uɨdɨʃka unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental is is unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body ak unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
eat comer comer body pe pe inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion paëd, uebud (caerse) paɨd, uebud (caerse) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental dacuëd dakuɨd unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion chëuëd tʃɨuɨd unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion capu kapu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state cani kani inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental tantia tantia unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion ompo ompo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact cues, se, ton kues, se, ton unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other titinque titinke unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact cues kues unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental tantia tantia inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental mamën mamɨn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion uebud uebud unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body tabad tabad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other bëcado bɨkado inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact chocueshca, mase tʃokueʃka, mase See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental que ke inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact shuan ʃuan unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
see ver ver mental is is inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact cues, se kues, se unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state piscud, tsad piskud, tsad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body ush inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body shëd ʃɨd inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body cuishtuque, pishtuque kuiʃtuke, piʃtuke inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact canche, cuësh kantʃe, kuɨʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact chin (exprimir liquido) tʃin inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other ampe ampe unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body chish tʃiʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body bidisque (hinchar) bidiske unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion capu, tantan kapu, tantan unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental tantia tantia unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ne ne inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact nësh nɨʃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other bidiad bidiad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body siabud, uc, ucbud siabud, uk, ukbud unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion capu kapu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other chonuad tʃonuad inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body ancad, shad ankad, ʃad unknown; inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body ana, anusudte ana, anusudte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body shëta ʃɨta inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
two dos dois number daëd daɨd unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
water agua agua environment acte akte unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar umbi umbi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nuqui, u, ubi (a nosotros) nuki, u, ubi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality chucu tʃuku doubtful loan Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar atoda, atotsi atoɾa, atotsi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar mitsino mitsino inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar mida, mimintsi, mitsi mida, mimintsi, mitsi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour ushu uʃu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar tsuda, tsutsi tsuɾa, tsutsi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship chido tʃiɾó unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment cunquequid kunkekid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wing ala asa body podo podo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human chiro tʃiɾó unknown also 'wife' See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bësh piu bɨʃ piu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi, mibi mi, mibi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
foot pie body taë taɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar padpide padpide unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
all todo todos other abitedi, tedi abitedi, tedi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body taësh, tatete taɨsh, tatete unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body podo ambuadquid, podo ana podo ambuadkid, podo ana unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body chimu tʃimu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body isese padish isese padiʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body ichac itʃak unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body danës danɨs See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment bitsi bitsi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body mëntsis mɨntsis inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body winté: winté: inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sun sol sol time ushë uʃɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment mannan mannán inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
green verde verde quality tanun tanun unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality chu tʃu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kuesban kwesbán unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna uicchun uiktʃun unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. cuya kuja loan, direction unknown Koreguaje kuĩa See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. chëdo tʃɨdo unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans mando, uinesh mando, uineʃ unknown See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. cuëbu, tëmodas kuɨbu, tɨmodas doubtful loan - WW cf. similar forms in Yabarana, Tiriyo, Guahiban, Waorani, Ashuar, Matses, Saliva, Tanimuca, Kwaza, Urarina, Quechua See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae sentede (large), chimbë (small) sentede (large), tʃimbɨ (small) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pinu pinu inheritance See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae chadac tʃadak inheritance loan into Jivaroan? See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bus bus unknown See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. cana kana inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica cuedes, cheden (etc.) kuedes, tʃeden (etc.) unknown See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae dëbin dɨbin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae chiquin tʃikin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae edeste edeste unknown See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family nuad, patu nuad, patu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba aca ushu ('egret white') aka uʃu ('egret white') unknown See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae odosco, todon odosko, todon unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris opa opa unknown See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tsequeded (oso hormiɡuero de dos dedos) tsekeded unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri panu (giant), sedudi (9-banded) panu (giant), sedudi (9-banded) unknown See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. maid (perezoso ocioso) maid See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. cachita katʃita loan Arawak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus tanete tanete unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna nuëquid nuɨkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. padumita padumita See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae maquë makɨ inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. mëcue, pone mɨkue, pone See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. mapadabiecquid mabadabiekkid See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. mësianquid bëdi-bëdidapa mɨsiankid bɨdi-bɨdidapa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura omon [generic] omon [generic] See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. iuin tampas iuin tampas unique See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata tampas [generic lizard], shëquëd [generic 'teiido' type] tampas [generic lizard], ʃɨkɨd [generic 'teiido' type] unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. i, secte [generics] i, sekte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura canchu cantʃu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes dayumënquid dajumɨnkid See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae chouishquidapa, uampanmës tʃouiʃkidapa, uampanmɨs unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna nisi nisi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox nisi nisi See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria piush, tequesh, shouë, taën uequid (all yellow-footed) piuʃ, tekeʃ, ʃouɨ, taɨn uekid (all yellow-footed) unknown; inheritance See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis chishcan tʃiʃkan unknown See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) macun makun unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manaca manáka loan North Arawak See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa itia, macchëc itia, maktʃɨk unknown See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana tanac tanak See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea niste, nunte niste, nunte unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes titado, uanin, idi titaɾo, uanin, idi unknown; inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua isan, condo isan, kondo See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) sedquid sedkuid unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra cuëte pachi, shumi kuɨte patʃi, ʃumi See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens sia sia doubtful loan Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus canchi kantʃi loan, direction unknown - WW %koritʃa: Ashuar kuwíʃ, Matses kantʃi, Boran kidʒa, Candoshi koriʃa See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum acte pia, pia, taua akte pia, pia, taua See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. mani bënë mani bɨnɨ unknown prob. semantic shift, cf. *mani 'banana(like) leaf' See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) uesin uesin inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays picabo, shicshu pikabo, ʃikʃu unknown; loan into protolanguage Arawak/Tacanan See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum nënë nɨnɨ unknown See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna iui, cuëte iui, kuɨte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana piute piute unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. achu incuente atʃu inkuente unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana padta padta See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala dete, tote dete, tote See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] onina cacho, nestebiecquid onina katʃo, nestebiekkid See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum uesnid dëbiate, cashu uesnid dɨbiate, kaʃu unknown; loan Spanish (Port/Tupi) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana chëshëtë tʃɨʃɨtɨ unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. bin bin See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui achu mëbudush atʃu mɨbuduſ See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia shancuin ʃankuin unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta [not cultivated] [not cultivated] missing See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta pachid patʃid inheritance? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas cadi kadi loan into protolanguage Arawak: Kampan *koriti; cf. likely Panoan *kari, Tacanan *xariri See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. bëyun bɨjun See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. bëbiucud bɨbiukud See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) senco, sencodapa senko, senkodapa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. sapayu sapaju loan Spanish See Language page plant Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. isitodo [generic vine] isitodo [generic vine] See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ancueste, antinte ankueste, antinte unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi tsauesën isun neste tsauesɨn isun neste unknown See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic [no generic] [no generic] See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae [no generic] [no generic] See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata shëdë ʃɨdɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. mapidequid mapiɾekid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis samunabiecquid [honey] samunabiekkid [honey] unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria padacquid padakkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae tapi tapi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera podochued, tucudu podotʃued, tukudu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera podochued, tucudu podotʃued, tukudu See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora nuen nuen inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda uampambiecquid uampambieckid See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones chichun tʃitʃun unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea shiosh ʃioʃ doubtful loan - WW onomatopoeic See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera matish matiʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera manua manua unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae matses chequid matses tʃekid doubtful loan - WW %tʃiriku: Quechua, Aymara, Zaparoan, Kokama See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. macu maku unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae dada chuiquid dada tʃuikid See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. biush biuʃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera cuëte icbo, mechodo kuɨte ikbo, metʃodo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea chanën tʃanɨn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita madin madin unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda nunti [land], dëco [water] nunti [land], dɨko [water] unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tsipuispa tsipuispa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca bëdi bɨdi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. acte nëishamë akte nɨiʃamɨ See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha poshto, chuna, abucquid, mëdantechued, macsinquid poʃto, tʃuna, abukkid, mɨdantetʃued, maksinkid unknown; loan - WW %tʃuru See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] achu atʃu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella bëchun bɨtʃun unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons bëchun ushu bɨtʃun uʃu unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus tsipwispa tsipwispa, mɨʃé unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae mapiocos mapiokos inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis onina onina See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis bosen bosen unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu shẽcten ʃɨkten unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari shëctenamë ʃɨktenamɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae isa isa inheritance/loan Tacanan? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua tsise tsise unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mëcueste, tsicudu mɨkueste, tsikudu unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris memupaid menupaid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti chochosh, tsatsin tʃotʃoʃ, tsatsin See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) tambis tambis unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tambisëmpi tambisɨmpi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae capa kapa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris nëishamë nɨiʃamɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus chashu, senad tʃaʃu, senad inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus senadbiecquid senadbiekkid See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tsitsan (basket, epiphyte for baskets) tsitsan (basket, epiphyte for baskets) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material casëdu kasɨdu loan - WW %kasiru See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material ushte uʃte unique/calque See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material di di unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tsadte (para sentarse) tsadte unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport cano kano loan - WW %kanawa See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture acu, ten tencate aku, ten tenkate unknown Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tuncate (animal hide drum) tunkate (animal hide drum) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology dachiacanquid datʃiakankid unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology nënë choquid nɨnɨ tʃokid Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material bescate beskate unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology dashcute daʃkute unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other cuëte kuɨte inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology madu cudu, shedo madu kudu, ʃedo unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology icbo ('lord', dueño) ikbo ('lord', dueño) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology shoncate ʃonkate unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material chështempi tʃɨʃtempi unique see 'machete' See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material chështe tʃɨʃte doubtful loan Spanish machete See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool moco, duë moko, duɨ unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pia pja inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool siante siante unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool canti kanti inheritance arco See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport uncate unkate unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material ampada, pada-padaid ampada, pada-padaid loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool shocosh ʃocoʃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material dëshote dɨʃote unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology chequedecate tʃekedekate doubtful loan (into protolg?) onomatopoeia, but cf. Arawak, Cayapa, Bora, Jivaroan (loan INTO Resigaro) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool buid buid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
wax cera cera other shubu (beeswax) ʃubu (beeswax) unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
honey miel mel food bacun, shëdë, tëdibon bakun, ʃɨdɨ, tɨdibon unknown only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bucu buku unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology tansiaid (tatuaje de la cara) tansiaid See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material cacho 'roof' katʃo 'roof' unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology chido uismauate, bënueduante tʃido uismawate, bɨnueduante See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation sedunte sedunte See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation dadauate dadauate unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology is is See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cachina katʃina unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other ampushudte ampuʃudte See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation pia bata (sugar cane) pia bata (sugar cane) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tsisiudte, tsitsumicquid tsisiudte, tsitsumikkid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tapucudte tapukudte See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation quidi quidi kidi kidi loan English (prob via missionaries) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation bada, chompian, shaui bada, tʃompian, ʃaui unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress mauete mawete semantic shift from 'headdress' See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology chuiquid tʃuikid unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
salt sal sal food sa sa loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology cuëdën kuɨdɨn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bushcante, bushcate, shaui buʃkante, buʃkate, ʃaui unknown currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool chompian ëshë tʃompian ɨʃɨ hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool shuccate ʃukkate unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food anseme anseme See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food tin tin [TG loan?] doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food capu kapu See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food nëish nɨiʃ unknown Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool senco senko unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool tapu tapu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool macueste, senad (mortero de maiz) makueste, senad unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool senad podo senad podo See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture sicaid, tsibëd, uma sikaid, tsibɨd, uma unknown prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food machi matʃi loan - WW; unknown %matsuka agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food [none] [none] missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool dauë, ni dauɨ, ni unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool secte sekte unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
house other ʂubu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Fleck:73-81 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Fleck:72 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Fleck:72 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Fleck:93 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Fleck:72 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes Only if glides are treated as consonants Fleck:106-7 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Fleck:107 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Based on the example words the author gives such as ta "mother" Fleck:77 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Fleck:69-203 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? yes Fleck:97 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Fleck:134-5 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? yes Fleck:134-5 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Fleck:172 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes Verb can combine tense and person in a single portmanteau morpheme Fleck:395 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no However, there is stem change to mark transitive/intrasitive for certain verbs Fleck:334-8 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word no TAM morphemes are obligatory on the verb. Person-marking morphemes are not obligatory but can be attached to the verb Fleck:394-5 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no 114 suffixes and 30 prefixes Fleck:204 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Fleck:204 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Fleck:204 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Verbal reduplication Fleck:453 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no Based on the examples on the grammar, it seems that the verbal root is fully reduplicated Fleck:452-7 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes Only for body part nouns. These nouns get reduced when incorporated into the verb Fleck:342 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no info However, it seems that singular number is not marked morphologically (Fleck:231-321) Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Fleck:272-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Fleck:272-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Fleck:272-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes Fleck:272-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no The plural marker is optional and tends to appear more frequently with animate nouns but it can also appear with inanimates. Fleck:272-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Fleck:242 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Fleck:242, 272-3 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Fleck:243 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Fleck:401 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system yes There is a three-term system. Fleck:258-9 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Fleck:258-262 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Fleck:241 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Fleck:241 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Fleck:241 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Fleck:241 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Fleck:240-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 10 Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Fleck:280 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Fleck:280 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Fleck:280-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no Fleck:281 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Fleck:231-321 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no There are special forms of personal pronouns for possesive case Fleck:253 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Fleck:253 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes Fleck:760-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Fleck:760-1 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no Fleck:234 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Fleck:462 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Fleck:462-521 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes Fleck:293 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Fleck:295 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Fleck:295 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Fleck:457 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' yes Fleck:281, 803 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Fleck:397-9 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes There are three different past-tense morphemes Fleck:397-9 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes Fleck:435-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes Fleck:397-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Fleck:397-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Fleck:397-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Fleck:397-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Fleck:397-43 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes Fleck:443 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes Fleck:443-5 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Fleck:443 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes Fleck:447 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes Fleck:426 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes Fleck:364-75 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no But direct experience is coded in the evidetial system Fleck:394-405 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Fleck:394-405 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes Fleck:405-17 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes It is expressed by lexical means Fleck:419 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse yes The same verb for quotative is used for hearsay modality Fleck:419 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs yes Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme yes verbal word "say" Fleck:419 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Fleck:445-6 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Word order responds to pragmatic motivations. However, the SOV constituen order is the least marked Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject yes Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes All six possible combinations of S, O and V are allowed Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes Fleck:814 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Fleck:280-2 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Fleck:280-2 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Fleck:760-9 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Fleck:760-9 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Fleck:759 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Fleck:759 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Fleck:261 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem yes Fleck:261 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no However, there are not "relative" clause strictum sensus but nominalizations Fleck:1019 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Fleck:1019 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Fleck:341-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no There is subject person agreement as part of a portmanteau suffix which also encodes tense Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes But only in the non-past tense. In the past tense, there is a 3 person subject agreement marker in the verb Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes But objects (of any person and number) are not marked on the verb Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes no Fleck:252-4, 445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Fleck:445 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no Fleck:866 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives yes Fleck:866 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Fleck:866 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes Passive and reflexives are treated as the same Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages yes Flack:930 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no Fleck:908-41 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes Fleck:900 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Fleck:900-3 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Fleck:887 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes Instrument "promotion" Fleck:894-900 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no Fleck:1063 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes Fleck:1063 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes Fleck:1063 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes Fleck:996 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb yes Fleck:996 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Fleck:996 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes These sentences have very often an uncertainty particle on it Fleck:984 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology yes Only if the subject is 1 or 2 person and only in certain tense/mood Fleck:983-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Fleck:983-5 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Fleck:983 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) yes Content Q usually have the Q word sentence-initially but this is not obligatory Fleck:980-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Fleck:1019 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no There is no relativizer but nominalizer Fleck:316 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes Fleck:434 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes Fleck:1132 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes Fleck:1132 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes Fleck:1132 Daniel Valle