Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification
Masculine, feminine, neuter


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes There is a subclass of animates that receives the number and gender marking Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro n/a Sex distinction in third-person pronouns, including incorporated pronouns that appear in the absence of a full NP subject, but these don't seem to be noun classes. Allin 1976: 150-176, 223 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Gender is only marked in predicate and head-modifier constructions Aikhenvald, 1995: 19 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 99 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006:139 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Masculine vs. non-masculine Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 87 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes noun classes are masculine and feminine Facunes, 2000: 218 Aimee lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Masc./non-masc Mihas 2010:122 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Masculine is unmarked. Zamponi 2003:25-26 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:253-66 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes "Gender is an inherent category in Baure, and it is mainly biological, not grammatical." Danielsen 2007: p100 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 294 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Launey 2003:98-99 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes non-masculine, masculine Patte 1989:54 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:208 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 287 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no "Macuxi does not make productive use of grammatical gender." Carson 1992: 77 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 48 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bertoglia 1983:3-13 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Alphonse 1956:3 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes masculine and feminine Queixalós 1998:31 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-5 Daniel Valle Only four nouns are distinguished lexically for gender.
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no There is some evidence of grammatical gender, but data is inconclusive so far; will note this and return to the question once a more definite answer can be given Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Rojas:173-80, Jung:133-4 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Feminine and masculine are distinguished where the feminine is the unmarked term Montes 2005:137 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes class 3-1: masculine animal, class 3-2: feminine animal Landaburu 1979: p.131 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes author states that this is restricted to human/human-like beings, however, the examples contradict this. (broadens to other animates as well) Giron 2008: p185 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Deza Galindo 1992: 75 Shannon Dardis Gender does not however seem to be obligatorily marked on nouns. And I don't think it's marked on verbs at all.
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes humans Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack Most nouns do not indicate gender, however; some are inherently masculine or feminine. These are usually distinguished by the endings of -a (masculine) or -o (feminine).
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes for nonhuman animates sex is assumed as male unless the word for women is added Miller 1999, p.21 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes The most common noun gender/number suffixes used on human nouns are: -kɨ 'masculine singular', -ko 'feminine singular', and -wA 'plural.' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 128 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.15-16 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.20 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.10 Chris Clack
Siona yes masc, fem respectively Wheeler 1987:106 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: various pages (37 in particular) Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: p.142-151; p.112 Kelsey Neely no gender distinctions in person/number clitics (p.112), no indication of gender distinctions in classifiers list starting on p.142
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.119-120 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p. 144-151 Kelsey Neely no mention of sex distinction
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes But most of the nouns have masculine gender and a noun with feminine gender has to be specified as such lexically in most cases Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 23-4 done 1
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 46-47 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 1 done 1
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari n/a Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 446-7 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 29 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal yes 307 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 60 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 136 done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 8 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 78 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes FO 122 done 1
Wakaya yes 145 done 1
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte Yes 86 1
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 32-3 0
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps