Pemon

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
aoc
Location
4.97°, -61.40°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Armellada, R. P. Cesareo. 1948. Gramática y Diccionario de la lengua Pemon (Arekuna, Taurepan, Kamarakoto) (Familia Caribe). Caracas: C. A. Artes Gráficas. Armellada, Cesáreo and M. Gutiérrez Salazar. 1981. Diccionario Pemón. Caracas: Ediciones CORPOVEN. Edwards, Walter F. 1977. Some aspects of the grammar and phonology of Akawaio and Arekuna. In W.F. Edwards (comp.), An introduction to the Akawaio and Arekuna peoples of Guyana. Amerindian Language Project, University of Guiana. Georgetown. Edwards, Walter F. (ed.) 1980. A short grammar and dictionary of the Akawaio and Arekuna languages of Guyana. Georgetown: University of Guyana. Mosonyi, E.E. and Jorge C. Mosonyi. 2000. Manual de lenguas indígenas de Venezuela, I-II. Caracas: Fundación Bigott.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location katua (A1981); iiteepoi (E1977) katua (A1981); itɛpɔi (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
all todo todos other tukare, t-etaweren (A1981); tu'karö (M2000) tukaɾe, tetaweɾen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
and y e grammar nere, kanan, -re, dare, pa (A1981); nerö (M2000) neɾe, kanan, ɾe, daɾe, pa (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pɨrakuung (E1980) pɨrakuŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
armpit axila, sobaco axila body yewata (A1981) dʒewata (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment werunapue (A1981); weruna'pö (M2000) weɾunapue (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
at en, a em, a location piak (A1981) piak (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
back espalda costas body yeda, mpakunta, mpai (A1981); inkai (M2000) dʒeda, mpakunta, mpai (A1981); iŋ'kai (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
belly barriga barriga body ven (A1981); eewang (E1980); ewanto (M2000) ven (A1981); ewaŋ (E1980); eβan'to (M2000) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
below abajo, debajo abaixo location non bo (A1981); yoknoo (E1977) non bo, (A1981); ʎɔʔnɔ (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
big grande grande quality tanno (A1981); tanno (M2000) tano (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bite morder morder body eka, kurunka, pitika (A1981); e'ka (M2000) eka, kuɾunka, pitika (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
black negro preto colour iikkɨrɨng, rɨi (E1980); itarikutun (M2000) iʔkɨrɨŋ, rɨɪ (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blood sangre sangue body yeei piikpö (E1980); mün (M2000) muen; mɨŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blow soplar soprar body puma, taremba, muima (A1981); ipuma (M2000) puma, taɾemba, muima (A1981) inheritance puma cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ite (A1981) ite (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bone hueso osso body yeei piikpö (E1980); ite'pö (M2000) dʒepue; ɛʔpö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
breast pecho, seno peito body manak (A1981); puete manak (A1981); puet inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
breathe respirar respirar body yarewik ewo-nepui (A1981); darewü'to (M2000) dʒaɾewik ewonepui (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
burn quemar queimar environment kika, ya-nepui, akoro (A1981); iki'ka (M2000) kika, dʒanepui, akoɾo (A1981) unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body apo, chakauchakauma (A1981) apo, tʃakautʃakauma (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
child niño, niña criança human mɨree (E1980); müre (M2000) mɨre (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
climb subir subir motion enku, emaika / yuma (A1981) enku, emaika / dʒuma (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cold frío frio quality komi, koko (A1981); komiikkeenak (E1980); komik (M2000) komi, koko (A1981); kɔmiʔkenak (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
come venir vir motion yepui (A1981); ye'nö (M2000) dʒepui (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cook cocinar cozinhar impact tuma rintetok (A1981) tuma ɾintetok (A1981) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality dairen (A1981); suraipan (M2000) daiɾen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
count contar contar mental kupui (A1981); ikupü (M2000) kupui (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cry llorar chorar mental karauk, karaun (A1981) kaɾauk, kaɾaun (A1981) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cut/hack cortar cortar impact aketi, kitiuma, charamo, ewanka (A1981); akütü (M2000) aketi, kitiuma, tʃaɾamo, ewanka, (A1981) inheritance; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
day día dia time wei (also means sol, espacio solar, and verano) (A1981); weeinai (E1980); wei (M2000) wei (A1981); weɪnaɪ (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
die/be dead morir morrer state e-tika (A1981); eri'nö (M2000) etika (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dig cavar cavar impact aka, putuma (A1981); nonnaka (M2000) aka, putuma (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dirty sucio sujo quality aware, narik, piron saru, ekepasak, apimuman, tavapan (A1981); ye'ko'pasak (M2000) awaɾe, naɾik, piɾon saɾu, ekepasak, apimuman, tavapan (A1981) unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dream soñar sonhar mental wenepueti, wenepue ena (A1981) wenepueti, wenepue ena (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
drink beber, tomar beber body eenɨ (E1980); enü (M2000) enɨ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dry seco seco quality akmuung (A1981); akunnu (M2000) akmuŋ (A1981) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality puntukuipan, kiriupan, puntukuyu, poti puen, potaka (A1981); puntuku'yu (M2000) puntukuipan, kiɾiupan, puntukudʒu, poti puen, potaka (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dust polvo poeira environment kutu, kutukutupan (A1981); kutu'pan (M2000) kutu, kutukutupan (A1981) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ear oreja orelha body pana (A1981) pana (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
earth/soil tierra terra environment non (M2000) noŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
eat comer comer body entaknang (E1980); enta'nan (M2000) ɛntaʔnaŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
egg huevo ovo fauna pumoi (A1981); iikmoi (E1980); pumoi (M2000) pumoi (A1981); iʔmɔɪ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
eye ojo olho body enu (A1981); itenu (M2000) enu (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body watö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fall caer cair motion ena, esuruka, etiririnka, ataremo (A1981); enan (M2000) ena, esuɾuka, etiɾiɾinka, ataɾemo (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
far lejos longe quality amincha, mincha (A1981); miingcha (E1977); amincha (M2000) amintʃa, mintʃa (a1981); miŋtʃa (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fat/grease grasa gordura body kasek, porin (A1981); ikasek (M2000) kasek, poɾin (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
father padre, papá pai kinship yun, potori (A1981); yeepootoori (E1980); yun (M2000) dʒun, potoɾi (A1981); ʎepotorɪ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fear miedo medo mental narikenak, narik, tesenarimasen (A1981); narik (M2000) naɾikenak, naɾik, tesenaɾimasen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
feather pluma pena fauna pok (A1981); chiipok (E1980); toron chi'pok (M2000) pok (A1981); tʃipɔk (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fire fuego fogo environment apok (E1980); apok (M2000) apɔk (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fish xx xx fauna morok; morok moɾok inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion katun (M2000) katun unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
flower flor flor environment yariku (A1981); yari'ku (M2000) dʒaɾiku (A1981) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fly volar voar motion ariwon; ariitang (E1980); yaarinta (M2000) aɾiwon; aritaŋ (E1980) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment katuru non porom, katuru aicharuru (A1981); katu'ruk nonporon (M2000) katuɾu non poɾom, katuɾu aitʃaɾuɾu (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
foot pie body ta (A1981); pɨta (E1980); putato (M2000) ta (A1981); pɨta (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fruit fruta fruta flora eperu, i-te, enapue (A1981) epeɾu, ite, enapue (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
good bueno bom quality waki, mori (also mean 'hermoso') (A1981); mata, müta (M2000) waki, moɾi (A1981) inheritance; inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
grow crecer crescer state yariman (A1981) dʒaɾiman (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pok (A1981); puupö (on head), chiikpok (on skin) (E1980); chi'pok (M2000) pok (A1981); pupö, tʃiʔpɔk (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hand mano mão body yenna (A1981); enya (E1980); yenna (M2000) dʒena (A1981); ɛnʎa (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
head cabeza cabeça body pai (A1981); puukpai (E1980); pu'pai (M2000) pai (A1981); puʔpaɪ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hear oír ouvir mental eeta (E1980); eta (M2000) eta (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
heavy pesado pesado quality avenek, teipan (A1981); awe'nek (M2000) avenek, teipan (A1981) unique shared Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hide esconder esconder motion donan, wapute, noponte, murunte (A1981) donan, wapute, noponte, muɾunte (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kitama (A1981); ikita'ma (M2000) kitama (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other apiichii (E1980); e'sepu'to (M2000) apitʃi (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
how? como como grammar warante, -pe, tukai, warai (A1981); ö'tukaik (M2000) waɾante, pe, tukai, waɾai (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
if si se grammar inna, sa, inna-pe, inna warai, inna kru, inna wi sane (A1981) ina, sa, inape, ina waɾai, ina kɾu, ina wi sane (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location itau, dau, yak, wak (A1981); yau (E1977); po, itau (M2000) itau, dau, dʒak, wak, (A1981); ʎaʊ (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
intestines intestinos intestinos body wenepue (A1981) wenepue (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kill matar matar impact iiwö (A1981); wö (M2000) iwö (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lake lago lago environment kupue-ima (A1981); ku'püimö (M2000) kupueima (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
laugh reír rir mental atarika (A1981); eta'ri'kan (M2000) ataɾika (A1981) doubtful loan, direction unknown Pumé aȩrĩkjiá See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leaf hoja folha environment dare (A1981); taadare (M2000) daɾe (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kamueyakan, kami yak (A1981); kmü'yakan (m2000) kamuedʒakan, kami dʒak (A1981) unique shared Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion at-aponte (A1981) ataponte (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment waranapi (A1981) waɾanapi (A1981) semantic shift thunder See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body e-pueti, kowama, ichi (A1981); ko'wamü (M2000) epueti, kowama, itʃi (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
liver hígado figado body eereerɨpö (E1980); yere (M2000) ererɨpö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
long largo comprido, longo quality nosan, nosanipue, musan (A1981); nosan (M2000) nosan, nosanipue, musan (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna adan; ayang (E1980); adan (M2000) adan (A1981); aʎaŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
lung pulmón pulmão body darurupue (A1981) daɾuɾupue (A1981) unique shared Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
meat/flesh carne carne fauna yeei piikpö (E1980); ipun (M2000) pun; ipuŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
moon luna lua environment kapui (A1981); kapɨii (E1980); kapüi (M2000) kapui (A1981); kapɨi (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship amai (also means 'aunt'), dan (also means 'aunt'), san (A1981); amai (M2000) amaɪ, dan, san (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mouth boca boca body nta, muta (A1981); mïtatoo (E1977); mata, müta (M2000) nta, muta (A1981); mïtato (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
name nombre nome human esek (A1981); esek (M2000) esek (A1981); e'sek (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body pupai noyi (A1981) pupai nodʒi (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
near/close cerca de perto quality piau, amincha mare, ako-pe (A1981); akkoopee (E1977); amincha ma're (M2000) piau, amintʃa maɾe, akope, (A1981); aʔope (E1977) unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
neck cuello pescoço body pue, pu-mue (A1981); I'mö (M2000) pue, pumue (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
new nuevo novo quality menak (A1981); ameennak (E1980); amennak (M2000) menak (A1981); amennak (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
night noche noite time warupue (A1981); waarüpö (M2000) waɾupue (A1981) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
no/not no não grammar ake, ake kru, ake nekan, ake rua, pra -puen (A1981); a'ke (M2000) ake, ake kɾu, ake nekan, ake ɾua, pɾa, puen (A1981) unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
nose nariz nariz body yeuna (A1981); eeuuna (E1980); yeuna (M2000) dʒeuna (A1981); euna (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
old viejo velho quality pennato, pennato-pue, poyi-pue (A1981); penatoo (E1980); penato (M2000) penato, penatopue, podʒipue (A1981); pɛnato (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
one uno um number teukin (A1981); töukiing (E1980); töukin (M2000) teukin (A1981); töʊkiŋ (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
open/uncover abrir abrir other warau-ka, arakam-bu-ka, chi-ri-mo, charamo, aranka, apu-ka (A1981) waɾauka, aɾakambuka, tʃiɾimo, tʃaɾamo, aɾanka, apuka (A1981) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
other otro outro grammar iyaren, tiaren, tuaren, ponaren, tonaren (A1981) idʒaɾen, tiaɾen, tuaɾen, ponaɾen, tonaɾen (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body enek-pe, te-paran-ke (A1981); e'nek (M2000) enekpe, tepaɾanke, (A1981); eʔ'nek (M2000) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
person/human being persona pessoa human pemon (M2000) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ame, tatama, pichaka, kichouka (A1981) ame, tatama, pitʃaka, kitʃouka (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rain lluvia chuva environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
red rojo vermelho colour chuyu, chaviyu (A1981); chuuwiiyuu (E1980); chuuyu (M2000) tʃudʒu, tʃavidʒu (A1981); tʃuwiʎu (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
right/right hand derecha direita location/body emadono, merunte (A1981); meruntö winün (M2000) emadono, meɾunte (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
road/path camino caminho manufacture eima (A1981); e'ma (M2000) eima (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
root raíz raiz flora kara (A1981); yöikara (E1980); kara (M2000) kara (A1981); ʎöɪkara (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rotten podrido podre quality itekasak, ike (A1981); ikö (M2000) itekasak, ike (A1981) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sand arena areia environment osko, wasaka (A1981); wösök (E1980); ö'sökö (M2000) osko, wasaka (A1981); wösök (E1980); əssə'kə (M2000) unknown N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
scratch rascar rasgar impact kararika (A1981); ikoriripütü (M2000) kaɾaɾika (A1981); iko:ɻoɻi:pɨ'tɨ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
see ver ver mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality etesak, te kenak (A1981) etesak, te kenak (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact pote, tiuka, iriuka (A1981) pote, tiuka, iɾiuka (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
short corto curto quality chiapue, dokopairen, atupaki, atupayek (A1981); chi'ya'pö (M2000) tʃiapue, dokopaiɾen, atupaki, atupadʒek (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shoulder hombro ombro body mota (A1981) mota (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sit sentar(se) sentar state ereuta (A1981); ereutan (M2000) eɾeuta (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
skin piel pele body yeei piikpö (E1980); ipi'pö (M2000) pipue; piʔpö (E1980); ipiʰpə (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sky cielo céu environment kak (A1981); kak (M2000) kak (A1981); 'kak (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sleep dormir dormir body eknunnö (E1980); iwe'nunpa (M2000) eʔnunnö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
small pequeño pequeno quality chirike, chiapue, damik-pue (A1981); chiikrɨkö (E1980); chi'rü'kö (M2000) tʃiɾike, tʃiapue, damikpue (A1981); tʃikrɨkö (E1980) inheritance shared with Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
smoke humo fumaça environment apok keresen (A1981); iiköröching (E1980); ikörechin (M2000) apok keresen (A1981); ikörtʃɪŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body transitive: kuika, intransitive: kenuma, ikenuma, keneta (A1981); ikui'ka (M2000) kuika, kenuma, ikenuma, keneta (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spit escupir cuspir body etakuta (A1981); etakutan, etaputan (M2000) etakuta (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pantaka, ratoika, piraka, akituka, koroika, amorika, charamo, sarauka, mo (A1981); iwürüuka (M2000) pantaka, ɾatoika, piɾaka, akituka, koɾoika, amoɾika, tʃaɾamo, saɾauka, mo (A1981); iβɨ:ɻɨu'ka (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact akire, epa, asuka, pichaka, ame (A1981) akiɾe, epa, asuka, pitʃaka, ame (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ekmɨsakkang (E1980) ɛkmɨsaʔkaŋ (E1980) unique shared Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
star estrella estrela environment chirike (A1981); chirikö (M2000) tʃiɾike (A1981); tʃiɻi:'kə (M2000) inheritance loan to Yanomami, other yanomam lgs, "ʃiɾikaɾi" See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
steal robar roubar other amama (A1981) amama (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yei, taikapu (A1981); dök, yök, yöi (M2000) dʒei, taikapu (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stone piedra pedra environment etek (A1981); tök (E1980) etek (A1981); tök (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
suck chupar chupar body kuka, kuchika, kukuma, yuna (A1981); iku'ka (M2000) kuka, kutʃika, kukuma, dʒuna (A1981) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sweat sudar suor, suar body eramuta (A1981) eɾamuta (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
swell hincharse inchar body awita, awota, koveita (A1981); aworüka (M2000) awita, awota, koveita (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
swim nadar nadar motion puenun (A1981); atawa (M2000) puenun (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tail cola, rabo rabo body darena (A1981); dare'nö (M2000) daɾena (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
that ese/esa esse grammar mörö (E1980); mö'rö (M2000) mörö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kaiwan, kasetipan (A1981); pukan (M2000) kaiwan, kasetipan (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thin delgado fino quality karavapan, sewampan, sewanketeipan, ewanakayu, ewan keteru (A1981); karawa'pan (M2000) kaɾavapan, sewampan, sewanketeipan, ewanakadʒu, ewan keteɾu (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
think pensar pensar mental eeseenuumeenhkang (E1980); esenumenka (M2000) esenu'meŋkaŋ (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
this este/esta este grammar see (E1980); seenök (M2000) se (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
2sg xx xx grammar yure (A1981); a- (reduced form of [amörö]) (E1980); amörö (M2000) ʎʊrɛ (A1981); a- (reduced form of [amörö]) (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
three tres tres number eseurau, eseurawe-nan (A1981); seeuurawöknee (E1980); esearau (M2000) eseuɾau, eseuɾawenan (A1981); seurawöʔne (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
throat garganta garganta body mue, pu-mue, mue wayi, sen (A1981) mue, pumue, mue wadʒi, sen (A1981) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact pakama, choroka, enum-pueti (A1981); ichoroka (M2000) pakama, tʃoɾoka, enumpueti (A1981) inheritance?, unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
thunder truenos trovão environment waranapi, korume (A1981) waɾanapi, koɾume (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wate, auron-pueti (A1981); ewa'tö (M2000) wate, auɾonpueti (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tongue lengua lingua body yanii (E1980); danito (M2000) ʎani (E1980) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tooth diente dente body ye (A1981); deeto (M2000) dʒe (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ataime ataime (A1981) inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
two dos dois number sakne, saknan, sak, saare (all mean two) (A1981); asakrö (E1980); saakü'ne (M2000) sakne, saknan, sak, sa:ɾe (A1981); asakrö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
vomit vomitar vomitar body atarka-pueti (A1981); atarüka pönö (M2000) ataɾkapueti (A1981) inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
walk caminar, andar andar motion etame (A1981); e'tamen (M2000) etame (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
water agua agua environment tuna (A1981) tuna (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wet mojado molhado quality aikkuu (E1980) aɪʔku (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
what? que, qué que grammar ök (E1980); ök (M2000) ök (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
when? cuando quando grammar e daktai (A1981); okyatai (E1977); ö'da'tai (M2000) e daktai, (A1981); okʎatai (E1977) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
where? donde onde grammar atente (A1981); atïngtö (E1977); atöntö (M2000) atente, (A1981); atiŋto (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white blanco branco colour aimu-tun, choramu-nan (A1981); aimuuknang (E1980); aimutun (M2000) aimutun, tʃoɾamunan (A1981); aɪmuknaŋ (E1980); aimu'tuŋ (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
who? quien, quién quem grammar anök (E1980); anü (M2000) anök (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wife esposa esposa kinship nopue, weri (weri also means woman and female) (A1981);nopɨ (E1980); ino'pü (M2000) nopue, wer (A1981)i; nɔpɨ (E1980) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wind viento vento environment asitun, iroma (A1981); a'chitun (M2000) asitun, iɾoma (A1981) inheritance; unique N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wing ala asa body dapueri (A1981); dapöri (M2000) dapueɾi (A1981); ðapə:'ɻI (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
woman/female mujer mulher human weri (A1981); wörü (M2000) weɾi (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
work trabajar trabalhar other esenekama, t-etawere, tuapuese (A1981) esenekama, tetaweɾe, tuapuese (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
yawn bostezar bocejar body entakapina (A1981) entakapina (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
yellow amarillo amarelo colour chara-men (A1981); chu'kupiyyu (M2000) tʃaɾamen (A1981) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bad mal mal quality auwakrö (E1980) aʊwaʔrö (E1980) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar muere, mesere, michinek (just mean 'esto, esto, aquel' but not he or she) (A1981); mkrörö (E1980); mü'rörö (el) (M2000) mueɾe, meseɾe, mitʃinek (A1981); mkrörö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1sg yo eu grammar yuurö (E1980); yuurö (E1980) yuurö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leg/foot pierna perna body piechi'to (M2000) piechi'to (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
man/male hombre homem human warato, kurai (A1981); pemon (M2000) waɾato, kuɾai (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tok (E1980); mi'yamörö (ellos) (M2000) tɔk (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental iipuutuu (E1980); iputu (M2000) iputu (E1980) inheritance cognate Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yuurönokon, yuuröto (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar inna (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
2pl ustedes vocês grammar amörönokon (M2000) inheritance N Amaz subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bark corteza casca environment yeei piikpö (E1980); ipi'pö (M2000) ʎeɪ piʔpö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fingernail uña unha body yenna pipue (A1981); eenya puukpö (E1980) dʒena pipue (A1981); enʎa puʔpö (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
heart corazón coração body ewan enapue (A1981); yeewang yenakpö (E1980); yewanto, yena'pö (M2000) ewan enapue (A1981); ʎewaŋ ʎɛnaʔpö (E1980); jeβanto:jenah'pə (M2000) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sun sol sol time wei (A1981); wei (M2000) wei (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment mota (hombro, colina), wük (M2000) mota (A1981); wɨk unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
green verde verde quality choko (also means 'maduro'), rora (also means 'blue') (A1981); chookoorɨ (E1980); rora (M2000) tʃoko, ɾoɾa (A1981); tʃokorɨ (E1980) inheritance; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hot caliente quente quality anek, kui-nan (A1981); a'nek (M2000) anek, kuinan (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana anonte (A1981); anontö (E1980) anonte (A1981); anɔntö (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuurii (E1980) akuri (E1980) loan into protolg, direction unknown Northern Carib? Tupi-Guarani Mello (2000) reconstructs for Proto-TG. Occurs widely in Carib; but loan into (?) Piaroa /æk'uri/; Nheengatu /akuti/; Achuar agutí WW %akuti See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. akaree (E1977) akare (E1977) loan (into protolg?) Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) Tupi-Guarani *yakaré reconstructed for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (Schleicher 1998) WW %jakare See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mumpue (A1981); sarkang (E1980) mumpue (A1981); sarkaŋ rat' inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Broader (probably rat in general) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes aura (E1980) aʊra (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon Shared Akawaio See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora moto, sapaiprau (lombriz de tierra muy grande), patiri (lombriz muy grande) (A1981) moto, sapaipɾau, patiɾi (A1981) large earthworm' inheritance Also moto; patiɾi (large worm) Narrower (large type) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) kochirima (A1981); kochiiriimö (E1980) kotʃiɾima (A1981); kɔtʃirimö (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri mauraiö (giant) (A1981); kaikang (giant) (E1980) maʊraɪö, kaɪkaŋ (E1980) giant armadillo inheritance Venezuelan subgroup (Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Eñepa) Also kaɪkaŋ 'giant armadillo' (E1980) Narrower (giant) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paruru, kurantana (plantain) (A1981); erupa (A1981); erpa (E1980), meʔkerentǝ (Pessoa) paruru, kurantana (plantain) (A1981); erupa (A1981); erpa (E1980), meʔkerentǝ (Pessoa) inheritance? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. maripak (A1981); marpak (E1980) maɾipak (A1981); marpak (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. akupichi (A1981) (prob. Vigna sesquipedalis) akupitʃi (A1981) (prob. Vigna sesquipedalis) unknown Akawaio, Pemon prob. Vigna sesquipedalis See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wan (A1981); töuusang (E1980); tousanyun (M2000) wan (A1981); töusaŋ (E1980); tousaŋ'jun (M2000) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also wan (A1981) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna torong (E1997) tɔrɔŋ (E1977) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae wi (A1981); amang (E1980) wi (A1981); amaŋ (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Possible loan into Quichua: amaru. Also wi (Armellada & Gutiérrez); cognate with 'anaconda' in other lgs See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) arapö (E1980) arapö (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata irak (A1981); kangkaruuma (E1980) iɾak; kaŋkaruʔma (E1980) inheritance Also kaŋkaruʔma (E1980) See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera wakau (A1981) wakau (A1981) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris paruuweena (E1980) paruwena (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum eeroi (E1980) erɔɪ (E1980) inheritance - WW Northern Carib? %eroi Broader (wild and domesticate) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum eeroi erɔɪ inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan into Hodï Broader (wild and domesticate) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda manairak (scolopendra mursitans), okoi-pase (both mean centipede) (A1981); ököipasee (E1980); ködöri (M2000) manaiɾak, okoipase (A1981); ököɪpase (E1980); kədə:ri (M2000) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also manairak (scolopendra mursitans); kədə:ri (M2000) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kata (especie de cigarra), anarva (especie de cigarra: quesada gygas) (A1981); ariiktö (E1980) kata, anaɾva (A1981); ariʔtö (E1980) cicada species inheritance Unknown (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Makiritari) Also anaɾva (especie de cigarra: quesada gygas) (A1981); ariʔtö (E1980) Narrower (cicada type) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria masarva (cucaracha pequeña) (A1981); kororii (E1980) masarva (A1981); kɔrɔri (E1980) inheritance Unknown (Akawaio, Pemon, maybe Yukpa and Eñepa) possible link? Carib (*)masarawa, TG *taraBe Possible loan into Koreguaje: koʔroro. Also masarva (cucaracha pequeña) (A1981) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakiira (peccary) (E1980) pakira (E1980) peccary inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan Carib > Wapishana bakɨɽ; see also Piaroa maquíra, Cofan saquira See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ketewak (A1981); kötökkwak (E1980) ketewak (A1981); kötöʔkwak (E1980) inheritance Pemongan group (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi, prob. Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura makwai (E1980) maʔwaɪ (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon Shared Akawaio See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kricha (A1981); kiiriikcha (E1980) kɾitʃa (A1981); kiriʔtʃa (E1980) inheritance Pemongan group (Akawaio, Pemon, Mkushi, Eñepa) Also kiriʔtʃa (E1980) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus waikin (odocoileus gymnotis: venado sabanero), kariauki (virginianus cariacu: venado montañero) (A1981); giant savannah deer (as opposed to bush deer): waikiiniimö (E1980) waɪkinimö (E1980); kariauki (virginianus cariacu: venado montañero) (A1981) virginianus cariacu: venado montañero inheritance Also waikin (A1981), waɪkinimö (E1980) (odocoileus gymnotis: giant savannah deer, as opposed to bush deer) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris arimaraka (A1981); arinmaraka (M2000) aɾimaɾaka (A1981); aɻimmaɻ a:'ka (M2000) unknown shared Makushi; prob. loan into Wapishana Probably a loan into Arawak Wapishana: aɽimaɽak; similar form occurs in Pemon, Akawaiao; Simpson 1941 claims that these words are of Carib origin. Also pero (from Spanish) Broader (wild and domesticated) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis pero, arimaraka (A1981) peɾo, aɾimaɾaka (A1981) unknown Probably a loan into Arawak Wapishana: aɽimaɽak; similar form occurs in Pemon, Akawaiao; Simpson 1941 claims that these words are of Carib origin. Broader (wild and domesticated) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae weeruuchii (E1980), mada (A1981) weeruuchii (E1980), mada (A1981) doubtful loan Akawaio/Wapishana Also werutʃi (E1980) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family maiwak (A1981); maikwak (E1980) maiwak (A1981); maɪkwak (E1980) inheritance N Amazonian subgroup See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. piiriimok (E1977) pirimɔk (E1977) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kariimuura (E1980) karimura (E1980) inheritance Venezuelan subgroup (Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna morok (A1981) moɾok (A1981) inheritance Northern Carib? (Akawaio, Makushi, Mapoyo, Pemon) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ara (Pessoa2006) ara (Pessoa2006) inheritance See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera chipuen (A1981) tʃipuen (A1981) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera werwee (E1977) wɛrwe (E1977) inheritance Northern Carib? cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana rukuʔ (Pessoa2006) rukuʔ (Pessoa2006) unknown See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis aparuuwa (Lutra macrodus) (E1980) aparuwa (E1980) Lutra macrodus (but this is apparently incorrect; an old name for Asian otter) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon No info See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) wanak (M2000) wanak (M2000) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans namai (A1981) namai (A1981) inheritance Unknown (shared Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba savivi (especie de garza) (A1981); onoree (Ardea cocoi) (E1980) savivi (A1981); ɔnɔre (E1980) egret species inheritance Also ɔnɔre (Ardea cocoi) (E1980) Narrower (egret type) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. wora, wokira (A1981) woɾa, wokiɾa (A1981) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ariiyak (E1980); seneik (especie de galvilán) (A1981) ariʎak (E1980); seneik (A1981) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also seneik (hawk species) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pömɨii (pepper) (E1980) pömɨi (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arauta (E1980); iwaraka: generic monkey (M2000) araʊta (E1980) inheritance Likely loan Carib > Arawak: Piapoco, Achagua àlawàta; see also Guayabero /árow-at/. Also iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukui, wada-wada (especie de colíbri o tucusito, de tamaño grande) (A1981); tuukuuik (E1977) tukui, wadawada (A1981); tukuɪk (E1977) inheritance Loan Carib > Hodï: tu'kudi. Also wada-wada (especie de colíbri o tucusito, de tamaño grande) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. wayamaka (E1980) waʎamaka (E1980) WW (source?) Northern Carib? (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Yukpa) %wajamaka Likely loan into Nadëb: wajãam See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tɨmenneng (E1980) tɨmɛnnɛŋ (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Eñepa, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wanakapi (Pessoa2006) wanakapi (Pessoa2006) missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. napöɪ (red; E80), prisaʔ (long/white; Pessoa2006) napöɪ (red; E80), prisaʔ (long/white; Pessoa2006) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae sakaikka (A1981) sa'kaiʔka (A1981) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kaiwak(A1981); kiiawok (E1980) kaiwak; kiawɔk (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae mateu (coleóptero nocturno con los ojos muy brillantes que suele venir al fuego, donde se precipita) (A1981) mateu (A1981) unknown Compare mateu (coleóptero nocturno con los ojos muy brillantes que suele venir al fuego, donde se precipita) (A1981) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. wayara (E1980) waʎara (E1980) doubtful loan into protolg - WW Akawaio, Pemon %arara WW %ara See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays aknaik (A1981) aʔnaɪk (A1981) inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. uuruuktuuruu (E1977) uruʔturu (E1977) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. wara (large catfish) (A1981); eerekkö (small catfish) (E1980) wara (A1981); erɛʔkö (E1980) small catfish' (unclear what type) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kesera (A1981); kɨsee (E1980) keseɾa (A1981); kɨse (E1980) inheritance May be source of Pt macaxeira (sweet manioc); may also be related (old loan?) to Arawak kani- forms. Also keseɾa (A1981) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kanari (A1981); kaknarii (E1980) kanaɾi (A1981); kaʔnari (E1980) doubtful loan Akawaio, Pemon Arawak; shared Akawaio Likely relationship to Arawak kani- forms; e.g. Achagua ké:niru. Also kaʔnari (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. masak (E1977) masak (E1977) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera sape (A1981) sape (A1981) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) eenuura (cream colored), kwarang pana (dark brown), korköpiicha (fluffy), akuupana (tiny), kara-kara (white) (E1980) enura, kwaraŋ pana, kɔrköpitʃa, akupana, kara-kara (E1980) tiny mushroom species unknown Unknown ('pana' shared Pemon, Eñepa) Also enura (cream colored), kwaraŋ pana (dark brown), kɔrköpitʃa (fluffy), kara-kara (white) Narrower (mushroom sp.) Complex probably ? + pana See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis aparuuwa (Lutra macrodus) (E1980) aparuwa (E1980) doubtful loan, direction unknown Yucuna apatuhmé; shared Akawaio? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae avare (A1981); awaree (E1980) avare (A1981); aware (E1980) inheritance - WW Northern Carib? %jawari Likely loan Carib > Wapishana /jawari/; Hodï /yowale/; Yanomami /awaɾe/, Piaroa yäväre See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wona (A1981); töpoik (general), kuuk-kuuk (great horned) (E1980); porotoiko (M2000) wona (A1981); töpɔɪk, kuk-kuk (E1980); poɻo:toi'ko (M2000) generic owl? unique Akawaio, Pemon Also wona (A1981); kuk-kuk 'great horned owl' (E1980); poɻo:toi'ko (M2000) Broader (generic?) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kavak (A1981); kawak (E1980) kavak (A1981); kawak (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon May be onomatopoeic See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea araʔ (Pessoa2006) araʔ (Pessoa2006) unknown cf. Bora See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes tǝpiri (Pessoa2006) tǝpiri (Pessoa2006) doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %pipiri See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea anepu (A1981); mopa (E1980) anepu (A1981); mɔpa (E1980) inheritance Pemongan group (attested Makushi, Pemon) Also mɔpa (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus kaiwarak (ananas sativa) (E1980), kayuwara (Pessoa2006) kaɪwarak (E1980), kajuwara (Pessoa2006) ananas sativa semantic shift? Pemongan group (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi) caraua? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae aruu (E1980) aru (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi, Wai Wai) East Tukanoan See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum chak (E1980) tʃak (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? Broader (potato, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae parantarai (E1980) parantaraɪ (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones marite (A1981); mariitö (E1980) marite (A1981); maritö (E1980) inheritance Unknown (Akawaio, Pemon, Makiritari) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua kuarumada (means seje) (A1981) kuaɾumada (A1981) seje inheritance Unknown (attested Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. nupi (bradypus tridactylus), kuaran (choloepus didactylos) (A1981); kwarang (E1980) nupi, kuaran (A1981); kwaraŋ (E1980) choloepus didactylos inheritance Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Eñepa) Also nupi (bradypus tridactylus) (A1981) Narrower (type) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata waimesa (cnemidophorus leminiscatus) (A1981) waimesa (A1981) cnemidophorus leminiscatus inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Narrower (lizard type) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda koime (A1981); kuuiwa (E1980) koime (A1981); kuɪwa (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also kuɪwa (E1980) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna okoi; ököi (E1980); ököi (M2000) oko (A1981)i; ököɪ (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox sakasak (rattlesnake) (E1980) sakasak (E1980) rattlesnake' inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. wara (large catfish) (A1981); eerekkö (small catfish) (E1980) wara (A1981); erɛʔkö (E1980) large catfish' (unclear what type) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae arai (A1981) aɾai (A1981) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kawǝyuma (Pessoa2006) kawǝjuma (Pessoa2006) inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kari-kari (A1981); karii (E1980) kari-kari (A1981); kari (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? (Pemongan, Yukpa) Likely loan Carib > Hodï kali. Also kari (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ichak (A1981) itʃak (A1981) inheritance Northern Carib? Broader (potato, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris waira, maikuri (both are "tapirus terrestris") (A1981) waiɾa, maikuɾi (A1981) tapirus terrestris' inheritance Pemongan? (attested Pemon, Makushi, Yabarana, maybe Makiritare) Also maikuɾi (tapirus terrestris) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera chirima, chiripra (both mean: especie de comején comestible) (A1981); kuungwaik (E1980) tʃirima, tʃiripra (A1981); kuŋwaɪk (E1980) edible termite species' unique Also kuŋwaɪk (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea karimatex (ixodes) (A1981); koparii, kariikmatok (E1980) kaɾimateks (A1981); kɔpari, kariʔmatɔk (E1980) ixodes inheritance; loan Pemongan group (attested Makushi, Pemon) Arawak Also kɔpari, kariʔmatɔk (E1980) Narrower (termite sp.) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae supara supaɾa 'gallina' missing Also kaɾivina, kaɾataka, glossed 'gallina' No info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura pereteku (A1981); ampak (frog), chiinau (toad) (E1980) peɾeteku (A1981); ampak, tʃinaʊ (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also pereteku (A1981); ampak (frog) See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kavai, tamu (A1981) kavai, tamu (A1981) doubtful loan into protolanguage Northern Carib? possibly from Arawak 'kuwai' deity? Venezuelan Carib Likely loan into Hodï: Hodï ʰkawoi. Also tamu See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria wadamori (A1981); wayamorii, peeituura (turtle) (E1980) wadamori (A1981); waʎamɔri, peɪtura (E1980) inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Wai Wai) Also peɪtura 'turtle' (E1980) See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. kiarue, wa (especie de tucán muy pequeño) (A1981); kiiapok (E1980) kiarue, wa (A1981); kiapɔk (E1980) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon Also wa (especie de tucán muy pequeño) (A1981); kiiapok (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yei (A1981); yöi (M2000) dʒei (A1981); 'jəi (M2000) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella ri-ku-tun (A1981); iwaraka: generic monkey (M2000) rɪ-kʊ-tʊn (A1981) unknown iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae angwana (E1977) aŋwana (E1977) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kankepan, tempi (both are 'especie de avispas') (A1981); tapiiyuuka (E1977) kankepan, tempi (A1981); tapiʎuka (E1977) wasp species unknown Also kankepan (A1981) tapiʎuka (E1977) Narrower (wasp sp.) See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sapeereetek (E1980) saperetɛk (E1980) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Akawaio May contain sape 'moth' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna aɾimaɾaka; aɻimmaɻ a:'ka loan direction unknown Arawak See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna waikin (odocoileus gymnotis: venado sabanero), kariauki (virginianus cariacu: venado montañero); giant savannah deer (as opposed to bush deer): waikiiniimö waɪkinimö inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pereu pɨröʊ (E1980) inheritance Loan into Piaroa (p'oari)? hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wakka (E1980) waʔka (E1980) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool mosokoroi (E1977) mɔsɔkɔrɔɪ (E1977) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material kamok (E1980) kamɔk (E1980) bowl made from calabash gourd inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material tʃaɾampue Unknown Alternate: wankotopue, waɪkarapö See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material charampue (cesto grande y de tejido ralo), wankotopue (especie de cesto grande) (A1981) tʃaɾampue, wankotopue (A1981) Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kasuuruu (E1980) kasuru (E1980) loan - WW Pemongan subgroup %kasiru See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material aponok (A1981); daponto (M2000) aponok (A1981); βapon'dto (M2000) inheritance Proto-Carib Alternate: βapon'dto See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool kuuraik (E1980) kuraɪk (E1980) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Maybe Proto-Carib currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bottle botella garrafa acculturation potoro potoro Loan Spanish See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bow arco arco subsistence tool rapa (A1981); uurapa (E1980); urapa (M2000) rapa (A1981); urapa (E1980); uɻa:pa' (M2000) inheritance Proto-Carib Alternate: rapa, uɻa:pa' arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
broom escoba vassoura culture-material padasekkadok (E1980) padasɛʔkadɔk (E1980) inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
canoe canoa canoa transport kanau (E1980) kanaʊ (E1980) doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa WW occurs in e.g. Wapishana, khanawa; various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate source sometimes claimed to be Car WW %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
cat gato gato acculturation pichana (A1981) pitʃana (A1981) loan - WW %pisana probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
chicken gallina galinha acculturation supara, karivina, karataka (A1981); iimɨkararuu (with featherless neck) (E1980) supara, karivina, karataka unknown, loan, loan - WW Span/Port 'gallina' (cf. Nordenskiold 1922:29); %kara Compare Nheengatu sapukaja. Alternate: karivina, karataka, iʔmɨkararu (with featherless neck) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology eepuuruu (E1980); epuru, tusawa (A1981) epuru (E1980) (A1981) inheritance; loan - WW Akawaio-Pemon shared Akawaio; %tuʃawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food tuma řintetok Unknown Maybe shared Makushi See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology Missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
dance (generic) culture-mythology manunnö Inheritance Pemongan subgroup See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kuungwa (E1980) kuŋwa (E1980) Inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup? hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kate, potorito (means our father, god) (A1981); katɨ (E1980) kate, potorito (A1981); katɨ (E1980) inheritance; unknown Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup? Similar term Waiwai; maybe older. Alternate: potorito In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology emoron, wetun (A1981); weknetɨ, weknepɨnötok (E1980) weʔnɛtɨ, weʔnɛpɨnötɔk Inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Alternate: weʔnɛpɨnötɔk, emoron, wetun See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology sambura (A1981); sampuura (E1980) sambura (A1981); sampura (E1980) loan Spanish/Portuguese Found widely in Carib, with some t-s correspondences (but apparently not regular). Also found Baniwa, Yavitero, Northern Emberá, Jivaro family, Cubeo, Nheengatu, Ninam See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool asema (A1981); worii-worii (E1980) asema (A1981); wɔri-wɔri (E1980) unknown; inheritance Proto-Carib esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology muurang (herbal), kuumii (used by kanaima) (E1980) muraŋ, kumi) (E1980) charm (herbal) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon Alternate: kumi (charm used by kanaima) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fireplace hogar lareira other Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
firewood leña lenha other apok, keme, werke (A1981) apok, keme, weɾke (A1981) inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Alternate: apok, weɾke See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food moorok eema (E1980) morɔk ema (E1980) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool ada Inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool konoik yeepuu (E1980) kɔnɔɪk jewa (E1980) Inheritance Pemongan subgroup Compound fishhook string' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool mooroik (E1980) morɔɪk (E1980) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food eekeei (dried), akuusee (soft), eekeeikarautanösak (toasted) (E1980) ekeɪ, akuse, ekeɪkaraʊtanösak (E1980) flat bread (soft) inheritance Pemongan subgroup Alternate:akuse, ekeɪkaraʊtanösak usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kïseerekna (E1977) kɨserɛʔna (E1977) unique From 'manioc-meal'? Similar term in Wai Wai, but similarity may be in 'manioc' term. agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wosekpue (flauta hecha de tibia de animal, preferentement de venado), kaikra (nombre de la caña que se usa para hacer flautas y bodoqueras. La misma flauta) (A1981) wosekpue, kaikɾa (A1981) flute made of the tibia of an animal, preferably a deer unknown Alternate: kaikɾa multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food woto woto inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Wai Wai, Pemon Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool arapö (E1980) arapö (E1980) gourd unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool suumarii (E1980) sumari (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib Probably Carib loan in Paresi tʃimjare esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool apok yeksek (glossed as 'three logs on which pot is placed for cooking') (E1980) apɔk yɛʔsɛk (E1980) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool tari missing Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup? Attested Makiritare, Pemon agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (A1981); iiteemung (E1980) rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (A1981); itemuŋ (E1981) unique Alternate: rakte-pueti, juarima, dochima, ivereima (rifle) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kaimi, karimi (A1981) kaimi, kaɾimi (A1981) unknown Alternate: kaɾimi See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hat sombero chapéu dress arok, jaroko, sapewa (A1981); arok (E1980) arok, jaroko, sapewa (A1981); arɔk (E1980) semantic shift; loan Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup from 'headdress'; Port chapeu Alternate:jaroko, sapewa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology piasan (A1981); piiayasang (E1977) pɪasan (A1981); piaʎasaŋ (E1977) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
honey miel mel food töusang yeeuukuu (E1980) töusaŋ jeuku (E1980) unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Akawaio only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
hunt cazar caçar food wonun (A1981); wontïmang peknö (E1977); awonnö (M2000) wonun (A1981); wɔntïmaŋ pɛknö (E1977) Inheritance Pemongan subgroup Alternate: wɔntïmaŋ pɛknö See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tavara, maria (means small knife, pocket knife) (A1981); maraiia, tawara (E1980) tavaɾa, maɾia (A1981); ma'ria, 'tawara (E1980) inheritance; loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW Pemongan subgroup %marije Alternate: maɾia (small knife, pocket knife) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress rapu, wayiku, mosa (A1981) rapu, wajiku, mosa (A1981) Unknown Alternate:wayiku(general cloth, loin cloth), mosa(feminine loin cloth) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
machete machete facão culture-material kasupara (A1981) kasupaɾa (A1981) loan - WW %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool akoo (E1980) ako (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paper papel papel acculturation kareta kareta loan Span/Port 'carta' Alternate: paperu See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tamu jen Unknown Alternate: paipa, katʃimbo, kavai jen Phrase tamu=tobacco; yen=container See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material praturu (A1981); parapii (E1980) praturu (A1981); parapi (E1980) loan; loan, direction unknown - WW %parapi Nheengatu parátu (from POR); see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
policeman polícia policía acculturation Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool eine (olla de barro) (A1981); ainö (E1980) eine (A1981); aɪnö (E1980) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maruai (Romero) maruai (Romero) unknown Alternate: i-vek Compound 'tree liquid' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
salt sal sal food pan, sararu (A1981); waiyoo (E 1980) pan, sararu (A1981); waijoo (E 1980) inheritance; loan Akawaio-Pemon Span/Port Alternate: pan, sararu See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
school escuela escola acculturation esenupandok Unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu Loan Spanish/Portuguese Tariana sapatu; Yanomam sapato; Hup capatu, Pemon sapatu See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
soldier soldado soldado acculturation surara missing Carib? Port via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology eremuk (A1981); eremuk (A1981) inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
spear lanza lança subsistence tool supari (A1981); supararii (E1980) supari (A1981); sʊparari (E1980) semantic shift - WW see 'machete'; %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food imu (A1981); chiipiipa (E1980) imu (A1981); tʃipipa (E1980) inheritance; unknown Pemongan subgroup tʃipipa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material Missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation kaiwarakun yeuku erintesak (A1981); chiikaruu (E1980) kaiwarakun yeuku erintesak (A1981) Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon Alternate: kaiwarakun jeuku erintesak See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tobacco (native) narcotics tamu Inheritance *tam(u/ï) Proto-Carib Reconstruction Meira p.c. See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool apok yeksek (glossed as 'three logs on which pot is placed for cooking') (E1980) apɔk yɛʔsɛk (E1980) Missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool kumarwa (A1981) kumaɾwa (A1981) inheritance? cf. Yukpa hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
wax cera cera other morompue (A1981); maitakiing (E1980) (for rubbing on fishing rods) morompue (A1981), maɪtakiŋ (E1980) inheritance; unknown Pemongan subgroup shared Akawaio Alternate:maɪtakiŋ (wax rubbed on fishing rods) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool panka, ainonkatok (both mean 'strainer') (A1981) panka, ainonkatok (A1981) inheritance; inheritance Akawaio-Pemon Alternate: ainonkatok agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology Missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material charampue (cesto grande y de tejido ralo), wankotopue (especie de cesto grande) (A1981);for carrying produce: akaik, waikarapö (E1980) tʃaɾampue, wankotopue (A1981); akaɪk (E1980) unknown (all) see Akawaio See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology pon (A1981); pontoo (E1980) pon (A1981); pɔnto (E1980) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology orodan (A1981); kookoi (E1980); spirit: yaukkuarɨ (E1980) oroda (A1981); kokɔɪ (E1980); ʎaʊʔkʊarɨ (E1980) unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paddle/oar remo remo transport naire (A1981) naiɾe (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ewa, esewa (A1981); itewa (M2000) ewa, esewa (A1981) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology akuuknatok (paint) (E1977) akuʔnatɔk (E1977) See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kachirí (bebida fermentada, hecha a base de puré de yuca amarga, maíz, bananos, casabe, guarapo de caña, etc. El nombre "kachirí" se reserva para la bebida de yuca mezclada o no con batata) (A1981) katʃiɾi (A1981) inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza; Alyssa Wadley
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
house other tapui, yewik, (both mean house), aute (eute) (means 'casa' but also a type of wasp), waipa (casa de base circular y techo cónico, la más típica de estos indígenas, llamada también tukuchipan) (A1981) tapui, dʒewik, aute (eute), waipa (A1981) loan; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no palatalization is not contrastive Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Pessoa 2005:58 Daniel Smith Tuarepang dialect
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme yes CCV allowed Pessoa 2005:67 Daniel Smith Tuarepang dialect
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no CVC and CCVC allowed Pessoa 2005:67 Daniel Smith Only k or n (which sometimes assimilates and becomes an m) can be codas
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony yes Pessoa 2005 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no de Armellada 1999: 105 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no de Armellada 1999: 105 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes tense, aspect, relative clause, some modals de Armellada 1999: 105-134 Daniel Smith
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes tense, aspect, relative clause, some modals de Armellada 1999:105-134 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes de Armellada 1999: 271 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no de Armellada 1999: 271 Shannon Dardis
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes de Armellada 1999: 138-9 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes The author calls these verbs as auxiliaries but they do not seem to fit the definition of auxiliary verbs since they do not show any grammatical information not already present in the main verb; rahter, they seem to be a instance of verb serialization de Armellada 1999: 27-9 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes ta, suffix de Armellada 1999: 262 Shannon Dardis The suffixes ma, te and pa derive transitive verbs from nouns and other parts of speech
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes can you say anything about which ones? It seems that postpositions can be added to verbs to form other verbs de Armellada 1999: 260 to 262 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no de Armellada 1999:48 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no de Armellada 1999: 48 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no de Armellada 1999: 48 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no de Armellada 1999: 49 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes suffixes: ton, on, kon, san, nan de Armellada 1999: 50 to 52 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no de Armellada 1999: 49 to 53 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic yes dama de Armellada 1999: 49, 50 Shannon Dardis This postposition is only used for animates. Though Pemon does not usually use plurals, dama is the most common morpheme for showing plurality.
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes de Armellada 1999: 49 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' yes pon, darenkon These are postpositions de Armellada 1999: 53 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no de Armellada 1999: 151 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes de Armellada 1999: 110 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 sere, this (close); muere, that (farther); chinek, that over there (really far) de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no muere, mesere de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis These are also demonstratives, and I think that's why there are two of them
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no to, ichanan, mesemonan de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis These are also demonstratives
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis There is a distinction drawn between exclusive and inclusive pronouns in 1st person plural pronouns (ina is excl. and (y)ure-to and (y)ure-nokon are both inclusive)
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix yes te is this really a pronoun (like 'himself') or a reflexive marker? If it's a PN, is te used for all persons as a kind of generic pronoun? de Armellada 1999: 35 Shannon Dardis This is actually a prefix, but my source calls it a pronoun.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 2 de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis The ergative case is marked with the suffix ya (or it's allomorph da). The absolutive case doesn't seem to have its own morpheme.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis Only the subject of a transivite verb seems to ever be obligatorily marked.
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes de Armellada 1999: 16-25, 54-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no de Armellada 1999: 16-25, 54-5 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no de Armellada 1999: 54 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes "A hand" is used for 5 and a "hand with a finger is 6 de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis I think the base is four. After twenty though the numbers get really complicated.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes sak-ne-ne "4" would come from sak-ne "2" as meaning two times 2 de Armellada 1999: 67 Shannon Dardis mia and yenna both mean hand
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no de Armellada 1999: 66, 67 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes u-, a-, i- singular possession prefixes de Armellada 1999: 14 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes -to, -kon plural inclusives are suffixes, 2nd and 3rd plural possessives are circumfixes de Armellada 1999: 14 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis ri is usually the suffix that shows possession, but sometimes other morphemes are used instead
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes de Armellada 1999: 253, 254 Shannon Dardis Most adjectives, however, are derived from other parts of speech.
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no de Armellada 1999: 253, 254 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes There are four suffixes (which each have a plural form as well as a singular one) that are used to create agents. Which one you use depends on the transitivity of the verb and its tense. de Armellada 1999: 159 to 165 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes suffixes: ma, te, pa/ba, ta, ka, others that cannot be generalized de Armellada 1999: 260 to 263 Shannon Dardis
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes The preterito is marked with the suffix pue. Most verbs use this suffix. However, it's also possible for verbs to be in what's called preterito sintetico. I don't know exactly how that works or why, but it has something to do with acusative vs. ergative a de Armellada 1999: 110 to 120 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no There is, however, a distinction between simple past tense and the preterito perfecto, which indictates that an action is either complete or precedes another action, according to my source (pg. 119). de Armellada 1999: 110 to 120 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no de Armellada 1999: 130 to 133 Shannon Dardis Pemon has various suffixes that show that that an accion is imminent or intended, but my source says that this is not quite a verb form for indicating future
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) no de Armellada 1999: 130 to 133 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no de Armellada 1999: 110 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes de Armellada 1999; 110 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no de Armellada 1999; 110 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no de Armellada 1999; 110 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes ke, 2nd person singular; tek 2nd person plural de Armellada 1999: 9 Shannon Dardis These are both suffixes and are used for simple imperatives. They can be combined with the infix tanë to indicate that the receiver must come to where the speaker is to do something. To indicate that the receiver should go somewhere and do something the s
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no de Armellada 1999: 9 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes de Armellada 1999: 123 Daniel Smith pra is used in one of the imperative examples on page 9 and then has a whole section on page 238 where it is used to negate declaratives
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' yes pai de Armellada 1999: 125 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no de Armellada 1999: 129 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no can you state briefly how this works? The word poken follows the verb to show possibility. I guess maybe this isn't a verbal construction after all? de Armellada 1999: 129 Shannon Dardis The word poken follows the verb
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no de Armellada 1999: 129 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis yes suffix paino de Armellada 1999: 201, 202 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction yes de Armellada 1999: 201, 202 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no de Armellada 1999: 201, 202 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes suffix pueti de Armellada 1999: 134 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no de Armellada 1999: 121 to 136 Shannon Dardis
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no info de Armellada 1999: 105-95 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 105-70 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no de Armellada 1999: 23 Shannon Dardis The basic order for transitive sentences is SOV, which alternates with OVS
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no de Armellada 1999: 16 Shannon Dardis
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes de Armellada 1999: 23 Shannon Dardis
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no de Armellada 1999: 23 Shannon Dardis
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no de Armellada 1999: 23 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Preposition-Noun no de Armellada 1999: 71 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes de Armellada 1999: 71 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no de Armellada 1999: 13 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no de Armellada 1999: 58 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes de Armellada 1999: 58 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Dem-Noun yes de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Noun-Dem no de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Word Order Num-Noun no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Based on examples de Armellada 1999: 178 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') yes de Armellada 1999: 175-94 Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no info Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes de Armellada 1999: 143 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker yes de Armellada 1999: 22 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes de Armellada 1999:18- 22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes Not clear what the condionintg factor is. However, it seems to be related to past tense de Armellada 1999:114 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes This seems to be the more general pattern de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. yes de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes de Armellada 1999:16-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Based on examples de Armellada 1999:19 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 58-61, 95-104 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes de Armellada 1999:16-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes de Armellada 1999:20-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes de Armellada 1999:20-1 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no First person singular in intransitive sentences can be zero-marked de Armellada 1999:16-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Possessive affixes are the same as the absolutive verbal affixes de Armellada 1999:18 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no de Armellada 1999:262 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -ta de Armellada 1999:262 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no de Armellada 1999:262 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element yes de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no de Armellada 1999: 237 to 240 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no de Armellada 1999: 237, 238 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes nak, ma or both de Armellada 1999: 145 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no de Armellada 1999:143/49 145 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no de Armellada 1999:143/49 145 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no de Armellada 1999: 143 to 149 Shannon Dardis
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes de Armellada 1999:178 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes de Armellada 1999:27 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info most likely not Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no de Armellada 1999:175-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no This relativizer is usually used to introduced relative clause in which the subject of the main clause is co-referential with the object of the relative clause de Armellada 1999:179 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) no de Armellada 1999:175-94, 252-9 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) yes -te + puek [-te] comes from the word for "chest" and puek is a postposition which has different meaning amog them dative and source de Armellada 1999: 128 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Each verb has its own person inflection de Armellada 1999: 16-5, 105-226 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info more likely not Daniel Valle