Unique associative plural marker

Nominal Categories - Number
e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No mention of associative among other dual and plural markers. Allin, 1976: 164 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes The suffix -nu is used with animates, but also to give a collective sense. Aikhenvald, 1995: 18 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 98-109 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 519 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no The use of the regular plural marker on any noun with a human referent gives an associative reading. Aikhenvald, 2003: 165 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no No discussion of associative plural marker among other number markers. Facundes, 2000: 260-263 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:26-8 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 297 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes different collective forms Launey 2003:96 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:52-57 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 101-3, 282-3 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982: 89 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Payne 2012:68, 131-134 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes These are postpositions de Armellada 1999: 53 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes only for a limited # of nouns Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no more likely noy Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Based on the glossing of examples Ortiz 1994:383 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no info data doesn't specifically state otherwise Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info more likely no Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes This nominal suffix "expresses an intimate relation or close association between two or more people or objects." Levinson 1976b:54 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:242, 272-3 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info probably not Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no The suffix -ri indicates associative with something or someone, benefactive for someone, or to mark a specific location. (not unique to associative) Minor and Minor 1982. p.37 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes the marker '-sã' is used when the speaker knows the hearer is aware of the people that would be with the person whose name is given Miller 1999, p. 53 Amanda Novak Marker -sã 'also' gives a plural meaning 'in addition to the others'
Cubeo yes The suffix -xã 'associative' is used on animate nouns to mean 'this one and those associated with him or her.' Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 99 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack
Kotiria no but comitative marker may have historically been an associative Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.51 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.20 Chris Clack Barasano uses the noun bẽsa (animate group) to refer to 'and those with him'.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.50-57 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:135-136 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no info Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:137-8 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms9.1 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes? n23 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info 59 done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 42-3 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 28-31 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 24, 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 353 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No info Done-Amalia x
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 103 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 39 done 0
Martuthunira yes 97 done 1
Marrgany No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 213 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 55 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 388 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info Done-Amalia x
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 287 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 43 0
Dyirbal No 241 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 40-42 done 0
Djinang No 87 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 17-18 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 19 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 90 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 64 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 18-19 done 0
Katthang no 48 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No info Done-Amalia x
Ngaatjatjara yes 29 done 1
Arrernte No 89 0
Kokatha No 54 0
Karajarri No 144 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 93 0
Ritharrngu No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 25 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 48 Y2 0
Narungga No info 66 done x
Tharrkari No 23 0
Wajarri No 68 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps