Baniwa

Family
Arawakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
bwi
Location
2.18°, -67.77°
Notes
Related to Karutana and Kurripaco; not the same as Baniva of Guiana (bvv).
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Ramirez, Henri. 2001. Uma gramática do Baniwa do Içana. Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Ramirez, Henri. 2001. Dicionário Baniwa-Português. Manaus: Editora da Universidade do Amazonas. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo. Seifart, Frank. Comparative Arawakan word list.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
all todo todos other phiu-me (Ram2000) phiu-me (Ram2000) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
and y e grammar ñhéette ɲhéet̪e unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ankle tobillo tornozelo body koróda, hiipóko, -tawírhe, -thi koróda, hiipóko, -tawírhe, -thi inheritance; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
armpit axila, sobaco axila body koaphimáka-ɺiko koaphimáka-ɺiko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment wádzoɺe wádzoɺe doubtful loan, direction unknown Yabarana Carib 'wastu', 'watsu'; not found in other Arawak or Carib languages in database See Language page Ana Paula B.
at en, a em, a location ɺiko ɺiko unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
back espalda costas body ttáma t̪áma inheritance cognate Tariana-Baniwa only See Language page Ana Paula B.
belly barriga barriga body -xáda -ʃáda unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
below abajo, debajo abaixo location áapirhe áapirhe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
big grande grande quality maka- maka- unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
bite morder morder body mhoa mhoa unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
black negro preto colour íitta íit̪a (=smoke) semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B.
blood sangre sangue body -iiránaa -iiɻánaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
blow soplar soprar body phia phia inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body thia, eekóexeni thia, eekóeʃeni unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
bone hueso osso body -áapi, (i)ñaapi -áapi, (i)ɲaapi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
breast pecho, seno peito body -kóda -kóda inheritance similar to Arutani kotsa; possible loan Arawak > Arutani See Language page Ana Paula B.
breathe respirar respirar body híraa, kaaɺewa híraa, kaaɺewa unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
burn quemar queimar environment mháita mháita inheritance compare Northern Emberá "bhái" See Language page Ana Paula B.
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ñhakóta ɲhakóta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
child niño, niña criança human ienipétti ienipét̪i inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
climb subir subir motion híra híra inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cloud nube nuvem environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
cold frío frio quality hápe hápe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
come venir vir motion no no inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cook cocinar cozinhar impact dzána dzána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality háapee háapee inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
count contar contar mental niwéeta niwéeta unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
cry llorar chorar mental íidza íidza inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tákhaa, matáka, aakeapíta tákhaa, matáka, aakeapíta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
day día dia time heekóapi heekóapi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
die/be dead morir morrer state malíome maɺíome unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dig cavar cavar impact híka híka inheritance compare similar inheritance forms in Carib; probably chance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
dirty sucio sujo quality dowhénaa dowhénaa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dream soñar sonhar mental tápoɺi tápoɺi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
drink beber, tomar beber body -íira -íiɻa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
dry seco seco quality meétta meét̪a unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality memána memána unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
dust polvo poeira environment dáaphe dáaphe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ear oreja orelha body -héeni, -hináko-liko -héeni, -hináko-ɺiko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
earth/soil tierra terra environment híipai híipai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eat comer comer body -íiñha -íiɲha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
egg huevo ovo fauna -éewhe -éewhe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
eye ojo olho body -thi -thi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body íijha íijha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fall caer cair motion híwa, wéra híwa, wéra inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
far lejos longe quality yákaa jákaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fat/grease grasa gordura body -íitti -íit̪i inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
father padre, papá pai kinship -hániɹi (hr01) -hániɻi (hr01) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fear miedo medo mental káaro, whio káaro, whio inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather pluma pena fauna -phe -phe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fire fuego fogo environment ttídzee t̪ídzee inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish xx xx fauna kóphe kúpʰe inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
flower flor flor environment íiwi íiwi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fly volar voar motion -áara -áaɻa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ittamána it̪amána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
foot pie body -híipa -híipa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fruit fruta fruta flora iináka, haikóthe iináka, haikóthe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
good bueno bom quality mátsia mátsia inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
grow crecer crescer state tawíiña tawíiɲa inheritance possible loan into Ninam/Sanuma (Yanomam) See Language page Ana Paula B.
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body -tsíkole -tsíkoɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hand mano mão body -káapi -káapi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
head cabeza cabeça body -hiwída -hiwída inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hear oír ouvir mental -hima -hima inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
heavy pesado pesado quality hamíña hamíɲa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hide esconder esconder motion dawa dawa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ñaa ɲaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kodapéta kodapéta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
how? como como grammar kóame kóame unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
if si se grammar kádaa kádaa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location wáwa wáwa unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
intestines intestinos intestinos body xápi ʃápi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body oopáta oopáta unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
kill matar matar impact -íinoa -íinoa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lake lago lago environment kaɺítta kaɺít̪a inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
laugh reír rir mental íkaa íkaa unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leaf hoja folha environment panáphe panáphe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kádaa, máka, páattoli?? kádaa, máka, páat̪oli?? unique also páattoli?? - this one could be inheritance (root pa ?) or loan from Mapoyo Carib paasori See Language page Ana Paula B.
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion rhóa (in the floor), -koa (in the hammock) rhóa (in the floor), -koa (in the hammock) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
liver hígado figado body -xópana -ʃópana inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
long largo comprido, longo quality yápi jápi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna towída towída unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
lung pulmón pulmão body ttáattani t̪áat̪ani unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
meat/flesh carne carne fauna -íipe -íipe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
moon luna lua environment kéeri kéeɻi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -hádoa -hádoa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mouth boca boca body -nóma -nóma inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
name nombre nome human -iipítana -iipítana inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body hoowhéda hoowhéda unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
near/close cerca de perto quality tsóome tsóome unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
neck cuello pescoço body nóoro nóoro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
new nuevo novo quality éemi éemi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
night noche noite time déepi déepi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
no/not no não grammar ñáme ɲáme inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
nose nariz nariz body -hitáko -hitáko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
old viejo velho quality pedália (person), opi- (thing) pedáɺia (person), opi- (thing) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
one uno um number a(a)pa- a(a)pa- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
open/uncover abrir abrir other mheéta mheéta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
other otro outro grammar a(a)pa- a(a)pa- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body dzáami, káiwhia, hiwiathítta dzáami, káiwhia, hiwiathít̪a unique; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
person/human being persona pessoa human newíki newíki inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact nãa, kháama, tãime nãa, kháama, tãime inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
rain lluvia chuva environment íidza íidza inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
red rojo vermelho colour íirai íiɻai inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mátsia, madzákani, whittíta, dzeekéma??? mátsia, madzákani, whit̪íta, dzeekéma??? inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
road/path camino caminho manufacture inípo, -aapówa, -aapowánaa inípo, -aapówa, -aapowánaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
root raíz raiz flora -pali -paɺi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
rotten podrido podre quality pa, mokóme pa, mokóme inheritance; unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
sand arena areia environment káida káida inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
scratch rascar rasgar impact tshawa tshawa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
see ver ver mental -kápa -kápa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kemána kemána inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact tolóka tolóka inheritance? See Language page Ana Paula B.
short corto curto quality mádoa, ttómo, tsóo mádoa, t̪ómo, tsóo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoulder hombro ombro body ttéda t̪éda unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kakaroniíte kakaroniíte unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
sit sentar(se) sentar state oówhaa oówhaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
skin piel pele body -ya -ja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sky cielo céu environment éeno éeno semantic shift thunder See Language page Ana Paula B.
sleep dormir dormir body -ímaa -ímaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
small pequeño pequeno quality -eeni, tsóo, tíki -eeni, tsóo, tíki inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
smoke humo fumaça environment íitta íit̪a inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body eémia eémia inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
spit escupir cuspir body hiwítta hiwít̪a inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact keéta, matáka keéta, matáka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact hípoa, tsíoka hípoa, tsíoka unique; doubtful loan Ocaina tsaaka See Language page Ana Paula B.
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ttólhoa t̪ólhoa unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state hiníko, hótshome, éema hiníko, hótshome, éema unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
star estrella estrela environment hiwírhi hiwíɻhi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
steal robar roubar other ñaíto ɲaíto inheritance West Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B.
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora háiko háiko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone piedra pedra environment hiipada hiipada inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
suck chupar chupar body péro, tsóotso péro, tsóotso unknown; inheritance widespread onomatopoeic forms w/ tso, tsu See Language page Ana Paula B.
sweat sudar suor, suar body iiñápe iiɲápe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
swell hincharse inchar body íixa íiʃa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
swim nadar nadar motion -aáxaa -aáʃaa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
that ese/esa esse grammar lhíerahã ɺhíeɻahã inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality hipánda, maka- hipánda, maka- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
thin delgado fino quality haɺettápe haɺet̪ápe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
think pensar pensar mental wapiñeeta wapiɲeeta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
this este/esta este grammar lhíehe ɺhíehe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
2sg xx xx grammar phía phía inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
three tres tres number madali- madaɺi- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
throat garganta garganta body weéda ɺiko weéda ɺiko unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kakólha, peéko kakólha, peéko inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
thunder truenos trovão environment éeno éeno inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact oowéta, páraa oowéta, páraa inheritance, inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tongue lengua lingua body -eenéne -eenéne inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
tooth diente dente body -eétsha -eétsha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kapokóita kapokóita inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
two dos dois number dzáma- (hr01) dzáma- (hr01) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
vomit vomitar vomitar body kátha kátha inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
walk caminar, andar andar motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
water agua agua environment óoni úuni inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wet mojado molhado quality póotsia póotsia inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
what? que, qué que grammar kóaka kóaka inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
when? cuando quando grammar koame kawálhi? koame kawálhi? unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
where? donde onde grammar kálhe? kálhe? unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
white blanco branco colour háale háaɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
who? quien, quién quem grammar kóaka kóaka inheritance same as 'what' See Language page Ana Paula B.
wife esposa esposa kinship -íino -íino inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wind viento vento environment káwaaɺe káwaaɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
wing ala asa body náphe náphe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
woman/female mujer mulher human íinaro íinaɻo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
work trabajar trabalhar other déeñhi déeɲhi unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
yawn bostezar bocejar body tshawa nóma tshawa nóma unknown See Language page Ana Paula B.
yellow amarillo amarelo colour éewa éewa loan (into protolg?), direction unknown E. Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B.
bark corteza casca environment -ya -ja inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fingernail uña unha body -tsóta -tsóta inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
heart corazón coração body -kaale -kaaɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
sun sol sol time kámoi kámoi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment hidzápa hidzápa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
green verde verde quality hípole hípoɺe inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
hot caliente quente quality hámo hámo inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
bad mal mal quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar lhía, rhóa ɺhía, ɻhóa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1sg yo eu grammar nhóa nhóa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
leg/foot pierna perna body kawa kawa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
man/male hombre homem human atsíanli, newíki atsíanɺi, newíki inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nháa nháa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental -áanhee -áanhee unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar wháa wháa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
2pl ustedes vocês grammar hía hía inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana phiɾimáapa pʰiɾimáːpa, phiɻi[máapa] (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. phíitsi; puuto (H&R92) phíitsi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also puuto (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. kátshiri kátshiɻi, kájhiɺi (FS) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis amána amána doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW Central North Arawak Ramirez reconstructs; cf. other Arawak source loans for dolphin uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus híiri híiɻi inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes omáwali omáwaɺi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora oomápi oomápi inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae káiwiri (H&R92) inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup (Possibly older, data lacking.) Likely loan into Sikuani: leaf-cutter ant kaiwiali uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ttáaro t̪áaɻo inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri dzeʔé (dp91), aalídali, adzána (there are more names) dzeʔé (dp91), aaɺídaɺi, adzána (theɻe aɻe moɻe names), huútu (SF) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also aaɺídaɺi, adzána (etc.), huútu (SF uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana piirídza piiɹídza inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. palána paɺána loan Local Wanderwort, probably Spanish/Portuguese source (plantain) WW %palana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. píittiri, wayáamani, waaróda píit̪iɻi, wajáamani, waaɻóda inheritance Central North Arawak Also wajáamani, waaɻóda uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. komána komána loan (into protolanguage?) - WW North Arawak %kumana Wanderwort: may have TG source, loan into Wai Wai, various East Tukanoan, Puinave, etc. WW %kumana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis máapa máapa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna áadaro; kɛpirei-ni, wipiaro (H&R92) áadaro unique Also kɛpirei-ni, wipiaro (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala eettípa eet̪ípa unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba póoperi póopeɻi inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Very similar to 'peach palm' - possible semantic shift? uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae dzoléema, pókoro dzoɺéema, pókoɻo inheritance Also pókoɻo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kóoya kóoja loan Nheengatu Nheengatu kuja uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha káaparo káapaɻo inheritance - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch %kaparu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mánee, ttoowiápa mánee, t̪oowiápa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also t̪oowiápa uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera makálo makáɺo unique Compare Candoshi mákawa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kéetto kéet̪o inheritance North Arawak Likely loan Arawak into Yanomam, e.g. kaʃu a, katsu, Nukak kԑʧuʔ4 uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum akáyo akájo loan Tupi-Guarani missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum akájo akájo loan Nheengatu Nheengatu akaju WW %akaju uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea tsíida tsíida, tʃíjai (FS) doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW onomatopoeic May be onomatopoeic. Also tʃíjai (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. dápi dápi inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hiipáto hiipáto loan, direction unknown - WW %patu Attested at least Rio Negro North Arawak. Wanderwort: E. Tukanoan, e.g. Bará pátu, Nheengatu ipadu, Nadëb batoʔ, Carijona ihatu WW %patu uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria poléta, aráwe poɺéta, aɻáwe, aɻá[we] (FS) inheritance; loan - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch (?) %arawe Attested Achagua. Also aɻáwe, aɻá[we] (FS); prob loan Nheengatu arawé (also used for different species of insects) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu dzamolíto; yamolito, iamolíthe (R95); jamorito (H&R92) dzamoɺíto, aapíja (FS); ampijá (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Also yamolito, iamolíthe (R95); jamorito (H&R92), aapíja (FS); ampijá (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kapítti kapit̪i inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ttáawaali t̪áawa-ɹi inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kaátsi kaátsi unknown uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae pítto, dzíiro pít̪o, dzíiɻo, wiɻínu (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Also dzíiɻo, wiɻínu (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. kóitsi; piro (H&R92) kóitsi inheritance Central North Arawak Also piro (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus néeri, dóito néeɻi, dóito inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Also dóito uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris tsíino tsíino semantic shift North Arawak from Proto-Arawak jaguar Probably derived (historically) from Proto-Arawak 'jaguar' uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis dzamapoípoi dzamapoípoi unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae iñáida iɲáida, huɺíitu (FS) unique Also huɺíitu (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family kamidátsolo, koomáda, póopoña kamidátsoɺo, koomáda, póopoɲa inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also koomáda, póopoɲa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. íixeni íiʃeni, píipiɻi (FS) unknown Also píipiɻi (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus dakátta dakát̪a, iiʃítʃi (FS) inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup shared Tariana Also iiʃítʃi (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kóphe kúpʰe, dawáki (FS), keewiíte (FS), ţéephe (FS) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Also dawáki (FS), keewiíte (FS), ţéephe (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas hóoma hóoma unique Also? páɻa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kóona (there are others) kóona (there are others) inheritance North Arawak Plus other terms uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kawánhero kawánheɻo, iit̻ítu (FS), kawá-nheɻu (FS) inheritance North Arawak Also iit̻ítu (FS), kawá-nheɻu (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera doólo, dóota; tootoni (H&R92) doólo, dóota inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Also tootoni (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana dáana dáːna inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ñeewi ɲeewi inheritance North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kanápi-ɻi (R01) kanápi-ɻi (R01) inheritance missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans attíne at̪íne, máajaɺi (FS) inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Also máajaɺi (FS = Frank Seifart word list) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba máali máaɺi, whúuku (FS), únuɺi (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak Also whúuku (FS), únuɺi (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti póotto póot̪o inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch Maybe older; data lacking uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. máre máɻe inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) WW%mare, Arawak origin uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi káapi káapi doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch (?) %kaapi Wanderwort: E. Tukanoan, e.g. Bará ka'pí, Kakua kapi, Hup kapíʔ, Sikuani kapinae WW %kapi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae péeri; háawa (R01); kawáwiɺi 'scissor-hawk' (FS) péeɻi; háawa (R01); kawáwiɺi 'scissor-hawk' (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also kawáwiɺi (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens áatti, mítsa áat̪i, mítsa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Arawak is thought to be source of Spanish ají. Also mítsa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] íitsi íitsi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pími pími inheritance Central North Arawak Compare Tukanoan (E&W) forms mimi, etc. uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. doopo (H&R92) (same as lizard?) semantic shift from 'lizard' Means lizard in most Arawak lgs (may just be bad data) Broader (lizard in general; not clear how reliable these data are) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca dzáawi; Iawí (R95) dzáawi doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown North Arawak Tukanoan *jai, cf. Tupi-Guarani *jawar Compare similar Tukanoan forms, e.g. e.g. Cubeo ja'wí, javi. Also Iawí (R95) uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura dzáapora dzáapoɻa loan Tupi-Guarani Nheengatu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra pirimítsi piɻimítsi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Cotton' in Tariana and Yucuna uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manákhe, porámo manákhe, poɻámo inheritance Central North Arawak Also poɻámo uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. áaxi áaʃi unique Possibly old; see Warekena a:ʃi 'manioc' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae dzáaliro dzáaɺiɻo, jáaɺiɻu (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kóowhe kóowhe inheritance North Central Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae tóoke, aawítti tóoke, aawít̪i inheritance? - WW Central North Arawak %tjuke Attested Baniwa and Yavitero. Also aawít̪i uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. áadaro áadaɻo doubtful loan into protolg - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) %arara Wanderwort: see Cocama arara, Wanano daharo, Carib forms, Spanish ara, Portuguese arara WW %ara uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays káana káana inheritance Central North Arawak Inland N. Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. oni-hémani oni-hémani unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. káwetí (R01), dzáalio, hemóki (there are others) káwetí (R01), dzáaɺio, hemóki (and other terms) doubtful loan, direction unknown West Tukanoan (Orejon)? Orejon tʃirijo. Also hemóki uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta káini káini inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kapíwali kapíwaɺi, múɺhui (FS), kiníkhii (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch (?) Shared Piapoco. Also káini (FS), múɺhui (FS), kiníkhii (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa íitewi íːtewi inheritance? - WW Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ainíidzo ainíidzo inheritance Central North Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tháara tháaɻa unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) keerípa, iralída keeɻípa, iɻaɺída inheritance Also keeɻípa uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis pídoo pídoo inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae walíitshi waɺíitshi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bokókoli, póopoli bokókoɺi, póopoɺi doubtful loan - WW?; inheritance - WW? onomatopoeic Central North Arawak %murukutu / kurukutu; %pupu; P-A *punpuli (Payne91) See similar forms in Tukanoan, Yagua, etc.; probably onomatopoeic. Also póopoɺi uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) dáapa dáapa inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) Loan into Nadêb daʔpa:ʔ uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. iiwíto, káattama (there are others) iiwíto, káat̪ama (and other terms) unique Also? káat̪ama uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ttíña t̪íɲa unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wáaro, kolíkoli wáaɻo, koɺíkoɺi inheritance - WW; inheritance? - WW North Arawak %kuli; %awaro Also koɺíkoɺi uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea éeña, poópa éeɲa, poópa unknown; inheritance Bora Bora 'miriti palm': iñe. Also poópa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes píipiri píipiɻi doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW Central North Arawak %pipiri uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus máawiro máawiɻo, heeɻíwai (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Also heeɻíwai (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ómai ómai inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae ñarrada (R95), jáaɻa (R01) ñarrada (R95), jáaɻa (R01) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum adarhiwída, hónai adaɻhiwída, hónai unique Also hónai uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae philíphili, páale phiɺíphiɺi, páaɺe unique Also páaɺe uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. dzéeka dzéeka loan direction unknown East Tukanoan Shared Tariana; Tukanoan Cubeo jɛ́ka, Secoya ɨka uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones dzálee dzáɺee inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua ponáma ponáma inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch Possibly older; little data uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. tsiikábo, wáamo tsiikábo, wáamo unique Also wáamo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata dóopo dóopo inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kerátto, tsikówa keɻát̪o, tsikówa inheritance Central North Arawak Also tsikówa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna áapi, ããpi (hr01) áapi, ããpi (hr01) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox onikátshire; dudulipi (H&R92) onikátshiɻe inheritance Central North Arawak Attested Resigaro. Also dudulipi (H&R92) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. kolíri koɺíɻi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae éeni éeni inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro Branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae máderri (R95) máade-ɺi (FS), híjhe-ni (FS) inheritance; inheritance Central North Arawak Loan into Guahiban, e.g. Cuiva materi. Also (FS), híjhe-ni (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ñámaro ɲámaɻo loan direction unknown Yanomami/Ninam Ninam, Yanomami jãmãɾu uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kalíri kaɺíɻi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris héema (hr01) héema (hr01), ʔeema (dp91) inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamára, máaro kamáɻa, máaɻo inheritance North Arawak Also máaɻo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kóopali kóopaɺi inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. íiniri, tóoporo íiniɻi, tóopoɻo unique Also tóopoɻo uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae hóholi, keérawa, máami, yawiíli hóhoɺi, keéɻawa, máami, jawiíɺi inheritance Also keéɻawa, máami, jawiíɺi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura adaroittípi, híiparo adaɻoit̪ípi, híipaɻo (there are others), túuɻa (FS) unknown, inheritance Also híipaɻo (there are others), túuɻa (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum dzéema dzéema inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria íikuɺi (FS), itsída 'jabuti', yolála 'tartaruga'; tortuga (H&R92) íikuɺi (FS), itsída 'jabuti', joɺáɺa 'tartaruga' inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup Also joɺáɺa 'tartaruga' (H&R92), íikuɺi (FS) uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dzátte dzát̪e, jáaţe (FS) inheritance East Tukanoan Similar forms in East and West Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano dase uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna háiko háiko, háiku (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella pówe púwe inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana kóonoɺi kóonoɺi loan Tupi-Guarani Nheengatu kunurí uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui híiniri híiniɻi inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wáadzoli wáadzoɺi, wáajuɺi (FS), kúama (FS) inheritance North Arawak Also kúama (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita áini áini, píitheɻu (FS) inheritance Central North Arawak Also píitheɻu (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons hálo háɺo inheritance Baniwa-Tariana subgroup shared Tariana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari aapídza aapídza, ampidzá inheritance Proto-Arawak (North and South) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia kamhéro kamhéɻo inheritance Central North Arawak, Rio Negro branch uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kówhee kówhee, ţuwáapa (FS) inheritance similarity to 'creator'; compare Wanadi in Makiritare Also ţuwáapa (FS) uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. torówali, malána, kodówhi toɻówaɺi, maɺána, kodówhi unique Also maɺána, kodówhi uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Aimee Lawrence
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna See Language page
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna tsíino tsíino semantic shift See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna néeri, dóito néeɻi, dóito inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kaapáwi, ttídoa kaːpáwi, t̪ídoa ?, inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: kaːpáwi Simplex hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool épitʃi (general), tʃípaɺa (iron axe) épitʃi (general), tʃípaɺa (iron axe) axe (stone or metal) inheritance; loan - WW Proto North Central Arawak %sipara/sapere Alternate: tʃípaɺa (stone axe) (Ramirez marks this term as probable loan), dzóoka Simplex especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B.
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool -ñhánaa -ɲhánaa inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B.
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material básia básia (ɺoan from Portuguese) loan Portuguese Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kaáme Inheritance Proto Rio Negro donor to Puinave kam; Cubeo kбmapʉɛ? Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material porottána poɻot̪ána doubtful loan Mapoyo Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material malóyo maɺójo inheritance shared Warekena Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material báako, éedai báako, éedai loan, inheritance Proto Rio Negro Span/Port Alternate: baako (probably loan from Portuguese banco) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool mawípi mawípi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottle botella garrafa acculturation garáapha gaɻáapʰa loan Portuguese also Wanano garafaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
bow arco arco subsistence tool dzawithíapo dzawithíapo inheritance *tapo Proto Arawak Derived dzawíta “to shoot” arco See Language page Ana Paula B.
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pitshiopátti pitshiopát̪i inheritance Proto Rio Negro cf. Tupi-Guarani compare WW for “cat” and Aymara pitʃaɲa; Quechua (e.g. Pastaza Quechua pitʃana) (broom) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
canoe canoa canoa transport íita íita inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
cat gato gato acculturation pitsána loan Nheengatu probably originally from Port bicho 'small animal'; compare E. Tukano, (e.g. Desano pisana); Arawak (e.g. Tariana pisána); Carib (Makushi pisana; Pemon pitʃana); Kakua pitʃina. But note Quechua 'broom' pitʃana WW %pisana Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kaláka, kóama (R01) kaláka, kóama (R01) loan - WW; unknown %karaka; shared Achagua, Piapoco, Baniwa, Yavitero, Warekena Probably Arawak origin (see Nordenskiold 1922). Tukanoan, e.g. Wanano karaka; Arawak, e.g. Baniwa kaláka; Yanomamo, Nadeb; Macaguan takra, Sikuani wakara WW %karaka Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology #NAME? #NAME? unique Simplex -li is masculine gender marker See Language page Ana Paula B.
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
coca narcotics hiipáto Unknown Local Nheengatu ipadu; Arawak (e.g. Tariana hipatú); Carijona ihatu; E. Tukano (e.g. Bará 'pátu); Daw; possibly Arawak origin? WW %patu Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food dzána Inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology awakaróna, bíiñoli awakaɻóna, bíiɲoɺi unknown Also exists Warekena; could be loaned? Alternate: awakaɻóna (verb form?) Simplex malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B.
dance (generic) culture-mythology ɻápa Inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kapitʃiɻi (R01) kapitʃiɻi (R01) missing hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B.
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology iñápirrikuli iɲápirikuli calque, direction unknown Unknown Tukanoan; 'one on bone' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology #NAME? #NAME? inheritance Proto North Arawak Other Complex hitápu-ni=- dream-nonpossessed See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tamorína [loan] tamoɻína loan Port, via Nheengatu? Baniwa < > Cubeo? Port source; Nheengatu tamburinu WW %tamburina Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool kadoitsípa kadoitsípa inheritance Proto-Rio Negro esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B.
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology paramalíita paɻamaɺíita doubtful loan unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
firewood leña lenha other ttidzéena t̪idzéena inheritance Proto North Arawak Derived t̪idzée “fire”, See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food ma (R01) ma (R01) inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food iitsaléta iitsaɺéta unique Derived iítsa, “fish hook” See Language page Ana Paula B.
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool kóona Inheritance Proto North Arawak Alternate: wépiɻi, ináme Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool iitsaákhaa iitsaákʰaa doubtful calque similar construction Tariana, but not cognate; compare 'hook-string' in Carib, Wapishana Derived iitsa-kʰaa, hook-CL:curvilinear See Language page Ana Paula B.
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool oopítsi (matapi); kákoli (R2001: probable loan) oopítsi (matapi); kákoli (R2001: probable loan) inheritance Also kákoli (WW) See Language page Ana Paula B.
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food peéthe, -ooléthe peéthe, -ooɺéthe inheritance; doubtful loan (into protolg), direction unknown Proto Rio Negro Carib Alternate: -ooɺéthe Simplex usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B.
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food matsóka matsóka loan (into protolg?) - WW Proto North Arawak %matsuka WW, Found Warekena, matsuka; Mandawaka, matʃúka; Puinave, masuká; Nadeb mãʃoːk, Daw ʃuk Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology yapolóto, kolirína (there are others) japoɺóto, koɺiɻína (there are others) inheritance Proto North Central Arawak Alternate: koɺiɻína Simplex multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B.
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuwhéet̠i kuwhéet̠i; íitsiɻi inheritance Proto Rio Negro kuwhéet̠i Simplex Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B.
genipap culture-mythology dáːna Inheritance Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kóoya, átta, towáda kóoja, át̪a, towáda loan; unknown; unknown Nheengatu Alternate: át̪a, towáda Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool áada áada inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B.
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology iríri iɻíɻi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool yóora jóoɻa loan Tupi-Guarani (Lingua Geral?) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool póali póali inheritance Proto North Arawak Simplex agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B.
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation mókawa mókawa shotgun loan - WW %mokawa See Language page Ana Paula B.
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material piéta piéta inheritance Proto North Central Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
hat sombero chapéu dress tsapéwa tsapéwa loan Port chapeu Port > Nheengatu? Hup, Arawak (e.g. Yucuna hapewa); Pemon sapewa; Tukanoan E. (e.g. Desano sapea) Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology malíiri maɺíiɻi inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B.
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
honey miel mel food doni doni inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B.
hunt cazar caçar food -winíta 'caçar, pescar' -winíta 'caçar, pescar' inheritance Proto Rio Negro Derived wíni seems to have some general meaning related to hunting (see also entry for “blowgun”) See Language page Ana Paula B.
knife cuchillo faca culture-material malíye maɺíje loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Probably Carib > Baniwa-Tariana subgroup. Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kóeyo kóejo unique Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool aanáda; -tothíoko aanáda; -tothíoko inheritance; inheritance? Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
fence, palisade cerco cerca other koráara koɻáaɻa loan Spanish/Portuguese Spanish source, via Nheengatu? Arawak (e.g. Wapishana kʰurara); Baniwa koɻáaɻa; Yavitero ku'rara; Nheengatu kurara; Northern Emberá korrá WW %kurara Simplex may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B.
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology pheelóma pheeɺóma loan direction unknown Cubeo See also Kakua pelât-maʔ-г Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool -tothíoko -tothíoko inheritance Likely cognate Resigaro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material paráto paɻáto loan Portuguese Nheengatu parátu (from Port); see also Arawak (e..g Yucuna paɾatú); Carib (e.g. Makushi pɨratu); Jivaro (e.g. Aguaruna parátu); Hup padatu=b'ɔk Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool tsipaláapi, páila, aakhéepa (de barro) tsipaɺáapi, páiɺa, aakhéepa (de barro) clay pot loan - WW; inheritance *kopi Proto Arawak %parapi Alternate: tsipaɺáapi, páiɺa Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kóttiro kóttiro inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool máini máini inheritance Compare Aguaruna pɨngkaɨ, Cocama kai Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
salt sal sal food íiwi (=carurú, R01) íiwi (=carurú, R01) inheritance *idɨwɨ Proto Arawak Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tshaaya tsʰaaja loan Port/Span saia Port origin; Arawak (e.g. Baniwa tsʰaaja); Makushi u-saja-ri; Wanano saya si; Nheengatu saja; Ninam saja WW %saja Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tsoráara tsʰoɻáaɻa loan - WW %surara Port source; Via Nheengatu; also in Arawak, Carib, East Tukanoan, Yanomamo. Nheengatu surara; Makushi surara; Hup sudadu; East Tukanoan (e.g. Cubeo ʈʃulala); Ninam sotatu WW %surara Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spear lanza lança subsistence tool molóko moɺóko inheritance Proto Rio Negro Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food mhéetti mhéet̪i unknown Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food koríakaa, kamókaa 'mingau' koɻíakaa, kamókaa 'mingau' inheritance; loan, direction unknown East Tukanoan (Macuna, Tanimuca) Alternate: kamókaa Simplex agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ttíña t̪íɲa inheritance Simplex See Language page Ana Paula B.
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food ttirolípi t̪iɻoɺípi loan Tupi-Guarani Simplex word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B.
tobacco (native) narcotics dzéema Inheritance *yɨma Proto Arawak Likely donor into Guahiban, e.g. Guahibo tséːma Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B.
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool mawakólia; mánhe[ni] (R01) mawakóɺia; mánhe[ni] (R01) inheritance; inheritance Proto North Central Arawak Derived mawa is a verb root meaning "tirar," or "remove" hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B.
wax cera cera other -hinako-likomápʰe unique Derived hinako-lipo "ear," -mápʰe 'bee' See Language page Ana Paula B.
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool dopítsi, oropéma; t̪íiɻuɺi (R01) dopítsi, oɻopéma; t̪íiɻuɺi (R01) doubtful loan; loan; inheritance Proto North Arawak unknown; Tupi-Guarani Alternate: dopítsi, oɻopéma Simplex agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B.
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology kówai Semantic shift Probably from name of culture figure/deity, who is believed to embody the flutes. a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B.
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B.
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture iiñáda, pápi iiɲáda, pápi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture pádzawaro, jaɺákhi pádzawaɻo. jaɺákhi inheritance? - WW; unknown - WW %pajaru; %jalaki prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B.
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kaáme, waɺája (R01) kaáme, waɺája (R01) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B.
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology -náani -náani unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology íñaimi íɲaimi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
paddle/oar remo remo transport ttiíwe t̪iíwe unique See Language page Ana Paula B.
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B.
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B.
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B.
house other pántti, -pana pánt̪i, -pana inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes /b/, /d/ allophonic in initial position Ramirez, H. 2001. Uma gramatica do Baniwa do Icana, p.31 Patience Epps phonetic prenasalization in initial position
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Ramirez 2001:31 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Ramirez 2001:30 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no but cf. aspiration Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes high; rising=high on second mora of long V Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no Ramirez 2001:86 Patience Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no is not discussed by the author Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no is not discussed by the author Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no limited to demonstratives Ramirez 2001:381 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no but morphological fusion occurs on phonetic level Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated yes Ramirez 2001:336 Patience Epps
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes Ramirez 2001:336 Patience Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info lots of classifiers and 'dependent nouns', but productivity of N-N compounding unclear Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes limited to asymmetric type with just a few combinatory possibilities Aikhenvald 2010 Patience Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no unclear Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 2 Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human yes works together with but not identically to gender distinctions Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes -nai (animate), -pe (group, usu animate) Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no but rare on inanimates; collective -lima, -peda more common w/ inanimates Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you no Ramirez 2001:377 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 4 Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 5+ Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes four, five Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form yes suffix Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes future Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction yes serial verb Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes adverbials, esp. noada 'deductive' Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected yes counter-expective -tʃaa Ramirez 2001:262 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes =tha Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality yes past habitual/durative -de Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no but directional SVCs with 'go' and 'come' Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes -pida Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order yes Aikhenvald 2002:167 Patience Epps
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes Ramirez 2001:111 indicates preference for SVO Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Dem no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Num-Noun yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Num no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes A=Sa Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes O=So Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes A=Sa forms Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent yes 3rd person only Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes marked by relational construction; but not clear if this has to do with animacy of DO vs. IO. Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes -ka-naa Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency yes generic intrans suffix -kawa/-wa Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes -iita(on verbs), -ta (on adj and nouns) Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no analytical causatives Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes ma- Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' yes ɲáme néenika Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes káphaa, clause-initial Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no except for converb construction marking simultaneous single-subject events, and serial mechanisms for sequentials. Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
6000 large AG dense sedentary Riverine