Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative

Simple Clauses - Alignment
Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Subject pronouns can be fused with the verbs, but these seem more like pronouns rather than agreement markers. Allin, 1976: 285-290 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 27 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes The verbal paradigm has the same subject prefixes for transitive, intransitive and stative verbs. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes S and A are marked with prefixes, O is marked with suffixes. Adjectives are also marked with suffixes, but they do seem to form a separate class, suggesting nominative-accusative, rather than active-inactive, alignment. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 59-62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 160 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 802 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 122 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 481-482 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes This is the "optional" case. Pronouns appear as verbal markings rather than free pronouns. It appears that Asheninka may be in the process of "shifting" systems. Payne 1983:1619, 2325, 9096 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21-23 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Subjects and objects are cross-referenced on the verb Duff-Tripp 1997:72 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes This is suggested by the relative order of affixes with respect to the verb where subject is cross-referenced as verbal prefixes whereas objects are cross-referenced as verbal suffxes. Souza 2008:86 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:92-3 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Nanti is primarily nominative-accusative, although there are traces of fluid-S marking. Michael, 2008. p. 343 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:18 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes subject is free pronoun, object is suffixed Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes S of transitive and intransitive marked with the same prefixes, O marked with a suffix Wise 1986: 586 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:65-68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Amanda Meeks Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Makushi no The subject of transitive clauses is marked by the suffix -ya, both when it is a free form nominal or pronominal, and when it is a verbal suffix. Intransitive subject and transitive object are not marked. Abbott 1991: 83 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes For 2 singular and plural and 1 plural exclusive Gildea 1989:116 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes Not clear what the condionintg factor is. However, it seems to be related to past tense de Armellada 1999:114 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This is the predominant pattern. Frank 1990:8 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Person is not cross-referenced on verbs Quesada 2008:99-146 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:328-31, 361-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no There is no pronominal marking on verbs Mortensen 1999:21 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes based on examples Holman:57-74 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Subjects are cross referenced on the verb Levinson 1978:13, Levinson 1974:27 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 114-9 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:74-5 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes This is so because subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are coreferenced by verbal person agreement. However, there are instances in which subject and object are marked by one morphe (eg. 1 subject and 2 object, 1 subject and 3 object, etc.) Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Faco Soares 1993:93 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Subjects are obligatorily cross-referenced in the verb Olawsky:433 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes I have deduced this from the fact that person pronouns refer to the subject (instead of refering to the ergative NP) Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes uncertain Landaburu 1979: 156 Kelsey Neely depends on status of pn as verbal?
Puinave yes The same prefixes appear in the verb but subject prefixes appear before the object prefixes and are obligatory while obeject prefixes are not Giron 2008: p229 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 126 Shannon Dardis Either the subject is marked or the relationship between the subject and object is marked. Each of these would be represented by a single suffix.
Kakua yes subject marked on verb by proclitics Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Pronominal suffix on verb is used to mark the subject. Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack A rule uniquie rule for huitoto is that a relative pronoun that is in the initial clause may not be used in the subordinate.
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.43 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31, 53 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.65-72 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.112-117 Chris Clack
Siona yes In most cases, subjects are unmarked on the verb; objects are always marked. Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 112-114 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):2 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Everett 2006:300 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Zarratea 2002 :83-5 Daniel Valle
Aché no There are not verbal person markers Rossler 2008:73 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 107 done 1
Garrwa n/a done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no? BS152 done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 83, 105 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 91 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 74-76 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 41 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 27 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 352 Y 0
Paakantyi yes 105 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 51; 53; 114-115 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang N/A done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 89-90 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira n/a 136-152 done 0
Marrgany N/A 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 148 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 399 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes 27 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes? 68-9 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 283 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 51 1
Dyirbal N/A done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a done 0
Djinang Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 51-52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 32 done 1
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 30 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 81 done 1
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 45 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima n/a 169 done 0
Ngarinyeri yes 43 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 21 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 304 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen N/A Done- 0
WesternTorres n/a K85c 82-3 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang N/A Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 55 done 1
Arrernte Yes 186 1
Kokatha N/A 3 0
Karajarri Yes 82 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 22 1
Ritharrngu Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra n/a Done-Amalia 0
Warnman Yes 13 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra no 5.1.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 65 Y2 1
Narungga No 73 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 16 0
Wajarri Yes 77 1
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Set I clitics for S, Set II for O Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps