Quechua Ayacuchano

Family
Quechuan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
quy
Location
-14.85°, -74.32°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Data Sources
Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo. 1994, Quechua sureño, diccionario unificado quechua-castellano, castellano-quechua. Lima, Biblioteca Nacional del Perú. Parker, Gary. 1965. Gramática del Quechua Ayacuchano. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perroud, Pedro. 1972. Gramática quechua. Dialecto de Ayacucho (3rd ed.). Lima, Seminario San Alfonso de los Padres Redentoristas. Soto, Clodoaldo. 1976. Gramática quechua: Ayacucho-Chanca. Ministerio de Educación e Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location hanan (CP94) hanan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment uchpa utʃpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
at en, a em, a location {-pi} {-pi} See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
back espalda costas body wasa wasa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bad mal mal quality mana-allin 'not good' (CP94) mana-aʎin 'not good' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
belly barriga barriga body wiksa (CP94) wiksa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location uray uɾaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
big grande grande quality hatun, chikachachaq hatun, tʃikatʃatʃaq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
black negro preto colour yana, chiwilu jana, tʃiwilu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blood sangre sangue body yawar jawaɾ See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body suchi sutʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bone hueso osso body tullu tuʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body qhasqu (CP94) qhasqu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
child niño, niña criança human pasña (female) pasɲa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment puyu puju See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cold frío frio quality chiri tʃiɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality cheqan tʃeqan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
day día dia time punchaw puntʃaw See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality qacha, qamra qatʃa, qamɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dry seco seco quality chaki tʃaki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality laqo laqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment allpa aʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ear oreja orelha body rinri ɾinɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment allpa, pacha aʎpa, patʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna runtu ɾuntu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
eye ojo olho body ñawi ɲawi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
far lejos longe quality karu kaɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body wira wiɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship tayta tajta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna puru puɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment nina nina See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flower flor flor environment wayta wajta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment phuyu, wapsi (CP94) phuju, wapsi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora ruru ɾuɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
good bueno bom quality sumaq, allin sumaq, aʎin See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body chukcha tʃuktʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hand mano mão body maki maki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pay paj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body uma uma See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality llasaq ʎasaq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
how? como como grammar imayna imayna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar ñoqa ɲoqa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
if si se grammar ari aɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location uku uku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body chuchul, chunchuli tʃutʃul, tʃuntʃuli See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lake lago lago environment qocha qotʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment llaqe, rapi ʎaqe, ɾapi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ichoq itʃoq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body chanka tʃanka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment llipya, illapa ʎipya, iʎapa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
liver hígado figado body kipchan kiptʃan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality largu (Spanish loan) laɾgu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna usa usa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
man/male hombre homem human qari qaɾi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna aycha ajtʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
moon luna lua environment killa kiʎa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship mama mama See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mouth boca boca body simi simi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
name nombre nome human suti suti See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality kaylla kajʎa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body qhipa-kunka (CP94) qhipa-kunka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body kunka kunka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
new nuevo novo quality mosoq mosoq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
night noche noite time tuta tuta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
no/not no não grammar mana mana See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
nose nariz nariz body senqa senqa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
old viejo velho quality laqla, mawka laqla, mawka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
one uno um number huk huk See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
other otro outro grammar huk (CP94) huk See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body unquq (CP94) unquq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human runa runa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment para paɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour puka puka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body alleq aʎeq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture ñan ɲan See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
root raíz raiz flora sapi sapi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality ismu ismu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sand arena areia environment aqo aqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
short corto curto quality See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body rikra (CP94) rikra See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental p'inqay ('shame', CP94) p'inqay 'shame' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
skin piel pele body qara qaɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sky cielo céu environment hanaq-pacha (CP94) hanaq-patʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality taksa, uchuy, uchuk taksa, utʃuy, utʃuk See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment qosni, qosñi qosni, qosɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
star estrella estrela environment qoyllur qojʎuɾ See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora kaspi kaspi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment rumi ɾumi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body chupa tʃupa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar wak wak See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar paykuna pajkuna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality pipu pipu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thin delgado fino quality llañu (thing), tullu (person) ʎaɲu , tuʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
this este/esta este grammar kay kaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar qam qam See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
throat garganta garganta body kunka, tunquri (CP94) kunka, tunquri See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
three tres tres number kimsa kimsa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bite morder morder body kachuy katʃuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blow soplar soprar body pukuy pukuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body samay samaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment kañay kaɲaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kachuy katʃuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
climb subir subir motion lloqay, seqay ʎoqaj, seqaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
come venir vir motion hamuy hamuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact yanuy, waykuy yanuj, waykuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
count contar contar mental yupay yupaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental waqay, awllay waqaj, awaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kuchuy kutʃuy See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state wañuy waɲuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact hasp'iy (CP94) hasp'ij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental mosqoy mosqoj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body upuy, upyay, wenqoy, weqyay upuj, upyaj, wenqoj, weqyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
eat comer comer body mikuy mikuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fall caer cair motion wichiy witʃij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fear miedo medo mental manchay mantʃaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion sutuy, unyay (CP94) sutuj, unjaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fly volar voar motion paway pawaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grow crecer crescer state wiñay, hatunyay wiɲaj, hatunyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental uyariy, uyarikuy uyaɾij, uyaɾikuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion pakay, chinkachiy pakaj, tʃinkatʃij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact takay (with the hands), waqtay (with a stick) takaj , waqtaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other phaway, kallpay (CP94) phawaj, kaʎpaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
kill matar matar impact wañuchiy, sipiy waɲutʃij, sipij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yachay yatʃaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
laugh reír rir mental asiy asij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion sirikuy (CP94) sirikuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kawsay, yachay kawsaj, yatʃaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other kichay (CP94) kitʃaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact llapiy ʎapij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
say decir dizer mental niy nij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact achipiy, aspiy atʃipij, aspij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
see ver ver mental qaway, rikuy qawaj, ɾikuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact balyay (Spanish loan?) balyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state tiyay tiyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body puñuy puɲuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body muskiy muskij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body toqay toqaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ch'iqtay, rakiy (CP94) tʃ'iqtaj, rakij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact llapiy ʎapij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact kuchilliyay (Spanish loan) kutʃiʎiyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state sayay (CP94) sajaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
steal robar roubar other suway (CP94) suwaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
suck chupar chupar body soqoy soqoj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body punkiy, chichuyay punkij, tʃitʃuyaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion nadyay (Spanish loan?) nadyaj (Spanish loan?) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
think pensar pensar mental pinsay pinsaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact chuqay, chamqay (CP94) tʃuqaj, tʃamqaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact watay wataj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other muyuy muyuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body aqtuy, wischuy aqtuj, wistʃuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion puriy, ichiy puɾij, itʃij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other llamkay ʎamkaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body hakapakuy, hanllapakuy hakapakuj, hanʎapakuj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body qallu qaʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tooth diente dente body kiru kiɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
two dos dois number iskay iskaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
water agua agua environment yaku yaku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar noqanchik noqantʃik See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ñoqayku ɲoqajku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality huq'u (CP94) huq'u See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ima ima See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar haykapi, haykap hajkapi, hajkap See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
where? donde onde grammar may may See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white blanco branco colour yuraq yuɾaq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar pi pi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship warmi warmi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wind viento vento environment wayra wajɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wing ala asa body rapra ɾapɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human warmi waɾmi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour qellu qeʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
foot pie body chaki tʃaki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar kuti (CP94) kuti See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
all todo todos other lliw ʎiw See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body chaki-muqu (CP94) tʃaki-muqu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body wallwa (CP94) waʎwa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body aka, ispay aka, ispaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body surq'an (CP94) surq'an See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body hump'iy (CP94) hump'ij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body siqsi (CP94) siqsi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bark corteza casca environment qara qaɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fingernail uña unha body sillu siʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
heart corazón coração body sonqo sonqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sun sol sol time inti inti See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment orqo oɾqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
green verde verde quality llullu, kapka ʎuʎu, kapka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hot caliente quente quality qoñi qoɲi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawallu (CP94) kawaʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. masu masu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna urpitu, pisqo uɾpitu, pisqo See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae qenti qenti See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tuku tuku See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. weqru weqɾu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica weqru weqɾu See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae urpay, urpi uɾpaj, uɾpi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae anka anka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ullasku uʎasku See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu (Spanish loan) patu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae akakllu akakʎu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris allqo aʎqo See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kirkinchu kiɾkintʃu See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna challwa tʃaʎwa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura hampatu hampatu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna machaqway, maqta-uru matʃaqwaj, maqta-uɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria charapa tʃaɾapa See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca kuka kuka See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) utku utku See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens uchu utʃu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. purutu puɾutu See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) qura, qhachu (CP94) qura, qhachu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays kaspa kaspa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum sayri (CP94) sajri See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna sacha satʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana achiwti atʃiwti See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana paltay (CP94) paltaj See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta rumu (CP94) rumu See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum papa papa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas apichu, misk'i-papa (CP94) apitʃu, misk'i-papa See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) hawinka hawinka See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. sapallu (CP94) sapaʎu See Language page plant Daniel Valle, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wayrunqu (CP94) wajrunqu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae pinchi-kuru (pinchi = 'bright') (CP94) pintʃi-kuru (pintʃi = 'bright' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pillpintu piʎpintu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera puyu puyu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora kuwika kuwika See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones atoq-atoq atoq-atoq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea qisqis (CP94) qisqis See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera piki piki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera chuspi tʃuspi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chilliku tʃiʎiku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. wanwa wanwa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea hamak'u, usa (CP94) hamak'u, usa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita waylis wajlis See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda churu tʃuɾu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kusi-kusi (CP94) kusi-kusi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca uturunku (loan) utuɾunku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae qarachupa qaɾatʃupa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua atoq atoq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ukucha ukutʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus luwichu luwitʃu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kanasta (Spanish loan) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material wallqa (CP94) waʎqa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material puñuna puɲuna See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tiyana tiyana See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport wamp'u (CP94) wamp'u See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tinya tinya See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology layqa lajqa In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pichana pitʃana See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology pacha patʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other qencha, perqa qentʃa, peɾqa may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
firewood leña lenha other yanta yanta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology manchachikuq 'ghost' (CP94) mantʃatʃikuq See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology qena qena multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology antara antaɾa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics maray maɾaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchillu (Spanish loan) kutʃiʎu See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material machiti (Spanish loan) matʃiti See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool hacha (Spanish loan) hatʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool wach'i (CP94) watʃ'i hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool chuki (CP94) tʃuki See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material p'uku 'clay plate' (CP94) p'uku 'clay plate' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool manka manka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material mati mati See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool kallana kaʎana agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool sach'ap-wiqin (CP94) satʃ'ap-wiqin See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
wax cera cera other mapa 'beeswax' (CP94) mapa 'beeswax' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
honey miel mel food antimiski antimiski only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture waska waska See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology pillu 'corona' (CP94) piʎu 'corona' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation qillqa qiʎqa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology musquy (vb.) (CP94) musquj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation wallpa (CP94) waʎpa See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology aya-p'ukru, aya-uchku (CP94) aja-p'ukru, aja-uchku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material millqhay, pullira (traditional) (CP94) miʎqhay, puʎira (traditional) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation misi misi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress chuku (CP94) tʃuku See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology qullana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] (CP94) quʎana, uma [apu 'earth deity'] See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool maqana, k'aspi (CP94) maqana, k'aspi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
salt sal sal food kachi katʃi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology takiy 'sing' (CP94) takij 'sing' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool wayrachina (CP94) wajratʃina esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food challway tʃaʎwaj See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food chaku (CP94) tʃaku Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wislla, hawinka wisʎa, hawinka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool pachaman watya (CP94) patʃaman watja See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool muchka mutʃka See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool qulluta (CP94) quʎuta See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture aqa aqa prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food hak'u, aku machka 'harina' (CP94) hak'u, aku matʃka 'harina' agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food t'anta (CP94) t'anta usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool miyu 'veneno', [hampi 'todo remedio'] (CP94) miju 'veneno', [hampi 'todo remedio'] hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool suysuna sujsuna agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool tuqlla 'trampa' (CP94) tuqʎa 'trampa' See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture rumi ɾumi if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
house other wasi wasi See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. no Parker 1965:11, 13-4 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] no Parker 1965:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Parker 1965:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? no Parker 1965:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels no Parker 1965:11 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no It only occurs in loans from Spanish Parker 1965:16 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Parker 1965:14 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Parker 1965:11-6 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones yes First time I hear that Quechua has tones. But the author says that there are "four tonal levels" Parker 1965:11-6 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no info More likely not. However, the author says that stress can go either in the last or penultimate syllable Parker 1965:12 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Parker 1965:17 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Parker 1965:11-8 Daniel Valle
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] yes /-sA/ 1 pl, /-wa/ 1p obj and 2 or 3 subject, /-su/ 1pl incl. Fut But this is highly restricted in the language. There are only three suffixes which do this. Parker 1965:24, 47-57 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes yes Parker 1965:32-98, Perroud 1973:11-123 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Parker 1965:32-98, Perroud 1973:11-123 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Parker 1965:32-98, Perroud 1973:11-123 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no Parker 1965:84-6 Daniel Valle
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated yes It usually consists of the reduplication of the last syllable of the root Parker 1965:84-6 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes But it seems to happen with a restricted set of verbs. Namely, the verbs "to care, happen" ima and " Parker 1965:86 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no info Daniel Valle
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs no info more likely not Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns no Parker 1965:47-57, Perroud 1973:46-62 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Parker 1965:27 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Parker 1965:27 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Gender is not distinguished in person pronouns Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Numerals take the same morphology as other nouns Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Parker 1965:26 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun yes /-kuna/ However, this plural suffix is not obligatory for plural nouns Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun no Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only no Parker 1965:26, 39 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns yes /-kuna/ But this strategy is only used for 2nd and 3rd person; 1st person plural distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive which have suppletive forms. Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 kay "close", tʃai "medial" and wak "far" Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Perroud 1972:37 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Perroud 1972:37 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Perroud 1972:37 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Perroud 1972:37-8 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no It seems that reflexive sentences are formed by not adding a object marker in the verb and the addition of the reflexive suffix. Perroud 1972:116 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 11 There are 11 suffixes for case, among them an object suffix, a commitative suffix, a benefactive suffix and some other non-core case suffixes Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) yes Parker 1965:26-7, Perroud 1973:16-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no Parker 1965:26-7, Perroud 1973:16-20 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 yes Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes /-pa/ genitive However, the head noun also takes a person pronoun as a possesive suffix. Thus, it would be a case of doble possessive marking where the dependent get the genitive suffix. Parker 1965:40 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' no Parker 1965:40 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no info Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes no info it seems that there are underived adjectives based on the examples Parker 1965:33, Perroud 1973:25 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no The adjective can take case suffixes when it appear alone in the NP Parker 1965:33, Perroud 1973:25 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb yes /-y/ Parker 1965:29 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes /-q/ Parker 1965:29 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes /-sqa/ Parker 1965:29 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective yes /-tʃa/, /-yi/ The first usually derives a transitive verb whereas the second derives an intransitive verb Parker 1965:67-9 Daniel Valle
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes It seems that past and future tenses are marked by a combination of the appropiate aspect markes and the "non-present" suffix /-qa/ Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past yes Marked by the combination of the non-present suffix plus other aspect suffixes Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future yes Marked by the combination of the non-present suffix plus other aspect suffixes Parker 1965:28, 50-2 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes But only the future for 3 person regular Parker 1965:50-1 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix no Parker 1965:49-52 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix yes Parker 1965:49-52 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Parker 1965:49-52 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Parker 1965:49-52 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood yes /-y/ Parker 1965:28 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Polte imperatives are formed by using the second person of the verb Soto 1976:55 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses yes /ama/ Negative imperative use the negative particle ama while indicative use the negative particle mana Soto 1976:55 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no Parker 1965:95 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no Parker 1965:95 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking yes /=tʃa/ Parker 1965:95 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no info There is a verbal suffix which among its different meanings expresses that an action is caried out in a different way than it is usually done Soto 1976: 106 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' no info Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative yes /=ya/ This clitic means sadness or resignation. But it is not clear to what words this clitic attaces to. Parker 1965:96 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. no /-kama/ "to", /-manta/ "from" Dirrectional meanings are expressed by directional suffixes attached to nouns Soto 1976:75 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no However, there is a clitic /=mi/ which expresses that the speaker is commited to the truth of his/her statement Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. yes /-tʃ or -tʃa/ Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes /-s/ or /-is/ Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above yes /-m or -mi/ Speaker assures the veracity of hi/her statement Parker 1965:88 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic yes They can also attach to nouns Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Parker 1965:47-57, 88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle no Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Parker 1965:47-57, 88-97 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Daniel Valle
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no SOV and SV are the preffered orders Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Word Order VS in transitive clauses no Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object no Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject no Soto 1976:59 Daniel Valle
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Parker 1965:39-44 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes Parker 1965:39-44 Daniel Valle
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes Parker 1965:41 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Parker 1965:41 Daniel Valle
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun yes Parker 1965:33-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun no Parker 1965:33-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Dem-Noun yes Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Dem no Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Word Order Num-Noun yes Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Num no Parker 1965:35 Daniel Valle
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Soto 1976:53-55 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects yes /-ta/ is the accusative suffix Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative yes Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Soto 1976:61-92 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs yes This is so because subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are coreferenced by verbal person agreement. However, there are instances in which subject and object are marked by one morphe (eg. 1 subject and 2 object, 1 subject and 3 object, etc.) Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Soto 1976:93-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Soto 1976:65 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes These pronominal subjects marked in the verb always occur with all verbs except with the subclass of transitive impersonal verbs Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes yes Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers yes Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Parker 1965:23 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Parker 1965:26-7 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. yes /-na/ Parker 1965:75 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. yes /-ku/ Parker 1965:80 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb no Parker 1965:75, 80 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb yes /-pu/ Parker 1965:79 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb no Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb yes /-tʃi/ Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix no Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Parker 1965:74 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency yes /-ysi/ This verbal suffix transitivizes the verb and indicates company with the purpose of helping someone (e.g. I will accompany you to do X). Parker 1965:75 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix no Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes /mana/ Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Parker 1965:22 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle yes /=tʃu/ Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only no However, intonation can be used along with the quesiton clitic but intonation is not required Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Parker 1965:92-94 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) no However, it is based on the few examples given in the source. It may be possible that headless relative clauses exist in the language. Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix yes Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no info Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. yes These suffixes also mark switch referene a temporal relation Parker 1965:53 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined yes Parker 1965:53 Daniel Valle
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence yes Parker 1965:53 Daniel Valle