Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy'

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes periphrastic construction with yáa Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 95 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 106 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare yes the syntactic causative construction implies indirect action of causer over the causee Aikhenvald, 1995: 37 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no info Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no "Indirect causation" is achieved by a serial verb construction. Aikhenvald, 2003: 278 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no info Facundes, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes It is marked by the reduplication of the regular causative suffix Duff-Tripp 1997:101 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info more likely not Danielsen 2007:250-2 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes There is an “influential” causative, which has the meaning that the causer made the causee carry out the action by indirect or distinctly non-coercive actions. Michael, 2008. p. 284 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no However, the regular causative {-ki} can have this meaning as well Brandão 2010:35 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 131 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 40-41 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Daniel Valle
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:181-2 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info more likely not Levinson 1978:12 Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Salas 1992, p.186 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:102-5 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:609 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no This suffix may also be used when the subject commands another to do the action as indicated by the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-103 Daniel Smith
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no not dedicated different causative marker, but constructions of the type 'make someone do X' do exist. Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes verb root plus -kɨ̃ followed by the verb ii- Miller 1999, p. 116 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004, p. 207 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991,p.101-103 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.96 Chris Clack
Siona yes Makes use of a detachment suffix "-yã́." This same construction can also convey alienation from a subject or the subject's intent ("She's laughing…but I don't know who she is" or "I don't know where he's gone"). Wheeler - 1970:107 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 248- 252 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 47-53 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011:287 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché yes It is a verbal prefix Susnik 1974:38-39 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:373 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no 11 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 98-9 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No info done-Amalia x
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 376 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 205 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 163 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No info done x
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 319 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 402-5 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 97 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 412-4 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 15 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 118 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 306 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 84 0
Dyirbal No 91 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 86-7 done 0
Djinang No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 40 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 146-8 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 84 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 55-6 done 0
Katthang no 86 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 188-189 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 59 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 153 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 329 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No info Done- x
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte No 193 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 224 0
Ritharrngu No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 77 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info 956 Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 75-6 0
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 37 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps