Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy'

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing
Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.'


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua yes periphrastic construction with yáa Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 95
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 106
Bare yes the syntactic causative construction implies indirect action of causer over the causee Aikhenvald, 1995: 37
Piapoco no info
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 521
Yavitero no info
Wapishana no Santos 2006
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801
Tariana no "Indirect causation" is achieved by a serial verb construction. Aikhenvald, 2003: 278
Apurinã no info Facundes, 2000
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47
Yanesha' yes It is marked by the reduplication of the regular causative suffix Duff-Tripp 1997:101
Kinikinau no info
Baure no info more likely not Danielsen 2007:250-2
Nanti yes There is an “influential” causative, which has the meaning that the causer made the causee carry out the action by indirect or distinctly non-coercive actions. Michael, 2008. p. 284
Paresi no However, the regular causative {-ki} can have this meaning as well Brandão 2010:35
Palikur no Launey 2003
Yine yes Matteson 1965
Añun no info no info on valence Patte 1989
Bora no info Seifart - 2005
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 131
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 40-41
Eñepa no
Pemon no info
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika no info
Kogi no info
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:181-2
Damana no
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.2) - 1985:43; Queixaós - 2000:122-126
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna no info more likely no
Northern Emberá no info
Waorani no info
Ingá no info more likely not Levinson 1978:12
Matses no info
Mapudungun no info Salas 1992, p.186
Páez no Jung:102-5
Quechua Ayacuchano no info
Tikuna no info
Urarina no Olawsky:609
Waunana no info
Andoke no info
Puinave no info
Central Aymara no info
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011
Minica Witoto no This suffix may also be used when the subject commands another to do the action as indicated by the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.101-103
Hup no Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984
Dâw no not dedicated different causative marker, but constructions of the type 'make someone do X' do exist. Martins 2004
Desano yes verb root plus -kɨ̃ followed by the verb ii- Miller 1999, p. 116
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 57
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004, p. 207
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.70
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991,p.101-103
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.96
Siona yes Makes use of a detachment suffix "-yã́." This same construction can also convey alienation from a subject or the subject's intent ("She's laughing…but I don't know who she is" or "I don't know where he's gone"). Wheeler - 1970:107
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 no evidence for this
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 248- 252
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 101 no evidence for this
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 47-53
Surui no info
Karitiana no info
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011:287
Paraguayan Guaraní no info
Aché yes It is a verbal prefix Susnik 1974:38-39
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:373
Nyangumarta no 0
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no info x
Bunuba no info x
Walmajarri no info x
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra no 11 0
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta no info x
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no info x
Yidiny no 0
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha no info x
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 98-9 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 47-50 0
Warumungu No info x
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi No 376 0
Paakantyi no info X
Pitta-Pitta No 205 0
Pintupi no 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no 163 0
Ngayawang No info x
Muruwari no info x
Mayi-Yapi No info x
Martuthunira no 0
Marrgany No 319 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 402-5 0
Kuku Yalanji no 97 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 412-4 0
Kaurna No 15 0
Kalkatungu no info x
Jaru no info x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 118 0
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 306 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No 84 0
Dyirbal No 91 0
Duungidjawu no 86-7 0
Djinang No 122 0
Diyari no info x
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no info x
Bularnu no 0
Biri no 40 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana no 146-8 0
Alyawarr no info X
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija No 47 0
Wathawurrung no info x
Mathi-Mathi no 99-101 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 84 0
Thanggati no 55-6 0
Katthang no 86 0
Panyjima no 188-189 0
Ngarinyeri No 59 0
Kurrama no 153 0
Yingkarta no info x
Githabul No 23 0
Gunya No 329 0
Kunjen No info x
WesternTorres no info x
Wakaya no 0
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang No 86 0
Ngaatjatjara No 71 0
Arrernte No 193 0
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 195 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 224 0
Ritharrngu No 61 0
Warrgamay No 77 0
Warluwarra no info 956 x
Warnman No 44 0
Djapu no 75-6 0
Bilinarra no info x
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 0
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari No 37 0
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu no 0
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001