Nadëb/Roçado dialect

Family
Nadahupan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mbj
Location
-1.24°, -66.31°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Martins, Valteir. 2005. Reconstrução Fonológica do Protomaku Oriental. University of Leiden. LOT Dissertation Series. 104. Utrecht: LOT. (Doctoral disseration).


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location poŋ inheritance high' in Hup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment Ɂo:j inheritance/semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
back espalda costas body unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bad mal mal quality ʃo̰:, na-ʃa: do:, na-ʃa̰: ni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
belly barriga barriga body wog unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ɨt, ɨthã unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
big grande grande quality poŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black negro preto colour cʌːh, cʌŋ, ʔcãm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blood sangre sangue body mãjɨːw, mãjɨːm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bone hueso osso body kɨ̰ːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breast pecho, seno peito body bi: unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
child niño, niña criança human karapéː unique morph complex? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cloud nube nuvem environment wǝ puh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cold frío frio quality hǝːm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
day día dia time bawag, ʔad ǝb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dirty sucio sujo quality tǝ:w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dry seco seco quality ha-wóñ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality nu:h jake̱:, na-ra-u ['not sharp'] unique also na-ra-u ['not sharp'] See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dust polvo poeira environment atǝ̱g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ear oreja orelha body nabuːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɟʌŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
egg huevo ovo fauna tɨb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eye ojo olho body matɨm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
far lejos longe quality da-wǝ: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fat/grease grasa gordura body ʃɨːj unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔɨb, ʔeːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather pluma pena fauna natuːh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fire fuego fogo environment tǝːg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flower flor flor environment ɉo̰:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ɉɨ:g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔag inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
good bueno bom quality nɨːw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ʃəːn semantic shift pubic hair See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hand mano mão body mɔ̃ːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ta- (proclitic) inheritance proclitic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
head cabeza cabeça body nuːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heavy pesado pesado quality jawɨk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
how? como como grammar nɨ:h da: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1sg yo eu grammar ʔɨ̃h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location go, ga inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lake lago lago environment mɔ̃:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf hoja folha environment ga̰ːd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ʃɨ̰̃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leg/foot pierna perna body tǝ̱:m (or ɟɨːm?; same as 'foot') unknown same as foot (poor data?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wɨp unknown may be cognate but sound changes unclear See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
liver hígado figado body hoːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
long largo comprido, longo quality dawɨ:t, dawɨd, rɔm, rɔw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna naːm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
man/male hombre homem human jɨ̰ːʔ, maɾahud inheritance cognate in Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dab inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moon luna lua environment kamarab unique Nadëb has distinct words for sun/moon See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔɨ̃ːn loan into proto-language, direction unknown Puinave, Kakua-Nukak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouth boca boca body nɔːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
name nombre nome human hʌd, hʌt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
near/close cerca de perto quality pǝ: inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body nu:h mamet unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neck cuello pescoço body rǝ:k unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
new nuevo novo quality papuːj inheritance cognate in Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
night noche noite time ɟǝm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
no/not no não grammar péh [Neg exist] unknown possibly cognate In Hup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nose nariz nariz body póːh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
old viejo velho quality hǝnaːʔ inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
one uno um number ʃæt, ʃæd unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
other otro outro grammar ʃæ:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body da-tæʃ, da-tæ:j unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
person/human being persona pessoa human jihub inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rain lluvia chuva environment do:ʃ, do:ɉ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
red rojo vermelho colour hiːn inheritance cognate Yuhup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
road/path camino caminho manufacture tɨːw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
root raíz raiz flora kɔm inheritance cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rotten podrido podre quality ʔaʃa:ɟ, ʔaʃa:j unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sand arena areia environment hoːd unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
short corto curto quality ga-na-pok unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoulder hombro ombro body jano:h nop unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hi-bɨŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skin piel pele body bɨːh inheritance sound changes unclear See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sky cielo céu environment wǝɁ inheritance cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small pequeño pequeno quality -iʃ inheritance cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
smoke humo fumaça environment atɨ̱g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
star estrella estrela environment ʃagõ:h doubtful loan Carib See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tǝ:g, ba̱:h inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone piedra pedra environment pʌʔ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tail cola, rabo rabo body dõm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
that ese/esa esse grammar tatiː, tiː unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar la-, ʃa- unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality i-ba:n doubtful loan From Arawak: Achagua, Piapoco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thin delgado fino quality ʃa̰:p, ʃa:b inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
this este/esta este grammar hahɨ̃ːh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2sg xx xx grammar ʔɔ̃m, ma- (subj proclitic), a- (subj modifier) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throat garganta garganta body garagɔ:r loan Nheengatu kuruka, possibly orig. Port garganta (could also be onomatopoeic?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
three tres tres number tamaʔwób inheritance lexicalized with ta- 3rd person prefix See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thunder truenos trovão environment daruŋ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bite morder morder body gǝʃ, gǝ:j inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blow soplar soprar body wɔh, hu:h, pahu: ɲ, pahu: j inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breathe respirar respirar body inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
burn quemar queimar environment hɔ̃h, hɔ̃:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body wa:Ɂ, Ɂawa:Ɂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
climb subir subir motion ʃǝ̱:g, ʃǝ:k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
come venir vir motion a-na, na, i unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cook cocinar cozinhar impact i-wo̱:p, i-wo:b unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
count contar contar mental hi-ro̱:t, hi-ro̱:d unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cry llorar chorar mental ʔo:t, ʔɔd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cut/hack cortar cortar impact gahɔ̃k, gahɔ̃g, ahɔ̃k, ga kɨ:t, ga kɨd inheritance; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
die/be dead morir morrer state a-ba:j ʃǝːk unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dig cavar cavar impact gɔ:ʃ, gɔ:t', puk, pug inheritance; unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream soñar sonhar mental ʃǝ:h, ʃǝ̱:h, bɔ:n, bɔn unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔǝːk, ʔǝŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eat comer comer body wǝːh unknown may be cognate but sound changes unclear See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fall caer cair motion ki-pɨ:ñ, ki-pɨ:j ni (Martins, 1999) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fear miedo medo mental i-ɔ̃ǝm, pǝh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flow fluir fluir motion inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fly volar voar motion ka-puːh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grow crecer crescer state ʃǝ̰:g inheritance cognate Dâw; in Hup 'go up' See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hear oír ouvir mental wǝʔ, wǝːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hide esconder esconder motion jǝn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a-dɨ:k, dɨ:k, dɨg (Martins, 1999) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tɔn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kill matar matar impact da-jǝ:p 'cause to die' unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pʌh, pǝːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
laugh reír rir mental ka-wi-wa̰:m unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jat, jad inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body nɨ, nʌ:, na: doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
open/uncover abrir abrir other je:ɲ, jḛ:j inheritance cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
say decir dizer mental nǝ:, nǝŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scratch rascar rasgar impact ʃæ̃:t, ʃæ̰̃:d, hap inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
see ver ver mental ha-pəh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact boh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sit sentar(se) sentar state du:h hɨ:h hǝŋ, hǝŋ, hǝ:h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sleep dormir dormir body ʔɨ̃ːh, ʔãh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hɨ̃:k, hʌ̃g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spit escupir cuspir body ɉo:ʃ, ɉɔʃ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bǝh inheritance cognate Hup See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ga-ti̱, ka-wo:, ga-piʃ unique; inheritance; unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ʃa-ʃɔk, ʃa-ʃɔg, jo:k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state gǝ̰:d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
steal robar roubar other ɉǝ̰:k, ɉǝ:g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
suck chupar chupar body i-pɔh, ta̱-tu̱: unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swell hincharse inchar body puh, pu:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swim nadar nadar motion a-tó̱m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
think pensar pensar mental hɨ̱b (na̱:) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact boh, bo:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact da:b, da̰:p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wa-tǝ̱:p, wa-kɔ̃uʃ [trans?] unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vomit vomitar vomitar body hʌ:n inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
walk caminar, andar andar motion wəd unique may be cognate with Hup 'arrive' See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
work trabajar trabalhar other mo:h ka-ha-h'o uñ, mo:h ka-ha-hõj ni unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yawn bostezar bocejar body ham, haw unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tongue lengua lingua body naga̰ːd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tooth diente dente body tǝg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
two dos dois number póʔwóp, póʔwóp ha unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
water agua agua environment naʔǝŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ʔǝ:r inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ʔãh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wet mojado molhado quality ʃa-ʃɨ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
what? que, qué que grammar hɨ̱:d, nɨ:h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
when? cuando quando grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
where? donde onde grammar nɨ:-b, nɨ: ba unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white blanco branco colour hawak unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
who? quien, quién quem grammar jaːh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wife esposa esposa kinship ʔɨ̃ːm, ʔʌ̃m inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wind viento vento environment bahu:d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wing ala asa body kǝg unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woman/female mujer mulher human ʔɨ̃ːɲ, ʔɨ̃ːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ʃawʌ̰ːk unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bǝːh, da- unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
foot pie body ɟɨːm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ta kǝ:h hã unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
all todo todos other ʃæd niʔmu:n unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ankle tobillo tornozelo body tɨ̱:m nu:h baraho ('foot head ?') unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armpit axila, sobaco axila body papab unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ja̰:Ɂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lung pulmón pulmão body ʃa pu:w inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sweat sudar suor, suar body hi-hu:t, hi-hud unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ɉu:k, ɉug. ʃɨ̰:t, ʃɨ:d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bark corteza casca environment bɔ̱g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fingernail uña unha body pɔ̃hbɔg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heart corazón coração body nu:h hato unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sun sol sol time papɨ̃ːj unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green verde verde quality jabaɾuːt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot caliente quente quality juʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. wɤm inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tawɤ:d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. jahamad unknown See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ʃoked, ʃuked, ʃaked inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans maʃək doubtful loan North Arawak, e.g. Warekena máatʃaɾi See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. jɤ̰ːj inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ɟiːp doubtful loan North Arawak, see Piapoco sípi See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wṵːɾ unique See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kawed (arara-vermelha) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ɟɔj inheritance See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae waʔwiːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wʌːh inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family roor (Senn/Martins dict) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wokaar loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae tarɤŋ doubtful loan cf. Matses todon See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ʔawaɾ loan (and prob. semantic shift from jaguar) Tupi-Guarani See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis wawɤt unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) jahuːn inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri wḛːɟ (tatu-galinha) unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. aron, kamasi (?) (Senn/Martins dict) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. wəː unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus noːh$hiin$pɛh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ta'hɨ̰̃ːb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. kaj pa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae amaaj (Senn/Martins dict) loan North Arawak, e.g. Baniwa ómai See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. hoːd$ tə̰ːh unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. wɯːw unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ɟapɤːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. wajãam (Senn/Martins dict) loan - WW %wajamaka, Carib See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ʃaʔrin loan Carib, esp. Eñepa sanara/sarana See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. t'aa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura jariʔtõ, jaraʔtõ doubtful loan cf. Arawak korolo, Wayana kalapu See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes jɔːd unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae jabarato unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ʔawɯ̱: doubtful loan Arawak *owi See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox bʌːw, k'atɯ̃:j inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria matug unique See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis hajaar unknown See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pǝm inheritance See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba ʃawɯːm inheritance See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manak̚ loan North Arawak See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ɟʌ̰ːk̚ inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana kapɔːɲ unique See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea kakoːr, baʔbuː unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes jǝːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua wʌŋ inheritance See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca batoʔ loan - WW %patu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) kawad, ʃawɯk loan Arawak: Warekena kawáli See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra ʃɨwɨk inheritance See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens po̰ːh unknown cf. Carib See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mawãːd loan - WW %mawino See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kana (Pt/Sp loan) loan Portuguese See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. maʃeːɾ, pãnãːɾ doubtful loan; loan unknown source; Portuguese See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kamaan (Senn/Martins dict) loan - WW %kumana See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) jaʔwii unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays janati loan Carib or TG? See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hũːt inheritance See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tǝ:g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hɤːw inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. kamɛʔpiʔ doubtful loan source unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana baraja: loan North Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala ʃɯ̰ːb inheritance See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] maneːh unique See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum akaːj loan - WW Nheengatu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura jawʌk inheritance See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. b'aah täg (Senn/Martins dict) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui mʌ̃ʔ inheritance See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia taɾapoːʔ unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bɔːk unique See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mahøur unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum karöra, karahɨ:r loan North Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas karahɨ:r loan North Arawak See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. manaʔɯːn unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. marahud doubtful loan North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wen ('small cuia'), höka, ʔʌk ('cuia'?) doubtful loan Mapoyo See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. juːm inheritance See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. dṵːj inheritance See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wɯːw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. wɤk̚ doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown cf. Jivaro See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hiːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kabataɾ loan Yavitero kumálala See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae huːj doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW %kukuj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera ratatu tuw, totodn unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora gasóóm, boot (Senn/Martins dict) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda ʃʌːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ʃʌːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea daar, riid, tsiw (Senn, Martins dict) loan Nheengatu daridari See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera kadɛɛj/ kadiib unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera tawaræ̃h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae baʔt'ɨ:d, riw unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. gɨ:y, kamarab hi inheritance; loan Nheengatu (or Carib?) karapana See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kamaʔɾa loan Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea k̚awaɾɯ̰ːb doubtful loan Arawak (metathesis?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita mãʔjuʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ʃanajoːʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca awad, jamatuːh loan; inheritance Tupi-Guarani See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. wajatˀ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ʃa'mɨːj unique prob 'capuchin' See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella jawʌ̰ːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons ʃamɯ̃ːj, hɤːw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus gɔ̃:ʔ, jawʌ̱:j unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ɟawaːj doubtful loan - WW %yawari See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis aj'óóg (Senn/Martins dict) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ʔajo̰ːk̚ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu jamok̚ doubtful loan Arawak; e.g. Baniwa dzamoɺíto See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari toːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kakoːʃ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua ka'bəʔ loan North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. majãːw unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kajamaːh doubtful loan North Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti bahe unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) daʔpaːʔ loan North Arawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus k̚aw'ɤːŋ unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tʌ̰ːŋ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kawajad loan Arawak; cf. Yukuna kawaja See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material jak̚ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material tɯŋ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
canoe canoa canoa transport ho̰ːh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology ʃʌ:w (Martins dict) inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology səːw Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ʃaɾo:ɾ (Martins dict) loan - WW %sarur, via Nheengatu See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firewood leña lenha other tɤːk̚ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology n'a:, ɾahanad, waʔjɔ: (types of Curupira, Martins dict) unknown malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ʃaw'ə:ŋ.pa:h (Martins dict) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wariː doubtful loan North Arawak, e.g. Yukuna kewirí multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
knife cuchillo faca culture-material katawet (type of knife; Martins 1999) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
machete machete facão culture-material mariːj (terçado) loan - WW %marije See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mɨ:m (Martins dict) inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool katoj unique hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jɔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bow arco arco subsistence tool kaɾabaʔ doubtful loan Carib? e.g. Waimiri-Atroari warɨpa; cf. also TG *ɨβɨrapar arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paddle/oar remo remo transport hɤː, həː unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ʃaɾeːj loan Warekena ʃi:ri (metal pot) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material waen (small bowl, Martins dict) doubtful loan Tukanoan; Carapana wẽniro See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool aʃi:ra, japøn, haʃeːr (para torrar farinha) unknown agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool jari, jɛri doubtful loan cf. Yanomam wejeri See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wax cera cera other inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honey miel mel food maba:h, maʔɾo, wʌk' (types of honey), awad.maba:h (type of honey from a bee that doesn't sting) (Martins 1999) loan; unknown North Arawak only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tɨd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kapɔːɲ, tapɔːɲ unique possibly cognate Dâw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology bariʔ-s'ɤ̃ñ (fight/angry-?) unique a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology taɾe:h (Martins dict) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
school escuela escola acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paper papel papel acculturation makahɛ.bʌh (Martins dict) unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ʃ'ə:h (Martins dict) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kaɾa:k (Martins dict) loan - WW %karaka See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material ʃa:j loan Port/Span saia See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ʃapãt loan Spanish/Portuguese See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hat sombero chapéu dress mu:h.k'aʃu loan? Arawak (Achagua/Piapoco?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool loan Arawak? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool Semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
salt sal sal food loan - WW %jukira See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ʃo̰ːw semantic shift from 'shoot blowgun' currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool ʃawatɨm (Martins 1999) unknown hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ta-kɯːk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food i-tɤːn inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hunt cazar caçar food i-bo:h, i-boh ni (Martins 1999) unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ʔɤk, ʃawaʃab, wen ('small cuia'), höka unknown (all) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jaɾakɤʔ loan North Arawak prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food mãʃoːk, pæ:ʔ loan - WW; unknown %matsuka agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food madao, kanapiːh unknown; loan Arawak kana 'manioc' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ʃɛ̃j-nuːh, ʔe-nuh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food kajahar unknown agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food haɾum doubtful loan source unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool pɯ̰ːm unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool nãpid̥ (?), juh, jaraʔta: doubtful loan; unknown Tupi-Guarani agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool nɨ: (bait, Martins 1999) inheritance can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool jõːw unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
house other mɨ̃ːj, tɔb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Grammatical Data (226)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. yes Barbosa 2005:44, mentions preoralized nasals (bm) Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] yes unclear Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? yes Barbosa 2005:49-50 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels yes unclear Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? no ? stress falls always on the last syll Barbosa 2005:49 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no ? Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone yes indicative/non-indicative mood involves voicing contrast on final consonant; number also involves suppletion Weir 1984: 40, 42 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection yes Weir 1984:34 example 2.21 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word yes Weir 1984:33 example 2.19 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' no Weir 1984:43. Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs yes Positionals/directionals Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment yes quite productive and complex incorporation Weir 1984:272 Katherine Bolaños
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns yes esp. postpositions Weir 1984:97 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders 0 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. yes possessor classification only Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals no Weir 1984: 103-105 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun yes suppletive variants for plural/sing in a few human/animate nouns only Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only yes but apparently only a subset of these Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker no indefinite pronoun Weir 1984:89 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you yes Weir 1984:89 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system 3 3, something like 'near', 'far', 'farther' (limited info) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix no verbal prefix Weir 1984:107 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients yes postpositions mark several cases: for example dative, ablative… etc Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun 1 dative'; other relations are marked by verbal postpositions Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are no displaced subject of transitive verb marked with DAT (Weir 1984:275-6) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) no info when the subject of transitive verb is displaced, it is marked with DAT (Weir 1984:275-6) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic yes dative postposition, variant is verbal prefix Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no don't really know, Weir (1984:103-107) diff. 1, 2 and many/all, but also says there is ano word meaning 3…? Weir 1984:103-107 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' yes rubber tree seed' = 3 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes not enough info, but it seems that this is how it works Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used yes not enough info, but it seems that this is how it works Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? yes Weir 1984:89 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' yes possessive classifier associated with dependent Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' yes only where PR is a pronoun in inalienable construction Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities yes alienable constructions only Weir 1984:85 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) yes classifier Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form no info inalienables said to be oblig possessed Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father yes some kin terms must be possesed but not all Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes yes little info, but there seem to be a few, e.g. 'small' Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb no info Weir 1984:85 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb yes subject relativizing prefix + generic nominalizer doo Weir 1984: 27 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb yes generic nominalizer doo Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' no info may be the same Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere yes paah post verbal particle, not required Weir 1984:58 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) yes dah post verbal particle, not required Weir 1984:58 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix yes aspectual prefixes; values not made clear Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses no negation marker is attached to the imperative construction to form negative imperative. Weir 1984:250 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' no any person/ number can occur in imperative constructions but there is no dedicated marker. Weir 1984:120 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something no info Martins 2005 gives glosses as theme but these are various different morphemes/particles/suffixes and the author does not specify the meaning. Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") yes -paawʉ́ Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' yes cf. 'indicative' vs. 'non-indicative' mood marking - looks like non-ind functions like irrealis (polar questions, some sub clauses, negatives) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. yes postpositions Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' yes mɨh Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion yes suppletive forms for some sing/plural variants, with reference to event and/or to S or O Weir 1984:41 Katherine Bolaños
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order no OSV Weir 1984:24 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject no preferred only in intransitive clauses where the verb is a descriptive verb; elsewhere SV is preferred Weir 1984:24 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VS in transitive clauses yes OSV preferred, SVO also common Weir 1984:24 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object yes not preferred Weir 1984:25 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject yes preferred Weir 1984:25 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Preposition-Noun no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix yes postpositions Weir 1984:97-100 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) yes except for 1sg possessors Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun no Weir 1984:118 ex Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun yes Weir 1984:118 ex Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Dem-Noun no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Dem yes Weir 1984:31 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Num-Noun yes Weir 1984:103-104 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Num no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies yes flexible order of Rel and N positions Weir 1984:71 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies yes flexible order of Rel and N positions Weir 1984:71 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') no pseudorelative clauses as well Weir 1984:75 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause yes Weir 1984:109-110 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker no no case marking, but alignment is otherwise erg Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other yes proclitic only used with ref to A and in nominalizations; S/O require full PN form Weir 1984:89-91 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes no except in nominalizations Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers yes cf. ergative alignment Weir 1984:89-91 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately yes number not (usually?) marked on nouns Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently yes indirect object is expressed as a modifier of a postpositional phrase following the dative marker hã Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb yes ka- verbal prefix Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted yes ka- verbal prefix alternative use of same prefix Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb yes da- Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix yes some verbs have causative stem changes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element yes dooh Weir 1984:136 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix yes na- verbal prefix Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle yes dooh Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' no NP + ba-doh 'inexistent' use of the verb form ba-doh 'be.inexistent' Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only yes Weir 1984:108 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no Question words as first element, no word order change Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position yes small adj class; mostly descriptive verbs Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) yes Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) yes Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. yes Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) yes Two nominalizers: doo (referent is specific), and peh (referent is not specific). doo nominalizes an argument to make it a relative clause Weir 1984:65-66 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) no desiderative expressed via full verb Weir 1984, e.g. p.286 ex II.2b Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile Interfluvial