Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker

Simple Clauses - Predication
It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes A class marker follows the relativizing affix on the verb in the relative clause, as well as a portmanteau number/gender marker. Allin, 1976: 359-360, 363 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes The inflection of the verb with a nominal class marker seems to be how the language makes a relative clause. Galindo, 2002: 341-342 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes "Agreement" with number and gender marked on the relativized verb. One example on page 526 (Shauer & Shauer, 2000) shows a relativized verb with a "feminine" marker. It looks like object marking, but it is "outside" of the relativizing marker. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 p. 526, 528 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987:p. 94 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Examples of relative clauses have class markers on the relativized verbs. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 799 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes The relative takes classifiers to agree with an inanimate common referent, if that referent is the S of both clauses, or if it is O in the main clause and S in the relative clause. Aikhenvald, 2003: 541 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no No indication in the section on relative clauses that class markers can be used this way. Facundes, 2000: 560-587 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:1038; Payne 1983:130140 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:206-17 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 402-414 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:70-71 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 351-352 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Carson 1982:164-169 Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:175-94 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 19885:130-3 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:173-5 Daniel Valle
Damana no Williams 1993:149-54 Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:253-5 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:128-34 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 249 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Soto 1976:152-4 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:320 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p407-9 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 304 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.96 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p.148-149 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 152 Chris Clack Relative clauses in Cubeo are either postnominal or, more commonly, appear in a noun phrase without any overt head noun. In the latter case, they can equally well be considered as noun phrases which happen to be headed by a nominalized verb.
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2007 Daniel Smith
Makuna no info not enough info. Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.30, 68 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.41 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.149 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.151 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:117-118 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes This is somewhat unclear since there are few examples of relative constructions and there are many repeater classifiers Ramirez 1997: 279-285 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no info I would actually suspect this is possible, but I don't have the data to back it up Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely no examples of this
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez, p. 131-132 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 140 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:152-9 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri N/A Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes ms17.1.1.i done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi n/a done-Dan 0
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga n/a Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No info done x
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu No 58 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 378 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta N/A 216 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira yes 189-191 done 1
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 533 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info 181 Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 430 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu n/a Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No info Done-Amalia x
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr n/a done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal No 99 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu n/a 104 done 0
Djinang N/A 207 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu n/a Done-Austin 0
Biri n/a 61 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima n/a done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 32 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a 227 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul No info Done-Amalia x
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 82 Done- 1
WesternTorres n/a done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang N/A 122 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 114 done 0
Arrernte No 321 0
Kokatha no info 33 x
Karajarri Yes 396 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara No G 154 0
Ritharrngu N/A 111 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 73 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala N/A 51 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari N/A 53 0
Wajarri N/A 39 0
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps