Djinang

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
dji
Location
-12.48°, 135.01°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar libi semantic shift Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar lim semantic shift Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar irr inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ildji inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar ñuni inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nyani inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nyani inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location ṉami unique Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar madjirri unknown Claire Bowern
all todo todos other ngayama unknown Claire Bowern
and y e grammar a inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body baṯ unknown Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body way inheritance? Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental guraki galmidji inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gibilbal unknown Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ŋi? inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body burr gungi unknown Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality mirgi inheritance Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body wanngi inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body budjirri inheritance? Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ṉambiḏi unknown Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality maṉmiḻing unknown Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body ḏirradjigi unknown Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mul inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body buḏi unknown Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bilang'djigi unknown Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality djumiḻing inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body ngirki inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture gaḻigaḻi inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body ngaman inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body ngalwartjingilgi unknown Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment warrdjigi semantic shift Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human gurrminang unknown Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion galaltjigi unknown Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment ngawaḻngawaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality miṉ unknown Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion djini guwa unknown Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact bachi-gi inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental butjurrudjigi loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental waywaydjigi unknown Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact rindi-gi unknown Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state ḏalpamdjidji inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact gamirr-gi unknown Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna muṉibi unknown Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality midjirri unknown Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental mabugi loan non-Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body ḏirradjigi unknown Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality burrdjingi unknown Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment midjirri unknown Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body miṉinggarri unknown Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment gurrbi unknown Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body mirnrdirrbi-gi unknown Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna giyi loan Burarra Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body mil inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ngatjarr unknown Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion galmidji unknown Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality walanggarra unknown Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body guḻtji unknown Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship djirrping unknown Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental nguy inydji giri unknown Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna gilingkaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment djunggi inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna guyi inheritance Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion ngurr giri unknown Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment wurrki inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion ṉunydjirri unknown Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment giṉimbi unknown Claire Bowern
foot pie body rnu unknown Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora djal unknown Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality 1672 loan areal Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state djurrgi unknown Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mapaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body gumbirri inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body guṉgi unknown Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental buchinjirrku-ngi unknown Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality guṉgan loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion gilgirr-gi unknown Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact baḏirdjigi unknown Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact ḏal' Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other gatjigi inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar mir nyaliki unknown Claire Bowern
if si se grammar bilangi unknown Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location guḏiy unknown Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body ngal inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ḏiyḏiy inheritance Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact bu-ngi inheritance Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental gaḏaman inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental kitkittji-gi inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment [missing] missing Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body wiṉgu inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body rnu unknown Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion mani wangidji unknown Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment milnytjigi inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body miḏimiḏi unknown Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality giḻiwiḻingi unknown Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna mimi unknown Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body birarrgirarr unknown Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human gumbirr maringgalgiṉingi Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna munydjal unknown Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment guḻurwi unknown Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ama inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body rarri unknown Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human girarrk unknown Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body guraki unknown Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality ngidjirrgi unknown Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body mani doubtful loan Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality yuwirdjingi unknown Claire Bowern
night noche noite time maliri unknown Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar ingki unknown Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body ngurri inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality gaypingi unknown Claire Bowern
one uno um number wurpmi unknown Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other lapmiri-gi inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar nyibi unknown Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human 2978 inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body mapaṉ inheritance Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment djurrmuk unknown Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour miki inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body djunupa inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture gadjigarr unknown Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture djaḻk unknown Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora gurrkarr unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality ḏuḻing unknown Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment munatja inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental wangidji inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact yirrachi-gi unknown Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental milmangi unknown Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality djarrkuṯ unknown Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact barndiriji-gi unknown Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality djubirri unknown Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body bapi unknown Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body rirrkminy inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state djut inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body gilingkaḻ unknown Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment ṉami unknown Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ngurri-ji inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality miliyirring unknown Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body ñumigi inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment ngarimbiy unknown Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body jukmarr-gi unknown Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact barrbiḻ unknown Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact rduchi-gi inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact rani inheritance Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state djirrdji inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment gata unknown Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other jamirr-gi unknown Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment baṯi unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body nuki-ji unknown Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time maṉngi unknown Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body ngurrbirrdji unknown Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body walwaldjigi unknown Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion yigili-gi unknown Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body miman unknown Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar ngunangi unknown Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ḻambirringi Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality rang unknown Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental gingi-ji inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar djiningi unknown Claire Bowern
three tres tres number ḻurrkun inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body djarnggulk unknown Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bat unknown Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment wulma unknown Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact garrpigi inheritance Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body yamana unknown Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body malkaṉa unknown Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality djunupa inheritance Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ḻiw unknown Claire Bowern
two dos dois number bilawili unknown Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body galgal unknown Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion kukirri-ji unknown Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment djurumuḻ unknown Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality [missing] missing Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar nyimi inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar nyadji inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar nyanydjili inheritance Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour bardjining unknown Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar wari inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship nyanimigi unknown Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment waṯi inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body [missing] missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human barrpi unknown Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other djama loan Makassar Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body jabirwangi-ji unknown Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour guringguringgili unknown Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ḻiṯmirringi rlirtmirriŋi unique 2 1 0 0 0 no
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae giyany giyany inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus mula mula unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii djunggayngu dyuŋgayŋu unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia warngurra warngurra loan direction unknown Burarra WW %warnkurra 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer djundjarr dyanambal loan Burarra simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna maypal waykiṉingi maypal waykirniŋi semantic shift cf maypal ‘shellfish’, “waykin” Burarra “on high” ? derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing garlwurn unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri guḻu gurlu tree species unknown 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae munyi murrurlarl unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species murbiṉi rdaparlarl loan Burarra simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii djirrḏiḏi dyirrrdirdi unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda guḏurrki rdaŋgurltyar inheritance simplex 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus gurrtjirtjir gurrtyirtyir goshawk unknown reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis guḻuwurr gurluwurr scrub turkey unique 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) djamuḻpaṉḏi dyamurlparnrdi unknown complex? 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda gambi gambi unknown cf gambilki bush grape simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes mukandi mukandi loan Gupapuyngu “pigeon” simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species ngurrmaḏayimbung ŋurrmardayimbuŋ cormorant unknown compound? 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus ngurrbaḻngi ŋurrbarlŋi death adder unknown suffixed 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo muṉibi murnibi unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong djunungguyangu burlanybirr inheritance Also has word “dyunuŋguyaŋu” meaning “dugong” 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta wuyinygarr wuyinygarr unknown 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae wurrbaḏapaḏa wurrbardaparda inheritance reduplicated 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna guyi guyi inheritance simplex 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) wurrki wurrki inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ṉunydjirri burli unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) waringgiṉingi warrinyu inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni missing rnawirlmuŋ unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni nganka ŋanka unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii djaṉbaḻ djaṉbaḻ dyarnbarl dyarnbarl unknown reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii butjirbiṉi butyirbirni unknown complex? 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) garkman garkman inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla wurliy wurliy unique 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gargiṉingi gargirniŋi unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp dyirrimiri dyirrimiri unique underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) yurryarr yurryarr unique 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera rlirtmirriŋi unknown 0 0 0 0 0
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas garriyuwa garriyuwa loan WW %karriwa underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus mimi mimi adult head louse unique reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarraman yarraman loan areal WW %yarraman simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae wirrirr wirrirr wirrirr wirrirr rainbow bird inheritance might be loan into proto-language reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus gandyi inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata gurrumba gumiŋi unique simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera gaṉangarra burdi malimdynyakirniŋ unknown cf malimdyigi “destroy” 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis guridji guridyi pandanus unique 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya rangan raŋan inheritance simplex 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp mutjiyarra mutyiyarra loan Makassar WW %muthiyarra derived? 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca gurrubuḏuk gurruburduk peewee (Magpie Lark) unique Both “magpie goose” and “magpie lark [peewee]” being with “gurru”, but almost certainly a coincidence? 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing butyalatyamirriŋ unique missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species wirmbiṯi wirmbirti unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi ganggirarr gaŋgirarr unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata ngurrbarrka ŋurrbarrka unique cf “barrka,” Ritharrngu, Gupapuyngu, and Dhuwal Green Sawfish (Longcomb Sawfish), Pristis zijsron; “ŋurr” Djinang nose compound 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus djirrmanga dyirr inheritance 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae garr garr inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species gurapala gurapala unknown simplex 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia ngurrgaṉarra ŋurrgarnarra spoonbill loan direction unknown Burarra simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae ḻawarranya rlawarranya unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing rnarrgi rnarrgi unique missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna galanyan galanyan wax of bee loan direction unknown WW %kalanyan simplex 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita ḻurrpu rlurrpu unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale gibiḏipi gibirdipi unknown simplex 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea matjaḻ matyarl leech inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides murbaḻ murbarl unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera wiṉḏi wirnrdi anthill unknown simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wagirri wagirri inheritance simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) gurrtji gurrtyi unique simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys missing missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna gurrtji unknown Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna giyany inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna maypal waykiṉingi semantic shift Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna murruḻaḻ doubtful loan Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna butjiy loan English Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna yurryarr unknown Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna gaṉḏaḻpurru inheritance? Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna minarr unknown Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna garr inheritance Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress garnbalaty loan Burarra ‘lorikeet’ Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool birndyarra unique Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material batyi inheritance Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool dyaŋgu semantic shift ‘flesh’ Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material batyi inheritance Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool garligarli inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material dyapirdi unique Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport barrawu' loan Makassar Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology bilmi inheritance Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool dyulidyulidyigi REDO - noun not verb Claire Bowern
cook food food rirrtyigi inheritance Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food missing Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology walŋirri-dyi REDO - noun not verb Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool garni loan Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology mabugi loan based on presence of prefix Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology gurlukurluŋ loan Yan-nhaŋu Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology wuyimbarl semantic shift trachea Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fire-saw other missing Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other missing Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other dyuŋgi inheritance with semantic shift fire <> firewood Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool bikaŋ unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool dyurr unique Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food maypal semantic shift Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mirri unique Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology mulu unique Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress marŋarray unique Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology rlaykingirniŋi unique Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food dyurduk semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other bala’ loan Makassar WW %bala Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food gurrpi-gi unique Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology bupirdidyigi unique Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material yiki inheritance Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress dyirrityirri inheritance Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport missing Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology dyuŋgi mak loan Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ŋuyarr unique Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport garraygi inheritance Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology butyalak inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology girnimirni unique Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food munatya semantic shift Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other maypurrŋa unique Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology manikay inheritance Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dyurlgarrarrdyigi unique Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool marrinyi unique Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool mariŋgal loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food missing Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics ŋarali semantic shift Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other galanyan loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology gamunuŋgu loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool dyirrk doubtful loan Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation dyurra loan Makassar WW %djorra Claire Bowern
corpse food galŋi semantic shift ‘live’ Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology rdirrka semantic shift Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology mirikal loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress dyapatyuŋgi loan Makassar WW %dhapathung Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food dyambarl inheritance Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation missing Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation marriyaŋ loan Makassar Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress bulmunuŋ unique Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture muṉḏaṉ unknown Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture nguyarr unknown Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool 771 unknown Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [missing] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool maringgal loan direction unknown Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool djuḻgarrarrdjigi unknown Claire Bowern
house other garrarrak unknown Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive. No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative] No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels? No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme Yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained] No 6 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant? No 6 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference? No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to? No 2 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number] no 169 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word Yes 169 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes Yes 1 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different No 1 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced Yes 128 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap' No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs Yes 131 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain. No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot" N/A 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals N/A 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.' N/A 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun Yes /-pili, /-wili/ 86 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them' No 87 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only No 99 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness Yes 99 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker No 99 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound) Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system Yes 38 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.) No 38 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity) Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument' No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2 no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5 no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10 no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc. no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity' no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used no info Done-Amalia x
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable? No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable? Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog' No 80, 84 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog' Yes 80, 84 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities N/A 27 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun) Yes 199 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg Yes 199 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man) No 199 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb No 129 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb Yes 129 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb Yes 129 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective Yes 118 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary' Yes 157 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s) Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language) No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing' No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something Yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis Yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain") No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality No 185 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens' No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events' Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc. No 140 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt) No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker. No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly' No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VS in transitive clauses No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Preposition-Noun No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book) Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John') No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Dem-Noun Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Dem Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Num-Noun Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Num Yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies Yes 207 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away') No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat' Yes 207 Done-Amalia 1
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers Yes 27 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep) No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3) No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc. No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option) No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately No 129 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently Yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives Yes 55 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently No 55 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal. No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive. No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb Yes /-(i)nydji/ 147 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb No 124 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb No 124 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb Yes 122 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.' No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event No 122 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency No 124 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element Yes /ingki/, /wirr/ 146 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle Yes 146 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas' No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist' No 146 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle Yes /bina/ 159 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology No 159 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) No 159 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only No 159 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.) no info 45-9 Done-Amalia x
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position Yes 209 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all) No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head) No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses. No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause N/A 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes) No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it) No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause. No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined Yes 64 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence No 160 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function? No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function? No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X? No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function? Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function? Yes 125 Done-Amalia 1
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function? No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X? No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X? No 127 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism? Yes 50 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case? Yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change? No 72 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP? Yes 196 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP? No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function? No 207 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness? Yes 49 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class) Yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system? No 87-8 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system? No 87-8 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns? Yes /-mirrpili/ 87-8 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns? Yes /-pili/, /-wili/ 87-8 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes? Yes /mala/ 96 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs? No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives? No 87-8 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB No 139 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns? Yes 139 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words? Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual? yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural? Yes 33 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns? Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns? Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns? Yes 136 Done-Amalia 1
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one? No 137 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes Yes clause-initial 49 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes No 210 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Yes 147 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation) Yes 147 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics? No 137 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35) No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)? No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb. No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class? No 147 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle? Yes 147 Done-Amalia 1
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics? N/A 147 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix? Yes /-dji/ 118 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix? No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix? Yes 169 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix? No 169 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur? Yes 169 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns? No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands? Yes 191 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")? No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’? No 348 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs? Yes 126 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics? Yes 137 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'? No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes? Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs? Yes 167 Done-Amalia 1
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion? No 140 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language? No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns? No 86 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents? No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases? No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases? No 195 Done-Amalia 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc. No 137 Done-Amalia 0
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column No 3 Done-Amalia 0


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG dense mobile yes