Directional elements affixed to the verb

Verbal Categories - Directionals
There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:74 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes adlative and ablative markers Allin, 1976: 132-133 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no info Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no info Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no The description of predicate structure does not include any directional elements. Aikhenvald, 2003: 253-254 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes There are also morphemes for arrival, departure, and "receiving." Payne 1983:16,100 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes These are verbal suffixes Duff-Tripp 1997:91 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes It indicates direction towards. It is a verbal suffix. Danielsen 2007:264 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 249 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 172 Daniel Smith Not sure what's going on here- abcorporeal movement as a transitivizer?
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 82 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 105-95 Daniel Smith
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no movement particles, not affixes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes There are around five of these suffixes Margery 1985:104 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:80-7 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:83 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no info Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no Directionals are nominal elements Mortensen 1999:59-87 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:22 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:364-75 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes These suffixes are more related to the location where the event takes place, or if the participants are coming in or away a reference point Zúñiga 2006, p. 168-72 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:59-61 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Dirrectional meanings are expressed by directional suffixes attached to nouns Soto 1976:75 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2004:166 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes na- is centripetal, ni- is centrifugal; si- is 'low/behind/downstream/immersion/leaving the house', yi- is 'high/in front/uphill/emergence/entering the house' Landaburu 1979: 188; 197-198 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 177 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no in serial verb contructions, though, when movement there is always 'go' or 'come' to indicate the direction of the movement Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes Goncalves 2011:16 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.103 Christopher Clack -mona is used to mark direction but is affixed to the noun
Hup yes go do V and return' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes postpositions Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The usual affix to indicate aciton away from the speaker is -a and towards the speaker is -ri (present) or -ra (-ri + -a past). The directional suffixes can be attached to any of the directional verbs. Miller 1999, p. 80-81 Amanda Novak; notes by Chris Clack The morphology of the directional formatives, or deictic markers, suggests that they are derived from the verbs wa- 'go' and ari- 'come'. When these suffixes occur with 'duha' (remain at one's base), they indicate returning to one's base./ Another directional suffix -bia (omnilocative), noted by Kaye (1970:71). It has limitted distribution.
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p.17 Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 282 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.42 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.76 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The second nominalizer used in anticipatory aspect indicates direction of the motion. Jones & Jones 1991, p.97-98 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes There are three directionals that suffix directly to the verb root. Strom 1992, p.88 Chris Clack -raʔa 'toward', -waʔ'away', -ta 'vertical'
Siona no These elements do exist, but they are nominal classifiers and demonstratives rather than verbal affixes. Wheeler - 1987:134, 136 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 118-119; Ramirez 1997: 151, 160-162 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 240; 273-274 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Goodwin-Gomez Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 165 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Directionals are attached on the noun Everett 2006:223-95 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:308-56 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes 32 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes n62 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 83 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 149 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 46-7 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 129-132 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 30 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 34 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 36-7, r17-18 done 1
Uradhi Yes 367 Y 1
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 225 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 77; 84; 89; 151 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 12 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa no 141 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 168 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 55-60 done 0
Martuthunira no 136-164 done 0
Marrgany yes 343 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 341 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 68 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 406 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 92 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 208 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 322 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 158 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 97 0
Dyirbal No 57 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 70 done 0
Djinang No 140 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal maybe 61 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 47 done 0
Bularnu yes 81 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no 117 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 204-9 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 43 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 83 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 37-39 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati yes 46-7 done 1
Katthang no 50 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no done-Dan 0
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 22 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 343 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 113 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya yes 218 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 511 done 1
Bandjalang No 103 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 88 done 1
Arrernte Yes 207 1
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 112 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 240 1
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay Maybe 58 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 930 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 50 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 40-1 0
Bilinarra yes 6.1.3 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari Yes 49 1
Wajarri No 114 0
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no but directional SVCs with 'go' and 'come' Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps