Ngarinyin

Family
Worrorran
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
ung
Location
-15.98°, 126.57°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Grammatical Data
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar unknown Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar unique Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location missing Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Claire Bowern
all todo todos other missing Claire Bowern
and y e grammar missing Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body unique Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental missing Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment unique Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location missing Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality unknown Claire Bowern
be alive xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body mɑṇḍu mɑṇḍu doubtful loan Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality unique Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body missing Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour missing Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body missing Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality missing Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body missing Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture missing Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment missing Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human missing Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion unique Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment unique Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality unique Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental unique Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact missing Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna missing Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental missing Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality missing Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment ŋuřu ˈmɑɡɑlɑ ŋuřu ˈmɑɡɑlɑ loan Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment ˈŋuřu ˈŋuřu loan Pama-Nyungan Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body missing Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna missing Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion missing Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality missing Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship unique Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental missing Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna missing Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment unique Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna missing Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion missing Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment missing Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion missing Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment unique Claire Bowern
foot pie body inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality unique Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state missing Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body missing Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body unique Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental inheritance Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion missing Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact unique Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar missing Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact missing Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental missing Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment missing Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment missing Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body unique Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body missing Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human missing Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment unique Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body semantic shift Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human missing Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body inheritance? Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body missing Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time unique Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality missing Claire Bowern
one uno um number missing Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar missing Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human unique Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body missing Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment unique Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora missing Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality missing Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental missing Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental unique Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality unique Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body inheritance Claire Bowern
sick xx xx body unique Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body missing Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment unique Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body unique Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment unique Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact unique Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state inheritance Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment unique Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other missing Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment inheritance Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body unique Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body unique Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body missing Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion unique Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body unique Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar missing Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality missing Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental missing Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar missing Claire Bowern
three tres tres number missing Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body missing Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment missing Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality missing Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Claire Bowern
two dos dois number missing Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment unique Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality missing Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar missing Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar unique Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar missing Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour missing Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar missing Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment missing Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body missing Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kumbɑṛ̌u kumbɑṛ̌u loan into proto-language Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis awiyarro awiyarro unique proto-Worrorran Ngarinyin/Worrorra uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae amara amara unique proto-Worrorran Ngarinyin/Worrorra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus dagaw dagaw unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii yabalidy yabalidy unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora nyaliga nyaliga inheritance *nyalika proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia karimpa unknown 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba murrarrun murrarrun unknown proto-Worrorran Mirriwoong? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer ilagnguntyn ilagnguntyn inheritance *ilaC- proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp aman aman unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna lowalarr, lowalat lowalarr, lowalat unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae bandanbandan bandanbandan unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri anawarr, anawat anawarr, anawat unknown proto-Worrorran Bunuban? uncoded 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae damul damul unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species wundilinjid wundilinjid unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii wodulbada wodulbada unknown proto-Worrorran Bunuban? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda guranda guranda doubtful loan *gurrVC proto-Worrorran Worrorran? [cf. kurrantal WW, loan from Worrorran?] WW %kurrantal uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus arrgarr, arrgat arrgarr, arrgat unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula bulgumbi bulgumbi inheritance *purlkumpV proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) dandanda dandanda unknown proto-Worrorran reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius gumili pilimpili inheritance *gumrli proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis banarr, banat banarr, banat inheritance *panarr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata mankujangarri mankujangarri inheritance *mangkuC proto-Worrorran derived [?+ASSOC]; [mankuja+ngarrri] 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera wunol wunol unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota missing 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera dyinangga dyinangga unknown proto-Worrorran Wardaman? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) gunala gunala inheritance proto-Worrorran Bunuban? uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda ngamangarri ngamangarri inheritance *-ma- proto-Worrorran derived -ngarri is a subordinating suffix, nga- could be a (pronominal?) prefix 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae gurrawiniwa gurrawiniwa doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Jarragan WW %kurrakurra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species inene inene unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus ngadadngadat ngadadngadat doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Jarragan? reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo orroli orroli inheritance *orroli proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris gananggurr, gananggut gananggurr, gananggut inheritance *kanangkurr proto-Worrorran also dula cf Jarragan tyula uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae dyibili dyibili inheritance *tyipuli proto-Worrorran WW WW %tyipilyu uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong balngurr, balngut balngurr, balngut inheritance *palngut proto-Worrorran WW %palngarr uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta mularl mularl unknown proto-Worrorran cf, Jingulu murlura Warlpri murluru 'maggots' uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae dyebarra dyebarra inheritance *tyeparra proto-Worrorran uncoded 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna dyaya dyaya inheritance *tyaya proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) banduwandun banduwandun unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera nganawarra nganawarra inheritance *ngarnawarra proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) dyringgurr, dyaringgut dyringgurr, dyaringgut inheritance *tyarringkurr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni dye:warr, dye:wat dye:warr, dye:wat doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Ngumpin-Yapa? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni bambarri bambarri loan proto-Worrorran Bunuba underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii tyarumban tyarumban doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Similar roots occur in the Nyulnyulan lgs and Walmajarri (and Gurindji?)[not Gur, - this has been borrowed into English as 'cherrabun' WW %tyarramba uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) manggurrarri manggurrarri unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kuliŋkuli kuliŋkuli loan direction unknown Nyulnyulan WW %kulinykuliny 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gonyorri gonyorri inheritance *kantyorri proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing proto-Worrorran missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp mandyal mandyal inheritance *matyal proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) dyololu dyololu unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dadge dadge inheritance *rtarrke proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis dyuwibarn dyuwibarn inheritance *tyuwiparn proto-Worrorran [Jarragan has tyuwity-parn] WW %tyuwity uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina ine ine unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas diyawarra diyawarra unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus muntuwarri muntuwarri inheritance proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawada yawada loan *yawarta proto-Worrorran areal WW WW %yawarta uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae missing proto-Worrorran missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic munumba munumba unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus wurntiri unique 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet lowalarr, lowalat lowalarr, lowalat unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae iyali, yali iyali, yali unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda barrawil, barrawurl barrawil, barrawurl unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata ngarrurru ngarrurru unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. rnarn rnarn unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera bidyili bidyili inheritance *pityili proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) burrgunda burrgunda unknown proto-Worrorran unknown burr- may indicate plurality 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) angabirriya, nyanguburriya angabirriya, nyanguburriya inheritance *angupurru proto-Worrorran derived a- v ny- indicates gender, -iya can be a collective suffix 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus nyangburru nyangburru unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus garimba garimba inheritance *karimpa proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius dyalarr, dyalat dyalarr, dyalat inheritance *tyalarr proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia dalmban dalmban unknown proto-Worrorran Nyulnyulan? uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mandararl, mandarak mandararl, mandarak unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis arowa arowa unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya narnburr, narnbut narnburr, narnbut doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Nyulnyulan? uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida gulorru gulorru inheritance *kurlu- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp dandyi, dyandyi dandyi, dyandyi inheritance *tyaC proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca bilirrin bilirrin unique proto-Worrorran not from Jarragan uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis guradudo guradudo inheritance *kurrartarto proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus [warnangkalun] [warnangkalun] unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea bandarrgimalan bandarrgimalan unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis burriyal burriyal unknown proto-Worrorran unknown burr- may indicate plurality 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species ilguburruburru ilguburruburru unique proto-Worrorran reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis dyanduwi dyanduwi unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi derramala, durrumala derramala, durrumala inheritance *tarran proto-Worrorran WW %tirra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus gayagun gayagun unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum binbirri binbirri unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda dunbul dunbul unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta balanggon balanggon unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus alalanggarra alalanggarra inheritance *arlarlangkarra proto-Worrorran uncoded 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae bambarri bambarri unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing proto-Worrorran missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones maawanya maawanya doubtful loan proto-Worrorran Wangkajunga?[unlikely] looks suspiciously much like a Worrorra word uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha ganamarr, ganamat ganamarr, ganamat loan *kanamarr proto-Worrorran Worrorra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna gunandyi gunandyi doubtful loan proto-Worrorran looks suspiciously much like a Worrorra word [this looks like the 'echidna' word in Jarragn etc which could be from 'shell' etc WW %kinanytyi uncoded 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus nyorrgan (nyindi) (piebald snake) kulantyi unique proto-Worrorran uncoded (nyindi, F classifier) 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna langkut langkut inheritance *rlangku- proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia anjat anjat unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae ratmala (jirri) ratmala (jirri) unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded (jirri, M classifier) 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species dyadi dyadi inheritance *tyarti proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia balwat balwat unknown proto-Worrorran Yawuru? uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae ngubun (di) ngubun (di) inheritance *ngupunV proto-Worrorran uncoded (di, nW classifier) 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura do:ba do:ba unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna wanamana wanamana unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita balnget balnget inheritance *palngerr proto-Worrorran WW %palngarra uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale aru aru unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea gimbul gimbul unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides buro, baro buro, baro inheritance *parro proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera dyanggi dyanggi unique proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) dudut (jirri) dudut (jirri) unknown proto-Worrorran Yawuru? uncoded (jirri, M classifier) 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata lambun lambun unknown proto-Worrorran uncoded 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina ganbadowa (Cattle tick) ganbadowa (Cattle tick) unique proto-Worrorran cf. karparr 'centipede' Bmamajarrinuban, Jaru, Walmajarri WW %kanparr derived -wa 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier wadmuna, arndarri (AR), garrimba (C40) inheritance proto-Worrorran 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru wongkara, wangkura wongkara, wangkura inheritance *wangkura proto-Worrorran WW %wangkarn uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ngurrul ngurrul inheritance *nguC- proto-Worrorran WW %wangkurr1 uncoded 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma ngudyimbun ngudyimbun unknown proto-Worrorran Bunuba? uncoded 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis milyat milyat unknown proto-Worrorran Warlpiri? uncoded 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax andengarri andengarri inheritance *arndangarri proto-Worrorran derived -ngarri may be a nominalising/subordinating suffix 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys dyindibirri dyindibirri loan direction unknown *tyintipirri proto-Worrorran Ngarinyin/Wunambal cb changed code; widespread WW %tyintipirri uncoded 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) ladyi (nyindi) ladyi (nyindi) loan proto-Worrorran Bunuba/Kajirrabeng/Wardaman WW %latyu underived (nyindi, F classifier) 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing proto-Worrorran missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool inheritance Claire Bowern
house other missing Claire Bowern


Grammatical Data (295)
Category Grammatical Feature Grammatical Feature: Notes Feature Status Phonemicized Form Orthographic Form Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Phonology - Segmental Pre-/post-nasalized stops Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive.
Phonology - Segmental Glottalized/ejective consonants Phonemic contrast [NOT counting glottal stop/fricative]
Phonology - Segmental Palatalized stops Phonemic contrast
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic vowel length Does the language have long and short vowels?
Phonology - Segmental Phonemic glottalization/laryngealization of vowels
Phonology - Segmental Complex onsets Onset consists of more than one consonant phoneme
Phonology - Segmental No codas *(C)VC [no also equals highly constrained]
Phonology - Segmental Word-final coda required Do all syllables end in a consonant?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive tones Note how many contrastive tones no 0
Phonology - Suprasegmental Contrastive stress Does stress occur on different syllables with meaning difference?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasalization property of morpheme or syllable In contrast to nasalization as a property of segments
Phonology - Suprasegmental Nasal spreading across some morpheme boundaries Do some affixes or other morphemes take the nasal/oral properties of the root they attach to?
Phonology - Suprasegmental Vowel harmony
Morphology - General Verbal fusion (2+ categories marked by portmanteau morphemes on verb) Verb combines two or more categories (tense, aspect, mood, person, number, etc.) in portmanteau morphemes{ [ignore proclitics unless they are fused with values other than person/number]
Morphology - General Inflection manifested by replacement of segmental or suprasegmental phonemes Stem change, tone
Morphology - General Verbal synthesis (1+ inflectional categories marked by verbal affixes) Morphological complexity in verbs - multiple inflectional affixes in a single verb word
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly prefixing There are many more prefixes than suffixes
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: strongly suffixing There are many more suffixes than prefixes
Morphology - General Prefixing/suffixing inflectional morph: roughly equal or one weakly preferred The numbers of suffixes and prefixes are not notably different
Morphology - General Reduplication: full The full morpheme is reduplicated
Morphology - General Reduplication: partial Only part of the morpheme is reduplicated
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive NN compounding Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV serialization (without compounding) Verb roots can be combined in a single predicate without markers of subordination (distinct from subordinating construction) or distinct inflection
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Productive VV compounding Serial verb constructions involve chaining of roots together in one morphophonological word
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Verb-adjunct (aka light verb) constructions There is a set of semantically weak verbs used in complex verbal constructions, e.g. 'take a nap'
Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs Auxiliary verb(s) There are verbs that accompany main verbs of clauses and take grammatical marking not expressed by main verbs
Morphology - Incorporation Incorporation of nouns into verbs is a productive intransitivizing process Verb contains nominal segment
Morphology - Incorporation Productive incorporation of other elements (adjectives, locatives, etc.) into verbs Like noun incorporation, but incorporated elements are not nouns
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classes/genders Nouns are organized into sets with distinct morphological treatment; usually affects all nouns and involves agreement within the NP
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Number of noun classes/genders Note the (approximate) total number of noun classes/genders
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Noun classifiers (distinct from noun classes/genders) Nouns are organized into sets, but only a limited set of nouns may be implicated, with no or limited agreement marking. If only numeral classifiers exist, indicate yes but explain.
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for animates Masculine, feminine, neuter
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex is a relevant category in noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Animacy (w/o reference to sex) is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system Animate/inanimate, human/non-human
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Sex/gender distinction only in 3rd person pronouns add in notes section whether gender is present in other PNs or not in any PNs; consider with reference to pronouns and person marking only
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for animates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification "Repeater" classifiers Where no distinct classifier exists, a copy of the noun itself may function in the morphosyntactic classifier "slot"
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Numeral classifiers (specific to numerals) Special classifier forms that occur only with numerals
Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification Classifiers used as derivational suffixes to derive nouns Verb + classifier = 'thing for doing V, thing that does V, etc.'
Nominal Categories - Number Singular number may be marked on the noun Often occurs in a small subset of nouns if a single entity is referred to, e.g. insects that normally occur in groups
Nominal Categories - Number Plural affix on noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by stem change or tone on noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked by reduplication of noun
Nominal Categories - Number Plural word/clitic
Nominal Categories - Number Plural marked on human or animate nouns only
Nominal Categories - Number Pronominal plural: stem + nominal plural affix Pronouns use a nominal plural affix not specific to pronouns
Nominal Categories - Number Unique associative plural marker e.g. 'John and his associates', 'John and them'
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Definite or specific articles Definite = particular referent known to both speaker and addressee; specific = particular referent known to speaker only
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Marker of definiteness distinct from demonstratives Focus on articles/markers whose primary function is to mark definiteness
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Indefinite or non-specific article or marker
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in free pronominals Inclusive =us + you, exclusive = us but not you
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Inclusive/exclusive: in verbal inflection (bound)
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number) Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.)
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3sg pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 3pl pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Gender in 1st and/or 2nd person pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Formal/informal distinction in pronouns Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Reflexive pronouns e.g. English 'himself', Spanish 'se'; distinct form(s) from basic (non-reflexive) pronominals; distinct from reflexive verbal affix
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Adpositions mark core NPs Prepositions or postpositions mark subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: number of cases Note the number of grammatical relations that may be morphologically marked on the noun
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: only non-core arguments morphologically marked Subjects, objects, beneficiaries/recipients NOT marked, but other grammatical relations are
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: symmetrical All NPs marked if in appropriate syntactic relation; no distinction in marking based on semantics (type of entity)
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: asymmetrical Semantically defined subset of NPs marked for case, e.g. animates
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: suffix or postpositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: prefix or prepositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: infix or inpositional clitic
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: stem change
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: tone no 0
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Case: comitative = instrumental Same marking for 'with a person' and 'with an instrument'
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-2 At least some part of the system involves base-2
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-5 At least some part of the system involves base-5
Nominal Categories - Numerals Base-10 At least some part of the system involves base-10
Nominal Categories - Numerals Other base (specify) 4, 20, etc.
Nominal Categories - Numerals Etymological transparency in any numerals under 5 e.g. two = 'eye-quantity'
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 5 'Many' or some other non-exact term used
Nominal Categories - Numerals Numerals do not go above 10 'Many' or some other non-exact term used
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Tense or aspect inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival
Nominal Categories - Other nominal Person inflection on non-verbal predicates i.e. nominal or adjectival
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: prefix on N alienable/inalienable?
Nominal Syntax - Possession Pronominal possessive affixes: suffix on N alienable/inalienable?
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: dependent e.g. 'the boy-'s dog'
Nominal Syntax - Possession Head/dependent marking in possessive NP: head e.g. 'the boy his-dog'
Nominal Syntax - Possession Possessive classifiers There are special classifiers that occur with possessed entities
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of inalienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the former takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Morphological marking of alienable possession Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Default marker for inalienably possessed nouns if unpossessed An inalienable noun that is in an unpossessed state must have a derivational affix or associated form
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of kin terms 'my-father' but *father
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Inalienable possession of body parts (human/animal) 'my-leg' but *leg
Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability Generic human nouns are obligatorily bound/possessed Human nouns must co-occur with another noun (e.g. Hup-man, NonIndian-woman, but *man)
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Underived adjectives There are underived adjectives which do not have counterparts in other word classes
Nominal Syntax - Adjectives Gender inflection on adjectives within the NP There is gender agreement/concord (animate/inanimate or masc/fem, etc.) within the NP, e.g. la casa blanca, el perro blanco
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: action/state (arrive/arrival) There is a morpheme which derives an event from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: agentive (sing/singer) There is a morpheme which derives an agent or subject from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song) There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb
Nominal Syntax - Derivation Productive verbalizing morphology There is a morpheme which derives a verb from a noun or adjective
Nominal Syntax - Other NP coordination and comitative phrases marked differently 'John and Mary went to market' is marked differently from 'John went to market with Mary'
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated past marker(s) Past tense is regularly morphologically marked on the verb or elsewhere
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple past tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. distant vs. recent past
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Multiple future tenses, distinguishing distance from time of reference e.g. imminent vs. distant future
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Dedicated future or non-past marker(s)
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: prefix
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: suffix
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect affixes: tone or ablaut
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Tense-aspect suppletion
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood
Verbal Categories - Mood Polite imperative morpheme There is a distinct morpheme for polite imperative constructions (specify if it has other functions in the language)
Verbal Categories - Mood Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses
Verbal Categories - Mood Dedicated hortative morpheme or verb form (1pl or 3rd person imperative) as opposed to imperative; the person in control of desired state of affairs is not the addressee; ex: 'Let's sing' / 'Let him sing'
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: affix on verb Inflectional marking of capacity to do something
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: verbal construction
Verbal Categories - Mood Situational possibility: other marking
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: affix on verb Modal expressing hypothesis
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: verbal construction
Verbal Categories - Mood Epistemic possibility: other marking
Verbal Categories - Mood Marking of expected/unexpected action or result There is inflectional marking of expected/unexpected
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal frustrative Modal expressing frustration ("in vain")
Verbal Categories - Mood Verbal habitual Modal expressing habituality
Verbal Categories - Mood Apprehensive construction There is a single morpheme or verb form to mean '(be careful lest) X happens'
Verbal Categories - Mood Reality status marking on verbs There are dedicated morpheme(s) for realis/irrealis 'actualized/unactualized events'
Verbal Categories - Mood Affect markers (positive/negative) Note whether these inflectional markers are positive or negative
Verbal Categories - Directionals Directional elements affixed to the verb There are grammaticalized elements indicating movement away, toward, there and back, etc.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized visual Indicates information has been witnessed visually - indicate only if an overt marker
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized nonvisual Indicates information has been sensed firsthand but not visually (usually heard; also smelled, tasted, felt)
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized inferential Indicates information has not been experienced firsthand, but inferred from some kind of evidence - indicate only if an overt marker.
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized reportive Indicates speaker is not responsible for veracity of statement, merely reporting; 'allegedly'
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Grammaticalized quotative Indicate presence of adjacent representation of repeated discourse
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Other evidential Any other evidential values not represented above
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: part of tense system Includes portmanteau morphs
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: separate particle
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality Evidentiality: modal morpheme
Verbal Categories - Verbal number Verbal number suppletion
Verbal Categories - Other Social interaction markers Note the type of interaction
Word Order No fixed basic constituent order
Word Order VS in intransitive clauses Verb precedes subject
Word Order VS in transitive clauses
Word Order VO in transitive clauses Verb precedes object
Word Order OS in transitive clauses Object precedes subject
Word Order Preposition-Noun
Word Order Noun-Postposition or case suffix
Word Order Gen-Noun Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessor first (e.g. John's book)
Word Order Noun-Gen Possessive phrase composed of a free possessor and its possessum has possessum first (e.g. 'book of John')
Word Order Adj-Noun Adjective precedes the noun
Word Order Noun-Adj Adjective follows the noun
Word Order Dem-Noun
Word Order Noun-Dem
Word Order Num-Noun
Word Order Noun-Num
Word Order Noun-Rel Relative clause follows noun that it modifies
Word Order Rel-Noun Relative clause precedes noun that it modifies
Word Order Re<Noun>l (internally headed relative) e.g. 'the dog cat chased-NMZR got away' ('the cat that the dog chased got away')
Word Order Relative clause is correlative or adjoined e.g. 'what is running, the dog chased that cat'
Word Order Question word is clause initial 'what', 'who', etc. come first in interrogative clause
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked nominative Subjects of transitive and intransitive clauses share a marker, while objects of transitives are unmarked
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: ergative-absolutive Subjects of intransitive clauses and objects of transitives share a unique marker, while subjects of transitive clauses are unmarked or have a different marker
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: tripartite Intransitive subjects, transitive subjects, and transitive objects all receive distinct case markers
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking in full NPs: active-inactive Subjects of intransitive clauses are treated two different ways: like subjects of transitives if they are more agent-like (e.g. he jumped), and like objects of transitives if they are more patient-like (e.g. he fell asleep)
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked accusative
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: marked nominative
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: tripartite
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of case marking of pronouns: active-inactive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: nominative-accusative Same as above, for pronominal affixes/clitics on verbs
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: ergative-absolutive yes, no, mixed, other
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: active-inactive
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: hierarchical Marking of A and P depends on their relative ranking on a hierarchy (usually 1>2>3 or 2>1>3)
Simple Clauses - Alignment Alignment of verbal person-marking: split More than one of the above systems is represented in person marking, depending on e.g. person (e.g. 1/2 vs. 3), tense-aspect value, main vs. subordinate clause type, etc.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns that occur in the same position as full NP subjects
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: prefixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal prefixes (free pronouns may be another option)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: suffixes on verb Pronominal subjects are marked as verbal suffixes (free pronouns may be another option)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: clitics on variable host Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc.
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking on intransitive verbs Intransitive verbs take person-marking clitics/affixes
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person marking (of agents) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take subject (A) markers
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Person-marking (of objects) on transitive verbs Transitive verbs take object (P) markers
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: subjects 3rd person subjects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking 3rd person zero in verbal person marking: objects 3rd person objects are not overtly marked within the verbal person-marking system
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Number can be marked separately from person on the verb Verbal person marking exists, but number is (or can) be marked separately
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Possessive affixes/clitics on nouns are same as verbal person markers Where nouns take possessive affixes, these are the same as the person-marking affixes
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Gender distinguished in verbal person markers For any person, verbal person markers exhibit different forms depending on the gender (masc/fem, animate/inanimate, etc.) of the referent
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: indirect object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives a book to Bill'), the theme (book) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated differently
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: double object In ditransitives (e.g. 'John gives Bill a book'), both the theme (book) and the recipient/beneficiary (Bill) is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice Ditransitive constructions: secondary object In ditransitives, the recipient/beneficiary is treated in the same way as are objects of transitives, while the theme (book) is treated differently
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reflexive: dedicated morpheme Verb becomes reflexive through use of reflexive morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is used only to mean reflexive.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Reciprocal/reflexive: same morpheme Verb becomes reciprocal or reflexive through use of a morpheme that means either reciprocal or reflexive which attaches to the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Passive Passive voice usually involves a change to the verb, while the object of the active voice verb is promoted to subject in the passive voice, and the former subject is deleted/demoted
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Antipassive Like passive, but deletes or demotes the object of a transitive verb; usually found in ergative languages
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Other intransitivizing morphology There is/are some other mechanism(s) for reducing valency
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: benefactive Applicative adds a beneficiary/maleficiary object argument to the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Applicative: other Applicative adds some other object argument to the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: prefix Causative is morphological and is attached before the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: suffix Causative is morphological and is attached after the root of the verb
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative marked by circumfix, stem change, or tone Morphological causative other than simple prefix/suffix
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: serial verb or analytical construction Causative construction that involves periphrasis or serialization
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated 'make do by proxy' Indicates that the causer does not directly cause the action of the verb to be realized, but does so by inducing someone else to carry out the action, e.g. 'John had the house painted.'
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Causative: dedicated sociative Indicates that causer participates in event
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Increasing Other transitivizing morphology (adds valence) There is/are some other mechanism(s) for increasing valency
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a preposed element Clausal negator is a preposed element
Simple Clauses - Negation Clausal negator is a postposed element Clausal negator is a postposed element
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: affix Negatives: affix
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: particle Negatives: particle
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: auxiliary verb Negatives: auxiliary verb
Simple Clauses - Negation Negatives: double Standard (non-emphatic) negation typically requires two morphemes, e.g. French 'ne V pas'
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative form for 'NP does not exist'
Simple Clauses - Negation Distinct negative expression 'I don't know' Lexical expression or highly idiomatic phrase
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: interrogative particle Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative particle
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: verb morphology Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by interrogative verb morphology
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: word order Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion)
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Polar questions: intonation only Yes/no questions distinguished from declaratives by intonation only
Simple Clauses - Interrogatives Content questions: word order differs from declaratives Content questions distinguished from declaratives by word order (esp. subject-verb inversion) as well as by presence of Q-word (who, what, etc.)
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: verbal Adjectives act like verbs in predicative position
Simple Clauses - Predication Predicate adjectives: nominal Adjectives act like nouns in predicative position
Simple Clauses - Predication Zero copula for predicate nominals is possible Predicate nominals may occur without a copula (i.e. grammatical in some circumstances, if not all)
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses Compare Eng 'the one that fell' (but in Eng 'one' could be considered a head)
Simple Clauses - Predication Headless relative clauses are the dominant or only form of relative clause Relative clauses that form a constituent with a head noun (in a single noun phrase) are rare or nonexistent; some descriptions may refer to adjoined or correlative clauses.
Simple Clauses - Predication Relative clause may occur with a noun classifier/class marker It may be unclear whether the classifier is the nominal head of the construction or is an agreement marker on the relative clause
Simple Clauses - Predication Relativizer is a verbal affix
Simple Clauses - Predication Morphological relativizer is homophonous with nominalizer The same morpheme marks a relative clause and is a nominalizer on verbs (and/or other word classes)
Simple Clauses - Desiderative expressions Grammaticalized verbal desiderative Indicates that the subject desires to carry out the action denoted by the verb (distinct from verb 'want', but may be grammaticalized from it)
Simple Clauses - Other Clause chaining Clauses can be grouped such that only one bears most of the verb morphology, and the others are marked as to whether they share a subject with this reference clause.
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked switch-reference system There are special markers to indicate same vs. different subject when two clauses are combined
Simple Clauses - Other Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have an iterative function?
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have a plural/pluractional function?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘real’ X?
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a distributive function?
Morphology - General Does verb root reduplication have a pluractional function?
Morphology - General Does noun root reduplication have an iterative function?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘fake’ X?
Morphology - General Does adjective root reduplication mean ‘very’ X?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have ergative and instrumental syncretism?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does the language have a distinct genitive case?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is the locative related to the ergative with vowel change?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on just one word in an NP?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Is case marked on all (non-pronominal) words in an NP?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Are any subordinate verbs (or whole clauses) marked with case to indicate their function?
Nominal Categories - Case and adpositions Does ergative mark discourse functions of focus/unexpectedness?
Nominal Categories - Derivation Is there a evidence for derivational morphology being distinct from inflectional on nouns? yes to any of HG 95-97 entails yes to this; yep; this is more general but not just about derivation (would also include proprietive, for example, not necessarily derivation that changes word class)
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a minimal/augment system?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have a unit augment system?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark dual on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language mark plural on nouns?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have group/collective nominal suffixes?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural verbs?
Nominal Categories - Number Does the language have suppletive plural adjectives?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language have bound pronouns? yes to any of HG 173-175 entails yes to this; not necessarily? - CB
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are the bound pronouns distinct from the free pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark moiety distinctions in pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Does the language mark generational distinctions in pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are 'who' and 'what' distinct words?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the dual?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the plural?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Is there a gender distinction in third person dual pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there clitic pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there object clitic pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories Are there distinct possessive and IO pronouns?
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories When there are both object and subject clitic pronouns, does the object pronoun follow the subject one?
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a focus position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes
Simple Clauses - Discourse Is there a topic position? include the position in the ‘form’ notes
Simple Clauses - Negation Is verbal negation a separate word? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 206-207 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation)
Simple Clauses - Negation Does the negative marker precede the verb? related to, and maybe equivalent to, HG 203 (not equivalent if verbal negation is being treated separately from clausal negation)
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there second position clausal clitics?
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Is tense marked on pronouns? no 0
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Are there predicative clitics (e.g. Darkinyung grammar p35)
Simple Clauses - Tense Does the language have tense/mood/etc particles (free words)?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is reflexive/reciprocal marked on the verb? =yes to any of HG 188-190; not necessarily; e.g. YN has a reflexive marker but it doesn’t go on the verb.
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Does reflexive/reciprocal change the conjugation class?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is there a reflexive/reciprocal particle?
Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing Is the passive typically used only with adversative semantics?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there an inchoative suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a distinct present tense verbal suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a continuous aspect suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is there a punctual aspect suffix?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Can tense and aspect cooccur?
Verbal Categories - Aspect and tense Is tense marked on nouns?
Verbal Categories - Mood Do positive commands take the same morphology as negative commands?
Verbal Categories - Mood Is a negative command formed from a nominalised verb (eg. "no talking!")?
Verbal Categories - Other Is the verb ‘say’ the same as the verb ‘do’?
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have body part compound verbs?
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verbal agreement clitics?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a verb 'be'?
Verbal Categories - Other Are there verb conjugation classes?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a conjugation for uninflecting verbs?
Verbal Categories - Other Is there a grammatical category of associated motion?
Verbal Categories - Other Does the language have kinship verbs? That is, are the words which designate kinship relations such as ‘mother’ and ‘father’ verbs in the language?
Verbal Categories - VerbalNumber Does the language have suppletive plural nouns?
Word Order Are there discontinuous NP constituents?
Word Order Is word order fixed in noun phrases?
Word Order Is word order fixed in verb phrases?
Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking Pronominal subjects: second position clitics Pronominal subjects are clitics that can attach to verbs, nominal constituents, etc.
Phonology - Segmental Prestopped segments list which segments in the ‘form’ column no 0


Ethnographic Information
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