Inalienable possession of kin terms

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
'my-father' but *father


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes examples given of inalienable kin terms, but no mention of whether all kin terms are inalienable Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 20 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976; 165 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 13 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 93 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 520 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006:102 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Body parts and kin terms are “possessed nouns.” (Presumably inalienably possessed). Captain, David and Linda Captain. 2005. Diccionario Básico Ilustrado: Wayuunaiki-Español Español-Wayuunaiki. Bogotá: Editorial Fundación para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Marginados Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 127 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes Kin terms never appear in unpossessed form, are considered inalienable because they do not take possessed suffixes. Facundes, 2000: 154 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:123 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Kinship terms are never used without a possessor. Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:30-1 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007: p122 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 299 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:27 Daniel Valle
Yine yes Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:53 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 58 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:74 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This is marked by person prefixes on the noun. However, when the noun is used as vocative no personal preffix is added. Frank 1990:19 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000: 294-298 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info more likely yes Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:234 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info more likely yes Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no However, it seems that kin terms and body part nouns were treated as inalienable in the "traditional" language Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 133 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p176 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982 Christopher Clack no specific section on this but several examples of kin terms uninflected throughout the source
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes some kin terms must be possesed but not all Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 49 Amanda Novak The possessed form for '(my) father' is yɨ pagɨ, and the vocative form is aʔɨ; the possessed form for '(my) older sister' is yɨ t̃ĩgo, and the vocative is diʔo.
Cubeo yes Kinship terms are obligatorily possessed. Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 77 Amanda Novak; note addition by Chris Clack In the singular, most take the same suffixes that other singular human nouns take; -kɨ 'masc, sing'
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40-41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.16 Chris Clack Mostly kinship terms consist of a more radical suffix or word appropriate gender and number ... Kinship terms for 'uncle'and 'aunt' are inherently specified for gender and lack of a suffix this nature, although usually plural.
Barasano yes Kinship terms are obligatorily preceded by a noun or pronoun which refers to the person so related and which directly precedes the kinship term. Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack Kinship terms are obligatorily preceded by a noun or pronoun which regers to the person so related and which directly precedes the kinship term.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no Kin terms are treated no differently than other nouns when it comes to possession marking. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 227-228 Kelsey Neely as evidenced by examples
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 189-192 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.55 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 91, ms13.1 done 1
Garrwa no 25 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57, 64 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 144 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes? Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 75, 78 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 34 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 27, 55 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No info 378 Y x
Paakantyi no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 197 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 230-232 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 48 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 185 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No wordlist done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 81-4 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 194 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 58 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 165 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 50 0
Dyirbal No 105 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 97 done 0
Djinang No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 30 done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri n/a 31 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no? 95-6 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 90 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 77 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati maybe 20-21 done 1
Katthang no 291 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri yes 11-12 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen yes 38 Done- 1
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no 325 done 0
Yindjilindji no info 507 done x
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 41 done 0
Arrernte No 102 0
Kokatha No 55 0
Karajarri No 309 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 14 0
Ritharrngu Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 23 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 123 0
Bilinarra no 4.7 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No info 59 Y2 x
Narungga Yes 65 done 1
Tharrkari No 26 0
Wajarri Yes 48 1
Warungu no 637-9 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps