Vowel harmony

Phonology - Suprasegmental


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Melendez, 1998: 35 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no info Allin, 1976: 95 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 8 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002, p. 69-81 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 1972, p. 10 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no info Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes When the vowel /a/ occurs immediately after a consonant preceded by the vowel /i/, the /a/ harmonizes and becomes [ɛ]. Santos, 2006:47 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Alvarez, 1985: p. 165; Mansen, Richard A. & David Captain. (2000). "El idioma Wayuu (o Guajiro)" In María Stella González de Pérez and María Luisa Rodriguez de Montes (eds.) Lenguas Indígenas de Colombia: una visión descriptiva: p. 798 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald 2003: 44 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 57-67 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Happens only occasionally, however. Mihas 2010 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Very limited set of vowels, so vowel harmony appears to be avoided. Zamponi 2003:14-20 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Fast 1953:191-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes Souza 2008:66 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p73 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:12 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes Patte 1989:41 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:37-38 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 270 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 140-148 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon yes Pessoa 2005 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso yes with a limited set of aspect affixes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith regressive in certain verbs
Ika no Frank 1985:17-9 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes mid vowels become high in contact with high vowels and front vowels become back in contact with back vowels Quesada 2008:26 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:93-4 Daniel Valle But only with one suffix. Otherwise, it does not occur.
Northern Emberá no info more likely not Aguirre 1999:16-26; Mortensen 1999:4-8 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no vowel inventory has only 3 sounds; differences in two dialects, but no harmony found Levinson 1976:19-32 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:172 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.73-92 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2000:291-95 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:63-75 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Landaburu 1979 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p104 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 10 to 107 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Cavalcante 1987 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.15, 33 Christopher Clack
Hup yes limited to vowel-copying suffixes and diachronic processes affecting Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004:102 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes vowel lowering- affects limited number of verb suffixes Miller 1999, p. 18 Amanda Novak Vowel harmony, involving vowel lowering, affects a limited number of verb suffixes (Kaye 1970:186-88): -di- (past nominative) changes to -de-, -bi- (negative) changes to -be-, -bu- becomes -bo-, -ku- to -ko-, and -yu- to -yo-.
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 13 Amanda Novak When two identical vowels are juxtaposed across morpheme boundaries, the two vowels coalesce.
Kotiria yes examples exist of vowel harmony but participation seems random; marginal as a 'system' Stenzel 2004, p. 66 Amanda Novak
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.26 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack The vowel /e/ varies freely between [e] and [ɛ].
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.9 Chris Clack The vowel /e/ has a closed variant [e] when it precedes another vowel or /h/ in the phonological phrase. The open variant [ɛ] in other positions. Also, check top of p.70
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.8-9 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.22 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:19-22 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004, Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this, except for nasal harmony/spreading
Yanomami yes regressive, usually involves change in rounding. Lizot 1996: p.26-27; Ramirez 1994: 82-83 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no info Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Migliazza 1972: p.158 Kelsey Neely Many yanomama pronouce everything partially nasalized
Surui no Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:17 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:203-17 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info not many phonological processes described Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 16-7 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes n84 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 53 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 24 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha yes 29, 112 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 47 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 17-20 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 14-15 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 323-330 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 14-39 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 47 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 32 done 1
Martuthunira no 28-31, 39-40 done 0
Marrgany No 297 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 31 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 381 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 3 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu no 14-5b Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr Maybe 39 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 264 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 20 0
Dyirbal No 288 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 19 done 0
Djinang No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung yes 15 done 1
Bularnu no 14 Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 48-52 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 17 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 66 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 64-66 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 25 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11, 42-3 done 0
Katthang no 30, 75 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 133 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no? Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 5 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 297 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 15 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes K81 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji yes 501 done 1
Bandjalang yes Crowley 14, Sharpe 19-21 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 42 done 1
Arrernte No 76 0
Kokatha No 20 0
Karajarri Yes 60 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 38 1
Ritharrngu Yes 21 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 23-4 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 839 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no 30 0
Bilinarra no done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 25 Y2 0
Narungga No info 35 done x
Tharrkari No 9 to 11 0
Wajarri No 26 0
Warungu yes? 81-4 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no limited to demonstratives Ramirez 2001:381 Patience Epps