Other evidential

Category
Verbal Categories - Evidentiality
Notes
Any other evidential values not represented above

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Not discussed in the formulation of the verb at various levels. Allin, 1976: 105, 124, 204, 212 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Warekena no No evidential system Aikhenvald, 1998: 334-386 Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178, 299-321 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not discussed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:37-47 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 323-326 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no list of affixes does not mention evidentials Matteson 1965:71-80 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes "Recent past;" what is expressed in the clause took place on the same or previous day. Seifart - 2005:72 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa no Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1989:19 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes solicitate, conjecture Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:86-7 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle There is a "speculative" verbal suffix
Ingá yes This clitic expresses doubt for facts for which there is not tangible evidence Levinson 1976b:49 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez yes Factivo: the speaker states something but he does not guarantee the authencity of the statement; speculation: related to the likeliness of a future event Jung:77-84 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Speaker assures the veracity of hi/her statement Parker 1965:88 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:459-92 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes all are prefixes on pronouns; certain for speaker: kẽ-, certain for speaker and adressee: b-, uncertain for speaker: ma-, uncertain for speaker, questioning other about certainty: k-/d- Landaburu 1979: p.114 Kelsey Neely Evidential? These are required on all "assertive" (= demonstrative?) utterances, which seems to be evidence that they are some type of evidential as opposed to a more general modal. Landaburu 1994: 111
Puinave no Giron 2008: p281-293 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Hup yes construction calqued from Tukano; ni probably related to 'be' verb Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes "opinion suffix" Miller 1999, p. 68 Amanda Novak; edited by Chris Clack When -sõ is attached to the end of the verb or verb nominalization, it almost always is followed by the speaker saying, 'I think' or 'He thought', and it is about something that hasn't happened or a state of affairs.
Cubeo no info Chacón 2012 Daniel Smith
Kotiria yes assertion/presupposition Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47 Chris Clack Evidential categories including witnessed, heard, inferred, reporting, conjecture, and future.
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.83-88 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack Whereas in other Tucanoan languages, evidentials are a mandatory feature of the independent verb, in Retuarã the evidentials are optional.
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano no Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes general non-witnessed/non-visual Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes combined nonvisual and reported Borgman 1990: 170 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:281-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:308-56 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no ms15 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 129-136 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu no done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 275-277 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no info Done-Dan x
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 80 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 184 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 257, 258 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 208-209 done 1
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 177-9 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 326 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps