Shape is a relevant category in the noun class(ification) system for inanimates

Nominal Categories - Gender and noun classification


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 62 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes There are classifiers for "long and oval shaped," "arm-shaped," "leaf-like," "rope-like," "sperical," etc. Allin, 1976: 153-163 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco n/a Galindo, 2002: 99, 101 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 50 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No classifiers identified. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a Mansen & Captain, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Tariana has a number of shape and form classifiers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 89-90 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Many classificatory nouns (CN2s) have semantics related to shape. Facundes, 2000:169-175 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Mihas 2010:106 Daniel Smith
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:26 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:55 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:145 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 332 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:201-222 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:9-11 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Makushi no Carson 1992: 55-86 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Aikhenvald 2000:127-128 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1989:22 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes Bertoglia 1983:3-13 Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes Quesada 2008:91 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Classification system. Including cylinder, sphere, flat plane, etc. Queixalós 1998:33 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:124-37 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:15-6 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:27, 32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Montes 2005:140 Daniel Valle
Urarina no info Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:72-76 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes stick-like shape relevant in Class 2, round or hollow shape relevant in class 3-0 Landaburu 1979: p.131 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 78 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.31-35 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Inanimate nouns can also be subdivided into classes according to their inherent characteristics, in particular their shape. Miller 1999, p. 23 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 73-74 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 122 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.37 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Shape is the major feature and comprises the largest category. Jones & Jones 1991, p.50 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.11 Chris Clack
Siona yes Classification. Wheeler - 1970:96 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 85 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes many of these classes apply equally to animates Ramirez 1994: p.124 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.120 Kelsey Neely but function (seed, tree, plant, liquid, skin) are
Sanumá yes for noun classifiers, but not noun classes (because there are none) Borgman 1990: p.147-148 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Zarratea 2002:121-41 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms4.1.3.ii done 0
Garrwa no 4-5 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri n/a done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta n/a done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 4 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung n/a done-Amalia 0
Wirangu N/A done 0
Wemba-Wemba n/a done-Amalia 0
Warumungu N/A done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi N/A 334 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta N/A 192 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa n/a Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi N/A done 0
Martuthunira yes 191 done 1
Marrgany N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 83 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 446-7 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna N/A done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 29 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun n/a done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay N/A 30 0
Dyirbal No 307 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung n/a done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula n/a done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana n/a Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija N/A Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung n/a done 0
Mathi-Mathi n/a done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie n/a done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang n/a done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri N/A 18 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama n/a done-Dan 0
Yingkarta N/A Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya N/A Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 78 Done- 0
WesternTorres no done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji n/a done 0
Bandjalang No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte No 87 0
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri N/A 71 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 11 0
Ritharrngu No 34 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay N/A 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 881 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman N/A 14 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 0
Bilinarra n/a 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 51 Y2 0
Narungga N/A 54 done 0
Tharrkari N/A 15 0
Wajarri No 38 0
Warungu no 165 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:446 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Aikhenvald 2001 Baniwa classifiers Patience Epps