Morphological marking of alienable possession

Nominal Syntax - Possession - Alienability
Where inalienable possession differs from alienable, the latter takes a morphological marker (may include an associated free particle/pronoun)


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 20-22 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin notes that this set of nouns takes a special morphological marker when possessed. Allin 1976: 175, 186 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Possess alienables have suffix in addition to possessive prefixes, inalienables do not Aikhenvald, 1995: 14 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Alienable nouns take a suffix when they are possessed which is not found on inalienable nouns. Galindo, 2002: 93-95 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes These markers are found on alienably possessed nouns. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 300, Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 47 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 39 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Not clear what the situations are that call for the different affixes. Could be phonologically influenced. Santos 2006:132 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes These are only used on noun roots that are not considered inherently posessed in order to make them a possessed root. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Possession of optionally possessed nouns is indicated by juxtaposition. Aikhenvald, 2003: 129-130 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes Alienable nouns require one of three suffixes when they are possessed. Facundes, 2000: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes They both take morphological marking. A possessed (alienable) noun with no person prefix must have a non-possessive suffix . A possessed (inalianable) noun with a possessive suffix must have a person prefix. Payne 1981:4953 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes possessive prefixes + suffixes indicated here. Zamponi 2003:24 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:33-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:75 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p118 Mitz Perez
Nanti yes When possessed, alienable nouns take a possessive prefix and an “alienable possession suffix.” Michael, 2008. p. 298-300 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:15 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:64 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 288-289 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes "The possession suffix must occur on alienably posessed items…. The inalienably possessed item never, except in past possession, occurs with the posession suffix, but only with the possessor prefix" Abbott 1991: 85 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes alienable possessed nouns take genetive classifiers Panare 2012:81-82 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999: 13 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:55-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no No apparent distinction. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna no info Overall 2007:261-2 Daniel Valle more likely no
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:79-80 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info most likely not Zúñiga 2006, p. 87-102 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:32-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2005:133 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:331-41 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Mejía 2000:90 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes suffix on possessed nouns. The same for all person/number Landaburu 1979: 160 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: 206 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.42, 90 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes classifier Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no no info Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Alienable possession used the case marker ya (genitive) Miller 1999, p. 49 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes possesion of a part by an inamite noun does not require the genitive marker Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 118 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 197 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.40-41 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.45 Chris Clack no info/not expected
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.66-67 Chris Clack
Siona no There is no difference in the marking of possession between alienable/inalienable nouns. Wheeler - 1987:121-125 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes clitic yaá= Ramirez 1997: 324 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes inalienable is incorporated or uses /-pɨ/ with kin terms Ramirez 1994: 184-192 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes different markers used for alienable Goodwin-Gomez, p.52-56 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Borgman 1990: p.126-128 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:296, 303-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no inalienable possession must have possessive prefix Cruz 2011:156 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:85-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no info Vallejos 2010:274-276 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes ms13.1 done 1
Garrwa yes? done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 57 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no 79-80, 118-9 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 23, 31 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes NP: , PN: 72 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 34 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 55 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 51-2 done 1
Uradhi Yes 378 Y 1
Paakantyi no 75 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 197 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 65, 77 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 230-231 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 45, 48 done 0
Martuthunira yes done 1
Marrgany yes 308 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 325 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 51 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara No 428 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu yes 44-6 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 194-6 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 57 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 261 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Yes 49 1
Dyirbal yes 61 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 98-99 done 1
Djinang Yes 199 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 30-31 done 0
Bularnu yes 38 Done-Austin 1
Biri no 55 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 72-4, 90-6 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 75, 117-9 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 29 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 82 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 33 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 86-87 done 0
Katthang no 66 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 195-196 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 37, 38 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul N/A 34 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 308 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 38-39 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes? FO 127 done 1
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 70 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara yes 41 done 1
Arrernte Yes 150 1
Kokatha Yes 55 1
Karajarri Yes 309 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 14 1
Ritharrngu Yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 898 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Maybe 23 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 124 1
Bilinarra yes 4.7.1 done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 59 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 65 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 26 1
Wajarri Yes 48 1
Warungu yes 636-7 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:348 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps