Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form

Verbal Categories - Mood
There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes
Cupeño yes
Luiseño yes
Serrano yes
Kitanemuk yes
Kawaiisu yes
Timbisha yes
Western Mono no
Chemehuevi yes
Southern Paiute yes
Southern Ute yes
Shoshone no
Comanche yes
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute no
Gabrielino yes
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 100
Resígaro yes Distinct 2nd person prefix from declarative clauses, plus a tone change if the penultimate (and antepenultimate) syllables have a) short vowels and b) low tone. Allin, 1976: 99, 138
Bare no Imperative uses 2nd-person forms Aikhenvald, 1995: 33
Piapoco no The verb appears in minimal form, with person markers, but not with any other morphology. Galindo, 2002: 270
Yukuna no The imperative mood "covers up" the declarative. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 314, Shauer & Shauer, 1987: p. 38
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:164
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801
Tariana yes The most common imperative strategy involves an "unmarked" verb--unmarked for tense, aspect, evidentiality, etc. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371
Apurinã no Facundes says that most speakers do not use a special imperative form, although one speaker has used a special form in elicited data. Facundes, 2000: 542
Asheninka Apurucayali no info Payne 1981; Payne 1982:910
Maipure no The 2nd person indicative form is used. Zamponi 2003:42
Yanesha' no The same form used for second person indicative is used for imperatives. However, the negative imperative is marked by {=ats} Duff-Tripp 1997:114
Kinikinau yes The "subjunctive" suffix is used in imperative constructions along with second person inflexion Souza 2008:128
Baure no there are a few particles used to signal the imperative and they each have their own connotations (ʃi, pa, ta) Danielsen 2007: p297
Nanti no Imperatives are formed using irrealis markers and omitting the subject person marker or free pronoun. Michael, 2008. p. 399
Paresi no There is no special verbal form or marking for positive imperatives Brandão 2010:47-8
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:4
Yine no Matteson 1965:72-73
Añun no Patte 1989:109
Bora no Prefixes that agree with subject used instead. Seifart - 2005:52
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 346
Makushi no Lots of forms: 2nd person static: -kî/-tî, motion away from: -ta/-tantî, motion towards: -tane'kî/-tane'tî, future: m-…-I, future polite: mî-…-I, negative: k(î/î'/îs)-…-I; 1+2person hortative: -pai/-pai'nîkon; 3rd person: n(î)-/i-…-i Abbott 1991: 49
Eñepa yes two plain imperatives and one movement imperative Tosantos 1977:29
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 9 These are both suffixes and are used for simple imperatives. They can be combined with the infix tanë to indicate that the receiver must come to where the speaker is to do something. To indicate that the receiver should go somewhere and do something the s
Guna no imperative verb carries no inflection Smith texts
Naso yes singular and plural addresee Quesada 2000
Ika no A verbal periphrastic strategy is used where the verb occurs uninflected and it is followed by a stressed auxiliary verb Frank 1990:86-7
Kogi yes Ortiz 1994:390
Cabecar yes There are some other strategies to convey imperative meaning among which the use of the infinitive form seems to be the most common (Margery 1985:128-32). Bourland 1976:65
Guaymí no The indefinite tense is used to express imperative modality Quesada 2008:117-8
Damana yes
Sikuani no two injunctive suffixes Quixalós 2000:295
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:350
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:85 Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:16, 39
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:20
Matses yes Fleck:443
Mapudungun yes The form of this morpheme is based on the examples in the source and not explicitly defined as such by the author. Salas 1992, p.112 There are morphemes for first person, second (singular and plura), third person and exhortatives
Páez yes Jung:87
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:28
Tikuna no Based on the examples Montes 2004b:155
Urarina yes Olawsky:569
Waunana yes
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 225
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p271
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 163
Kakua no there is one morpheme specifically for negative imperative, but not for imperatives. Imperatives are formed by marking 2sg. Proclitic on the verb and reduplication of the last vowel of the stem of the verb. Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no /ra/ seems to have several functions, which includes imperative Goncalves 2011:82
Minica Witoto no Imperative form is indicated by either the use of the verb root (ie. Imperative form) or by the addition of an adverbial complement put in front of the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.69
Hup yes bare verb stem with high tone Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984
Dâw yes Martins 2004
Desano yes multiple forms Miller 1999, p. 72 The imperative suffix replaces the evidential and subject agreement markers in the independent verb..
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 378
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.62
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.58
Barasano no There are first-, second-, and third-person imperatives in which various features of distance in time and space are distinguished. Jones & Jones 1991, p.75
Tanimuca yes Retuarã has second-person imperatives, indirect & negative imperatives, horatory forms, and third-person imperatives. Strom 1992, p.135
Siona no Instead, there are individual imperative suffixes for each person/number/gender as well as aspect. Wheeler - 1970:93,104-105; Wheeler - 1987:158
Tukano yes various forms, indirect used to report somone else's command West and Welch 2004: 16, 120; Ramirez 1997: 145
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 324-329
Ninam no multiple 2nd person singular forms Goodwin-Gomez, p.106
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 73-76
Surui no info
Karitiana yes However, it only occurs when the verb ends in a consonant Everett 2006:326;Landin 1980:16-17
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011
Paraguayan Guaraní yes However, the "simple imperatve" does not get a distinct morpheme but it is distinguished from indicative sentences because it takes different person markers. Other types of imperatives do get a distinc marker. Notice that it is represented as -py in the s Zarratea 2002:108-9
Aché yes Susnik 1974:49
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:548
Nyangumarta yes 1
Jingulu yes 1
Wambaya no 0
Bunuba no 0
Walmajarri yes 1
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa no info x
Worrorra yes? 87 1
Garrwa yes 80 1
Gooniyandi no 0
Warlpiri yes n40 1
Bardi no 0
Yorta Yorta yes 86 1
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi yes 97-104 1
Yidiny yes 1
Yanyuwa yes 143 1
Yandruwandha no 66 0
Yalarnnga yes 45 1
Woiwurrung no 75 0
Wirangu yes 116-119 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 43 0
Warumungu yes 33 1
Wangkumara yes 36 1
Uradhi Yes 363 1
Paakantyi yes 207 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 202 1
Pintupi no 168-169 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta yes 91; 94; 136 1
Ngiyambaa yes 158-160 1
Ngayawang No 15 0
Muruwari yes 182 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 56 1
Martuthunira yes 149 1
Marrgany yes 315 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 382 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 93 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 409 1
Kaurna yes 17 1
Kalkatungu yes 57 1
Jaru yes 79 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 80 1
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr yes 296 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 154 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 61 1
Dyirbal yes 110-1 1
Duungidjawu yes 81-82 1
Djinang No 191 0
Diyari yes 85 1
Dharawal yes 58 1
Darkinyung yes 44 1
Bularnu yes 71 1
Biri yes 38 1
Bidjara-Gungabula no 32-4; 87 0
Batyala no info x
Arabana yes 180 1
Alyawarr yes 53 1
Nyikina yes 1
Yulparija Yes 35 1
Wathawurrung yes 80 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 98 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 74 1
Thanggati yes 47-50 1
Katthang yes 80-81 1
Panyjima yes 203-204 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 1
Kurrama yes 127-8 1
Yingkarta yes 1
Githabul yes 24 1
Gunya yes 325 1
Kunjen yes 110 1
WesternTorres yes K85c 88 1
Wakaya yes 206 1
Yindjilindji yes 510 1
Bandjalang yes 95 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 32 1
Arrernte Yes 172 1
Kokatha Yes 30 1
Karajarri Yes 165 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 8 1
Ritharrngu No 76 0
Warrgamay Yes 53 1
Warluwarra yes 868 1
Warnman Yes 45 1
Djapu no 141 0
Bilinarra yes 1
Wiradjuri no info x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 70 1
Narungga No 74 0
Tharrkari Yes 40 1
Wajarri Yes 96 1
Warungu yes 278 1
Yagua yes modal auxiliary /a/ Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001