Dedicated imperative morpheme or verb form

Verbal Categories - Mood
There is a special morpheme (or morphemes, or a bare verb root where inflection is normally expected) used to signal imperative (command) mood


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 100 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Distinct 2nd person prefix from declarative clauses, plus a tone change if the penultimate (and antepenultimate) syllables have a) short vowels and b) low tone. Allin, 1976: 99, 138 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Imperative uses 2nd-person forms Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no The verb appears in minimal form, with person markers, but not with any other morphology. Galindo, 2002: 270 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no The imperative mood "covers up" the declarative. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: 314, Shauer & Shauer, 1987: p. 38 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 64 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006:164 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 801 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes The most common imperative strategy involves an "unmarked" verb--unmarked for tense, aspect, evidentiality, etc. Aikhenvald, 2003: 371 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes says that most speakers do not use a special imperative form, although one speaker has used a special form in elicited data. Facundes, 2000: 542 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no info Payne 1981; Payne 1982:910 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no The 2nd person indicative form is used. Zamponi 2003:42 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no The same form used for second person indicative is used for imperatives. However, the negative imperative is marked by {=ats} Duff-Tripp 1997:114 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes The "subjunctive" suffix is used in imperative constructions along with second person inflexion Souza 2008:128 Daniel Valle
Baure no there are a few particles used to signal the imperative and they each have their own connotations (ʃi, pa, ta) Danielsen 2007: p297 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Imperatives are formed using irrealis markers and omitting the subject person marker or free pronoun. Michael, 2008. p. 399 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no There is no special verbal form or marking for positive imperatives Brandão 2010:47-8 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:4 Daniel Valle
Yine no Matteson 1965:72-73 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:109 Daniel Smith
Bora no Prefixes that agree with subject used instead. Seifart - 2005:52 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare yes Hall 1988: 346 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Lots of forms: 2nd person static: -kî/-tî, motion away from: -ta/-tantî, motion towards: -tane'kî/-tane'tî, future: m-…-I, future polite: mî-…-I, negative: k(î/î'/îs)-…-I; 1+2person hortative: -pai/-pai'nîkon; 3rd person: n(î)-/i-…-i Abbott 1991: 49 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes two plain imperatives and one movement imperative Tosantos 1977:29 Daniel Valle
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 9 Shannon Dardis These are both suffixes and are used for simple imperatives. They can be combined with the infix tanë to indicate that the receiver must come to where the speaker is to do something. To indicate that the receiver should go somewhere and do something the s
Guna no imperative verb carries no inflection Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes singular and plural addresee Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no A verbal periphrastic strategy is used where the verb occurs uninflected and it is followed by a stressed auxiliary verb Frank 1990:86-7 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Ortiz 1994:390 Daniel Valle
Cabecar yes There are some other strategies to convey imperative meaning among which the use of the infinitive form seems to be the most common (Margery 1985:128-32). Bourland 1976:65 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no The indefinite tense is used to express imperative modality Quesada 2008:117-8 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani no two injunctive suffixes Quixalós 2000:295 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:350 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:85 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:16, 39 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:20 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:443 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes The form of this morpheme is based on the examples in the source and not explicitly defined as such by the author. Salas 1992, p.112 Daniel Valle There are morphemes for first person, second (singular and plura), third person and exhortatives
Páez yes Jung:87 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:28 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Based on the examples Montes 2004b:155 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:569 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979: 225 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p271 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 163 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no there is one morpheme specifically for negative imperative, but not for imperatives. Imperatives are formed by marking 2sg. Proclitic on the verb and reduplication of the last vowel of the stem of the verb. Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no /ra/ seems to have several functions, which includes imperative Goncalves 2011:82 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Imperative form is indicated by either the use of the verb root (ie. Imperative form) or by the addition of an adverbial complement put in front of the verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.69 Christopher Clack
Hup yes bare verb stem with high tone Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes multiple forms Miller 1999, p. 72 Amanda Novak The imperative suffix replaces the evidential and subject agreement markers in the independent verb..
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 378 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.62 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.58 Chris Clack
Barasano no There are first-, second-, and third-person imperatives in which various features of distance in time and space are distinguished. Jones & Jones 1991, p.75 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Retuarã has second-person imperatives, indirect & negative imperatives, horatory forms, and third-person imperatives. Strom 1992, p.135 Chris Clack
Siona no Instead, there are individual imperative suffixes for each person/number/gender as well as aspect. Wheeler - 1970:93,104-105; Wheeler - 1987:158 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes various forms, indirect used to report somone else's command West and Welch 2004: 16, 120; Ramirez 1997: 145 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 324-329 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no multiple 2nd person singular forms Goodwin-Gomez, p.106 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 73-76 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes However, it only occurs when the verb ends in a consonant Everett 2006:326;Landin 1980:16-17 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes However, the "simple imperatve" does not get a distinct morpheme but it is distinguished from indicative sentences because it takes different person markers. Other types of imperatives do get a distinc marker. Notice that it is represented as -py in the s Zarratea 2002:108-9 Daniel Valle
Aché yes Susnik 1974:49 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:548 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes? 87 done 1
Garrwa yes 80 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n40 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 86 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 97-104 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 143 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 66 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 45 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no 75 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 116-119 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 43 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 33 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 36 done 1
Uradhi Yes 363 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 207 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 202 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no 168-169 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 91; 94; 136 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 158-160 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 15 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 182 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 56 done 1
Martuthunira yes 149 done 1
Marrgany yes 315 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 382 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji yes 93 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 409 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 17 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 57 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 79 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 80 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 296 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 154 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 61 1
Dyirbal yes 110-1 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 81-82 done 1
Djinang No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 85 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal yes 58 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 44 done 1
Bularnu yes 71 Done-Austin 1
Biri yes 38 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula no 32-4; 87 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 180 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 53 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 80 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 98 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 74 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 47-50 done 1
Katthang yes 80-81 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 203-204 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 127-8 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 325 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 110 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes K85c 88 done 1
Wakaya yes 206 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 510 done 1
Bandjalang yes 95 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 32 done 1
Arrernte Yes 172 1
Kokatha Yes 30 1
Karajarri Yes 165 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes Y 8 1
Ritharrngu No 76 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay Yes 53 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 868 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 45 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu no 141 0
Bilinarra yes done 1
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 70 Y2 1
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari Yes 40 1
Wajarri Yes 96 1
Warungu yes 278 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes modal auxiliary /a/ Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps