Morphologically marked distinction between simultaneous and sequential clauses

Simple Clauses - Other
Morphology (usually on verb) distinguishes between clauses denoting events that occur at the same time or in sequence


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Western Mono
Southern Paiute
Southern Ute
Idaho Shoshone
Northern Paiute
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992
Resígaro no The difference between simultaneous and sequential clauses is marked with a difference of coordinators, rather than morphologically. Allin, 1976: 372-373
Bare yes The sequential -ka Aikhenvald, 1995: 39
Piapoco no An adverbial form does this. Galindo, 2002: 222
Yukuna yes Simultaneous clauses are marked morphologically, while sequential clauses are identified by a missing subject. Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 21
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69, 93
Wapishana yes Referred to as an "interrupter" or "intermitent" event. Santos 2006
Wayuu yes There are particles that do switch-reference and also marks the difference between concurrent and sequential clauses. Mansen & Mansen, 1976: p. 166-172, Mansen & Captain 2000: p. 804
Tariana yes Fused with switch-reference markers. Aikhenvald, 2003: 516
Apurinã no No discussion among description of morphology. Facundes, 2000
Asheninka Apurucayali no Verb order shows the order of events. Payne 1981:1038; Payne 1983:130140
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:54-58
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:188
Kinikinau no info
Baure yes There is a verbal suffix marker meaning "before" which conjoins two clauses in a temporal relation of sequence. Danielsen 2007:418
Nanti yes Temporal succession is marked with the particle iNpogini or iNpo. Brief overlap is indicated with the subordinator =ra, and prolonged overlap with a particle tyara, `when.' Michael, 2008. p. 429-432
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010
Palikur no info Launey 2003
Yine no
Añun no info Patte 1989
Bora no Seifart - 2005:248-257
Makiritare no info Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18
Makushi yes Carson 1982:167
Eñepa no Payne 2012:204-421
Pemon no info more likely not
Guna no Smith texts
Naso no Quesada 2000
Ika yes Frank 1990:91-5
Kogi yes Stendal 1976:10
Cabecar no info
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:99-146
Damana no info
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000; 49-206
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:496-500
Northern Emberá no info more likely not Mortensen 1999:59-88 Catío
Waorani no info
Ingá yes Levinson 1987:27-9
Matses yes Fleck:1132
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 102-94
Páez no info
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:53
Tikuna no info
Urarina no info
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:61-62
Andoke yes uncertain; sequential particle noko comes after Pn+suffixes and before V Landaburu 1979: 173
Puinave no Giron 2008: p411-413
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 309, 310
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011
Minica Witoto yes The simultaneous subordinate sentence is often introduced with the adverb "mei" and always ends with the simultaneous suffix "-za" on the principal verb. Minor and Minor 1982. p.80
Hup yes Epps 2008
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984
Dâw yes various post-verbal particles Martins 2004
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 157
Cubeo yes there are six total distinctions (simultaneously, immiediately prior, marks beginning point) Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 163-164
Kotiria yes sequence can be indicated via compounded root 'finish, though this is not required Stenzel 2004
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.68
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.89-92
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.141-154
Tanimuca yes The suffix -baraka indicates that the event of the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the event of the matrix clause. The suffix -tirã indicates that the event of the subordinate clause immediately precedes the event of the matrix clause. Strom 1992, p.169
Siona yes Wheeler - 1970:92
Tukano no info West and Welch 2004; Ramirez 1997
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 320, 167
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p. 132-134
Sanumá no denoted with particles : /tehe/ 'while', /pali/ 'first', /ha/ 'after' Borgman 1990: 158-160
Surui no info
Karitiana no info
Nheengatu no
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:323-4
Aché no info
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:567-665
Nyangumarta yes 1
Jingulu no 0
Wambaya no info x
Bunuba no info x
Walmajarri no info x
Nyulnyul no info x
Warrwa yes 1
Worrorra yes ms10.6.3.iii 1
Garrwa no info X
Gooniyandi yes 1
Warlpiri no info 0
Bardi yes 1
Yorta Yorta no info x
Yir Yoront
Yindjibarndi no info x
Yidiny no info x
Yanyuwa no info x
Yandruwandha yes 141, 233 1
Yalarnnga no info x
Woiwurrung no info x
Wirangu No 122 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 50 0
Warumungu yes 51 1
Wangkumara no info X
Uradhi Yes 378 1
Paakantyi no 210 0
Pitta-Pitta yes 203 1
Pintupi no 62-64 0
Nyungar no info x
Nhanta no info x
Ngiyambaa no info x
Ngayawang No info x
Muruwari yes 222 1
Mayi-Yapi No info x
Martuthunira yes 139-141 1
Marrgany No 318 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 417 0
Kuku Yalanji no 156 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 434 0
Kaurna No info x
Kalkatungu yes 58 1
Jaru no info x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 135 1
Gureng Gureng no info x
Gumbaynggirr no 347 0
Gugu-Badhun no info x
Yuwaalaraay No 79 0
Dyirbal yes 77-9 1
Duungidjawu yes 84 1
Djinang No 160 0
Diyari yes 187; 213; 221 1
Dharawal no info x
Darkinyung no 47 0
Bularnu no info x
Biri no 61-4 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info x
Batyala no info x
Arabana yes 269 1
Alyawarr yes 103 1
Nyikina no 0
Yulparija Yes 54 1
Wathawurrung no info x
Mathi-Mathi no 108 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 202 0
Thanggati yes 65 1
Katthang no 95-101 0
Panyjima no info x
Ngarinyeri No info x
Kurrama yes 170, 265 1
Yingkarta yes 1
Githabul yes 24-25 1
Gunya No 339 0
Kunjen No 18 0
WesternTorres no info FO 133 x
Wakaya no info x
Yindjilindji no info x
Bandjalang yes 125 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 157 1
Arrernte Yes 358 1
Kokatha No 67 0
Karajarri Yes 397 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 171 1
Ritharrngu No 110-111 0
Warrgamay No 71 0
Warluwarra yes 936 1
Warnman Yes 55 1
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra yes 8.1999999999999992895 1
Wiradjuri yes 18 1
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 96 1
Narungga No info x
Tharrkari Yes 49 1
Wajarri No 113 0
Warungu no info X
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990
Baniwa no except for converb construction marking simultaneous single-subject events, and serial mechanisms for sequentials. Ramirez 2001