Epistemic possibility: affix on verb

Verbal Categories - Mood
Modal expressing hypothesis


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes There is an affix for probability Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 102 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no No indication of such an affix in the discussion of verb stems or verb words. Allin, 1976: 105, 124 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 156-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info There are "subjunctive markers," one of these functions is to indicate possibility, but it looks like situational, rather than epistemic possibility. Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 380-399 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Not listed among verbal morphology or "bound formatives" (clitics). Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes No evidence of a separate phoneme for this; best shown in future tense affixes. Payne 1981; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:41 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no info Duff-Tripp Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Michael, 2008. p. 273-274 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965:70-81 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of mood Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no info Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988: 336 Daniel Smith
Makushi no info Abbott 1991: 117-122 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 201, 202 Shannon Dardis
Guna yes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:60-104 Daniel Valle
Kogi yes Ortiz 1994:397 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:18; Queixalós - 2000:348-349 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura 1993 Daniel Smith
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:371 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:59-88 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:95 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Daniel Valle
Urarina yes There is a suffix for probability and another for inprobability Olwasky:461, 480 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p287 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 138 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no not indicated/expected Minor and Minor 1982. p.53 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 81 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 26, 34 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no evidentials can have epistemic interpretations Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64, 70 Chris Clack not indicated but source is limited
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.55-65, 82 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Anticipatory aspect is used to explain an event by means of the action or state anticipated as the resultant event. Jones & Jones 1991, p.97-98 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.82 Chris Clack
Siona no Does not appear as a dedicated affix. Wheeler - 1987:173-174 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes above all expresses uncertainty West and Welch 2004: 25: Ramirez 1997: 159 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.98 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 172, 195-197 Kelsey Neely
Surui no Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:349 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:101 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:500 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri yes Done-Claire 1
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes ms8.4.3 done 1
Garrwa no? 68 done 0
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 87 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info done-Dan x
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa yes 4 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 64-5 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 121, 125 done 1
Wemba-Wemba maybe H 46 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 34 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes 35 done 1
Uradhi No info 364, 381-5 Y x
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 220 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 69 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 162 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 171, 179 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi yes 59 done 1
Martuthunira no info done x
Marrgany yes 317 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 390 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 435 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 19 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 98 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 93 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 335 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 155 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 46 0
Dyirbal No 123 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 103, 111-112 done 0
Djinang Yes 193 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 55-56 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 258 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija no info Done-Amalia x
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no info done-Amalia x
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 77 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 67 done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima no 175 done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 24 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 327 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 105 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes Sharpe 78 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 119 done 1
Arrernte Yes 174 1
Kokatha Yes 38 1
Karajarri No 186 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 287 1
Ritharrngu No 111 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 82 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 72 Y2 0
Narungga No info 74 done x
Tharrkari Yes 43 1
Wajarri Yes 99 1
Warungu no info X
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps