Difference between negation in imperative (prohibitive) and declarative clauses

Verbal Categories - Mood
There are different strategies for marking negation in imperative and declarative clauses


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 100 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes For a prohibitive, the negative marker in a regular declarative clause is "removed" and the negative imperative clitic is used instead. Allin, 1976: 354 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 33 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco no info Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes This marker is intrinsically an imperative negative, although the declarative negative can also be used for this function. Fill in page number!!! Shauer & Shauer, 2000: p. 523, Shauer, 1978: p. 38 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Mosonyi, 1987: p. 65 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 165 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info No description of the structure of imperatives (or negative imperatives) in any source. Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 409 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã no Facundes discusses morphological and periphrastic negation, but does not indicate a difference between imperative and declarative clauses. Facundes, 2000: 530-533 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no info Payne 1981; Payne 1982:910 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Dedicated prohibative morpheme separates the two. Zamponi 2003:41 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:179-181 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:130 Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:339 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Positive polarity imperatives can use either regular or polite imperative, negative polarity must use polite imperative form, without irrealis marking. Michael, 2008. p. 400-401 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:55 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun yes suffix -ata added to verb Patte 1989:109 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Different affixes are used. Seifart - 2005: 51-61 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 345 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes In imperatives the verb is marked with the negative imperative affixation (see above), in demonstratives, a clause level negativizer, 'pra' occurs occurs following the clause. Abbott 1991: 52, 55 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes k- -eme negative imperative, different types of negative markers for declaratives Payne 2012:353-361, 368 Daniel Smith
Pemon yes de Armellada 1999: 123 Daniel Smith pra is used in one of the imperative examples on page 9 and then has a whole section on page 238 where it is used to negate declaratives
Guna yes different particle for prohibitive Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:118-122 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info maybe not since the imperative takes the same morphology as finite verbs Daniel Valle
Damana yes different suffixes: -ung (imperative), -uní (perfective), -ungui (durative) Daniel Valle
Sikuani no info Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:324, 358 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes {=ẽ} is the declarative negator whereas {-rã} is the imperative negator Mortensen 1999:11-2 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no The same strtegy for negation is used for both declarative clauses and imperatives Peeke 1991:25-28 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes /ama/ is the negative for imperatives Levinson 1978:30 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:443-5 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Zúñiga 2006, p.110-11 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung: 88, 193-6 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Negative imperative use the negative particle ama while indicative use the negative particle mana Soto 1976:55 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:569-92 Daniel Valle
Waunana yes Loewen 1954:53, 61 Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 100; 227 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes "Actually, there is a negative imperative prefix" D Valle Giron 2008: p395/273 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes negation in imperative must also have the regular negation marker Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.50, 64 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no negation marker is attached to the imperative construction to form negative imperative. Weir 1984:250 Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 73 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 24 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 389 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.60 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.61 Chris Clack
Barasano no Negation of imperatives is for the most part regular. Jones & Jones 1991, p.126 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.40 Chris Clack In declarative or interrogative sentences, the suffix -be negates the clause and follows the verb root (scopes the whole sent.) Negation of imperatives is accomplished by suffixing -aʔsi to the verb root, and constituents are negated by the neg. verb bã
Siona no Both use the negative affix. Wheeler - 1987:151, 156 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes Ramirez 1997: 145, 151 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 240 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.107 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes It seems that there is a difference in the tone of the last syllable of the verb Storto 1999:104 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:406-408 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no info Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes prohibitive marked by a particle Vallejos 2010:561 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes 64, 88 done 1
Garrwa no 36-7, 81 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n237, s164 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 86 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 166 done-Dan 0
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 157 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 66, 70, 136-7 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 57 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 75, 77 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 117, 141-2 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 44 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu yes 56 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi Yes 363 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 228-229 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 203 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 195 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 127 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 160 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 15 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari no 187, 197 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi yes 56 done 1
Martuthunira no 149, 178, 271 done 0
Marrgany No 343 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 384 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji no 93 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 438 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna yes 17 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 98-9 Done-Dan 1
Jaru no 88 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 92 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 335 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 155 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 108 1
Dyirbal yes 111-2 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 82, 110 done 0
Djinang No 191 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 170 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal yes 58 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung no 54-5 done 0
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no 57 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 236 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr no 129 done 0
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija Yes 39 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung no 81 done 0
Mathi-Mathi yes 103 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 98 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 49, 57, 68, 72, 74 done 1
Katthang yes 89-90 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 204 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 42 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama no 128 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 343 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 126 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes? K85c 89, FO 127-8 done 1
Wakaya yes 207 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 504 done 1
Bandjalang yes 95 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 96 done 0
Arrernte Yes 172 1
Kokatha Yes 30 1
Karajarri Yes 177 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 247 1
Ritharrngu Yes 76 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 53 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra no 874 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu no 141, 144 0
Bilinarra no 7.4 (7-71, 7-72) done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 83 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 27 0
Wajarri No 132 0
Warungu yes 283 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:314 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps