Alignment of case marking in full NPs: nominative-accusative w/ marked accusative

Simple Clauses - Alignment
Objects of transitive clauses ('P') have a unique marker, while subjects of transitive ('A') and intransitive ('S') clauses are unmarked or share a different marker from that occurring on objects


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño yes Jane Hill
Luiseño yes Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk yes Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha yes Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi yes Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone yes Jane Hill
Northern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Gabrielino yes Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no No case marking of SAO Allin, 1976: 290-291 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no The word order indicates Subjects S and Sa come before the verb and the object after it Aikhenvald, 1995: 44 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco n/a No case marking on subjects and objects. Galindo, 2002: 113-121 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna n/a No case marking on A/O Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 37 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no No case marking on NPs. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 36-48 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos, 2006: 210 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a No case marking on subject/object NPs. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes A small subset of intransitives (verbs of physical states) require accusative-marked subjects. Aikhenvald, 2003: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Subject/objects NPs are not case marked. Facundes, 2000: 471-481 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Full NPs are not marked for case Payne 1983:1619, 2325 Daniel Smith
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21-26, 37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no sbujects and objects do not get case Duff-Tripp 1997:35 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no The only case is the locative one. Subjects and objects do not show case. Danielsen 2007:100-1 Daniel Valle
Nanti n/a Grammatical relations between nouns are marked on verbs, and not on nouns themselves. Only one (locative) case marker. Michael, 2008. p. 340 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010, Rowan and Burgues 1979 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Green and Green 1972:3-9 Daniel Valle
Yine no no case markers Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:68 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no no core case marking on full NPs Hall 1988:44 Daniel Smith Discussions of ergativity in Hall 1988: 123-128; Hall 1984 (Split-ergativity in pronominal agreement systems) is inconclusive
Makushi no Carson 1982: 79 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:16-25, 112-8, 276-7 Daniel Valle
Guna no no core case markers Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:49 Daniel Valle
Kogi no Stendal 1976:18 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:155-9 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no core case marking Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993:91-101 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:214 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:8, 47 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:7 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:854 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 87 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:114-5 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:39-46 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes The animate objects may take the dative case marker Faco Soares 1993:92-93 Daniel Valle
Urarina no NPs are not case-marked. Thus, it seems that there is a neuter alligment with respect to nouns Olawsky:152-4, 298-354 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info nominative not marked, no info about accusative. Landaburu 1979: 155-160 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p356 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 123 Shannon Dardis ru, a directional suffix, can be attached to objects, but it does not function as an object marker; it's function is still primarily directional. Additionally there are plenty of example on pg. 289 (Huayhua Pari 2001) where the objects don't have markers
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.71-82 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes ('P') argument gets an 'affected' marker: -ɯ̃́jʔ Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes the -RE suffix is only obligatory on indirect objects and usually used on direct objects. The only time it is omitted on direct objects is for inanimate objects, if an animate obj is sentence final and being introduced, or in a list Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 110 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes objects occasionally are not marked. Stenzel's hypothesis is that any nominal constituent in a preverbal position in a transitive clause is the object. Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.31 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.89-91 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The subject in Barasano bears no case marking whereas the object is generally marked when it is definite. Jones & Jones 1991, p.65 Chris Clack Barasano is a nominative-accusative language.
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.112-114 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:124-133 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no nominative-accusative with neither full NP marked. Verbal agreement marks S of intrans and A of trans Ramirez 1997: 108 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Lizot 1996: 51 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez: 77-78 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 121 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no The language shows a neuter allignment in which S, A and O gets zero case-marking Everett 2006:304-5 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no no core NP marking Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:130-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no NPs are not marked for core cases Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 44, ms1.7 done 0
Garrwa yes 2, 4-6 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no BS152 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 79 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 54-60 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 13 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 75 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 1, 18-29 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 67 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 47 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 28 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 18 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no? r8-9 done 0
Uradhi No 336 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 196 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 83 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 51 done 0
Martuthunira no 66 done 0
Marrgany No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 148 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 390 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 5 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 27 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 57 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 254 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no 110-1 done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 36 0
Dyirbal No 42 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 25 done 0
Djinang No 27 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no 47-48 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 19 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no 14 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no 54-5; 57; 103-6 done-Jessica 0
Batyala No 200 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 65-6 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 70 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 20 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 72 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 75-78 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 26 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 11 done 0
Katthang no 30 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 137 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 18 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 28-34 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 301 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 30 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 122 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 505 done 0
Bandjalang No 58 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 35 done 0
Arrernte No 121 0
Kokatha No 52 0
Karajarri No 115 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 20 0
Ritharrngu No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 28 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 885 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 33 0
Bilinarra no 1.1000000000000000888 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 54 Y2 0
Narungga No 69 done 0
Tharrkari No 24-5 0
Wajarri No 39 0
Warungu no 157, 183 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps