Other contrasts in demonstratives (visibility, elevation, etc.)

Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no info Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Demonstratives carry other affixes, but these are dependent on they noun they modify. Allin, 1976: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 186 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Demonstratives are not discussed among other part of speech. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Visbility: The farthest degree of distance distinguishes between items that are visible and those that are not visible. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006:188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes There is also an "emphatic" demonstrative, used to indicate "this very one." Aikhenvald, 2003: 206 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no The demonstratives also inflect for gender. Facundes, 2000: 355-357 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes gender Mihas 2010:174 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003:22 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:53 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes "In the singular all demonstratives are distinguished for gender, just like personal pronouns." Danielsen 2007: p311 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 304-305 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:63 Daniel Valle
Yine yes distant, not seen Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:55 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:126 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 283 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes time, location Carson 1982:113 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes Visibility vs non-visibility is a contrast only for the distal demonstrative "that" Tosantos 1977:20; Payne 2012:88-89 Daniel Smith
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes non-visible (far, farthest) Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Pronouns are distinguished between deictic and anaphoric Frank 1985:35 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes There is a two-way contrast for "not perceptible things". This seems to be a visibility contrast Quesada 2008:75 Daniel Valle
Damana yes relative position system--> interiority, exteriority, verticality, horizontality, proximity Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:157-9 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Aguirre 1999:78-9 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974:13 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:258-262 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p, 92 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Rojas:197-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes Animacy and "caducy" (not longer having that property (?) ) are distinguished in demonstratives Montes 2004:164 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:216 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes distance contrast also includes visibility Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001: 205 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes The third distance contrast indicates that the referent is out of view but remains audible. Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Hup yes other' Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes for inanimate demonstrative pronouns- thing vs location Miller 1999, p. 31 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 83 Chris Clack
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 184 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Amanda Novak
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.32 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.32-33 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.51 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:134, 136 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes visibility, time (if thing in question was in past) West and Welch 2004: 98-99 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes visibility Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.56-57 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.151 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes There are two context-related demonstratives: é- "this/that (reference to inmediate context) and i- "it" (reference to wider context which may be non-linguistic) Van der Meer (?):13 Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes Visibility and physical contact are distinguished in demonstratives Everett 2006:313-15 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes visibility and distance from the speaker and the from the hearer are other factors in guarani demonstratives Ayala 1996:29-31 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:214 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra yes 56 done 1
Garrwa yes fpro15 done 1
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri yes n34 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta maybe 75 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 71-73 done-Dan 1
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 7 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No 88 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 39 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 32 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 357 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 193 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no 72-73 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa yes 135 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 11 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira yes 112 done 1
Marrgany Maybe 305 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 255 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 395 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 34 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 61, 75 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 72 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 324 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay Maybe 89 1
Dyirbal yes 46-48 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu no 56 done 0
Djinang No 38 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 24 done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 31 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 144 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 92 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 35 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 30-34 done 0
Katthang no info 50 done-Amalia x
Panyjima yes done 1
Ngarinyeri No 30 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 92 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya No 305 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 49 Done- 0
WesternTorres yes FO 137 done 1
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang yes 70 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 25 done 0
Arrernte Yes 90 1
Kokatha Yes 50, 60 1
Karajarri No 252 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 104 1
Ritharrngu Yes 50 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no 879 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 40 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu yes 2 1
Bilinarra no 4.2 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No info 67 Y2 x
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 81 0
Warungu no 173 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps