laugh

Semantic Field
mental
Part of Speech
Meaning Spanish
reír
Meaning Portuguese
rir

Languages

Language Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By General Notes
Big Smokey Valley Shoshone jahnai” inheritance Jane Hill
Cahuilla -sem- inheritance S&H 1979 Jane Hill
Central Sierra Miwok hyja:/k- inheritance Jane Hill
Chemehuevi kija/ni7i inheritance Jane Hill
Chumash Barbareno qon (Wash has qon': p. 316) unknown Mithun 1997:239 Jane Hill
Chumash Obispeno ts'e unknown JPH Jane Hill
Chumash Ventureno kHqo7o “I laughed unknown JPH Jane Hill
Cocopa 7u:Sa/y inheritance Jane Hill
Comanche na7jYnety; inheritance Jane Hill
Cupeño $hem-0 [şəm] inheritance Jane Hill
Esselen ake- unknown Henshaw in Shaul 1995:224 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 7eye:yen inheritance Jane Hill
Iipay 'Aa uusay [uˑ˅ˈsai] inheritance Jane Hill
Kawaiisu kija- inheritance Jane Hill
Kiliwa h-chin, h-chiin unknown Jane Hill
Kitanemuk makaw inheritance Jane Hill
Lake Miwok jo/mu inheritance Jane Hill
Luiseño tooya unknown Elliott Jane Hill
Maidu nu/k unknown Jane Hill
Mojave chakavar= inheritance Jane Hill
Mutsun ma:yi unknown O77:171, 278 Jane Hill
Nisenan d2:, d2:7 unknown Jane Hill
Northern Paiute su-wa7i unique Nichols 1974:177 Jane Hill
Northern Sierra Miwok hyja:k-y- inheritance Jane Hill
Plains Miwok 7ilsy- unknown Jane Hill
Salinan A *k)e:/yita7 (A), ), (k)e:/yiteL (pl) “laugh, shout” unknown Jane Hill
Salinan M (k)aite 'laugh, shout' unknown Mason 1918:143 Jane Hill
Seri (Comcaac) casim unknown Jane Hill
Serrano mamq inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Paiute kia- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Sierra Miwok hyja:k- inheritance Jane Hill
Southern Ute kija, etc. inheritance Jane Hill
Tübatulabal kytsyy-at unknown Jane Hill
Tümpisa Shoshone jahi”, jahe” inheritance Jane Hill
Wappo ka/t'she7 unknown Jane Hill
Washo a/saw unknown J286 Jane Hill
Western Mono jawi- inheritance Jane Hill
Wintu nuja unknown Jane Hill
Yavapai chkwa/ri inheritance Jane Hill
Yokuts Palewyami hayau inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yawdanchi hay- inheritance K07:248, G64 Jane Hill
Yokuts Yowlumne ha:y'a: inheritance G1964 Jane Hill
Yuki mush- “laugh, smile” inheritance S&S 1984 Jane Hill
Baniwa íkaa íkaa unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Carijona ehohimane unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Zach Burnett, PLE
Cubeo reírse: jacoðoboyʉ; jajeðo; yʉriyʉ xakoðobojɨ; xaxeðo; jɨɾijɨ unknown See Language page Kelsey Neely; Tanja Baeuerlein
Dâw ôò ʔô unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Desano ĩhãye-ri ĩʔãje-ɾi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula; Tanja Baeuerlein
Eñepa -os-onoʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) (IDS) -os-onoʔ(-pɨ)(-pi) (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Hodï wakh unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez
Waorani ka ka to unique See Language page Paulina Franco, Bettie Gonzalez, PLE
Hup tæ̃ʔnɔ- ~tæʔdɔ- unique shared Yuhup See Language page Pattie Epps
Makushi sii (IDS) sii (IDS) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Nheengatu puká puka inheritance See Language page John Blaha, Lauren Franklin
Ninam kahi ĩka, ka ĩkra (EM72) kahi ĩka, ka ĩkɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Maihiki ayi ãji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Pemon atarika (A1981); eta'ri'kan (M2000) ataɾika (A1981) doubtful loan, direction unknown Pumé aȩrĩkjiá See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Resígaro khoní kʰoní inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Sanumá ĩka, ĩkapa (EM72) ĩka, ĩkapa doubtful loan into proto-language Maybe Arawak source; cf. Piapoco, Baniwa íkaa See Language page Kelsey Neely
Sikuani jüajüajai (21), kapona (2) (also means to smile or to laugh at something--make fun) unknown; inheritance See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, Rebecca Khorram, PLE
Tariana díka díka unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Tukano buhí buhí inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page Ana Paula, Amanda Novak
Kotiria bʉhʉ bʉhʉ́ inheritance Branch 2, E Tuk See Language page D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Yanomam ĩka, ĩkara ĩka, ĩkaɾa inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yanomami ĩkãɨ ĩkãɨ inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Yukuna i'ichakaje iʔitʃakahe unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yuhup nɔhɔ̃ ~dɔhɔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Arabana wijanta inheritance Claire Bowern
Bardi -gama- (A/P) -kama- (A/b) inheritance Claire Bowern
Bunuba gargarla- inheritance Claire Bowern
Burarra gu-wakal bu doubtful loan Yolngu Claire Bowern
Dhangu gitkit inheritance Claire Bowern
Dhuwal [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Dhuwala ŋamarama unknown Claire Bowern
Diyari kingka inheritance Claire Bowern
DiyariREU kinkata inheritance Claire Bowern
Djambarrpuyngu gitkit Claire Bowern
Djapu gitkit Claire Bowern
Djinang kitkittji-gi inheritance Claire Bowern
Gajirrabeng garlgarlb inheritance Claire Bowern
Gooniyandi galgal- doubtful loan Claire Bowern
Gupapuyngu ŋamarama unknown Claire Bowern
Gurindji yayip ma- loan Miriwung Claire Bowern
Jabirr-Jabirr gulgarr kulkarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Jaru jinggiri loan Claire Bowern
Jawi nunamar nunamarr inheritance Claire Bowern
Karajarri nyarru punya (2) inheritance Claire Bowern
Kija kalkal inheritance Claire Bowern
Malyangapa [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Mangala yijinarri (1) unique Claire Bowern
Miriwung galbgalb inheritance Claire Bowern
Mithaka kingki- inheritance Claire Bowern
Mudburra kinkilarra Claire Bowern
Mudburra kinkilarra unique Claire Bowern
Ngamini kingka_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
Ngandi X missing Claire Bowern
Ngarluma thurni Claire Bowern
Ngumbarl jooa woora <jooa woora> unique Claire Bowern
Nhirrpi [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Nimanburru -gam- [ma-gaman] -kam- [ma-kaman] inheritance Claire Bowern
Northern Mangarla yici-pu Claire Bowern
Northern Nyangumarta nyarru pini- (V3) inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyangumarta juka mana- (V3) Claire Bowern
Nyikina -gama- [ma-gaman] -kama- [ma-kaman] inheritance Claire Bowern
Nyulnyul -gam- [makaman] XXgl to laugh, joke. -kam- [makaman] XXkl do laukh, joke. inheritance Claire Bowern
Paakantyi gīnda- inheritance Claire Bowern
Pirriya [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Pitta-Pitta wiya inheritance Claire Bowern
Rirratjingu [missing] missing Claire Bowern
Ritharrngu dhurr-yun unique Claire Bowern
Walmajarri jingkirtima- inheritance Claire Bowern
Wangkayutyuru wiya- inheritance Claire Bowern
Warrwa gamanggaya; gama XXngl are these preverbs or roots? (gama a preverb; can it also be a root?) kamangkaya; kama inheritance Claire Bowern
Wubuy ngarrma inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yan-nhangu 2027 inheritance Claire Bowern
Yandruwandha ingka inheritance Claire Bowern
Yarluyandi kingka_x001E_ inheritance Claire Bowern
Yawarrawarrka tjinkindri inheritance? Claire Bowern
Yawuru -gami- -kami- inheritance Claire Bowern
Achagua káideri káideri unknown; inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Piapoco icáaníca ikáaníka See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Kabiyari iká[ha] iká[ha] See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Warekena yenita jenita See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Yavitero táteja táteha See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Wapishana ʃaʐutan ʃaʐutan inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B.
Paresi koexa koeʃa inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., PLE
Baure 'ko-ka- 'ko-ka- inheritance See Language page Anissa Capuccino
Waurá ažatuwa ažatuwa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Bora goóco (T98) koókʰo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Muinane jéjébahi (W97) xéxébaʔi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Akawaio dakköröngnödok daʔkö'roŋnödɔk unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Apalai eunohnõko eunohnõko unknown See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Wayana ewakta ewakta unknown See Language page PLE
Tiriyó eerana eerana unknown See Language page Becky Walker
Makiritare waʔsenɲo (IDS) waʔsenɲo (IDS) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Karina Baeza
Wai Wai ewre-ra ewre-ra unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Waimiri Atroari yeepitxah, ahpa ɨeepitʃah, ahpa See Language page Melody Ann Ross, PLE
Yukpa auare, ojente, osénikepo, nosenke, sinki, yuáprono See Language page Ana Paula B., Melody Ann Ross
Kalapalo tego- tego- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
Muisca zegyguasuca tʂeγɨγuasuka See Language page Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá iphidhái iphidhái See Language page Jonathan Quintanilla, PLE
Macaguan kakáp ('laugh loudly, shout') kakáp inheritance Central+Macaguan subgroup See Language page Ana Paula B., Rebecca Khorram
Cofán féñañe fɛɲaɲɛ See Language page Daniel Valle phonemic transcriptions are ESTIMATIONS
Candoshi-Shapra stámaama stámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Páez shijca- shixka- See Language page Daniel Valle
Tikuna nacugü [2, 2-3, 2] nakugɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett, PLE
Urarina kweena- kwe:na- unique See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Andoke hẽhẽ hẽhẽ unique See Language page Kelsey Neely, PLE
Pumé aȩrĩkjiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Puinave [-yoi] joi unique See Language page Daniel Valle, Zach Burnett
Ashuar wishírtin wiʃirtin See Language page Daniel Valle
Huambisa wishirtasa wiʃirtasa See Language page Daniel Valle
Aguaruna dushíkagtut duʃikangtut unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Matses mamën mamɨn unknown See Language page Daniel Valle, Becky Walker
Chácobo osa-; c̷iri- osa-; c̷iri- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
Yagua todi todi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Southern Pastaza Quechua asina asina See Language page Daniel Valle
Ingá asii asii See Language page Daniel Valle
Napo Lowland Quichua asina asina See Language page Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano asiy asij See Language page Daniel Valle, PLE
Carapana boyetirique bojetiɾike See Language page Amanda Novak, Tanja Baeuerlein
Makuna semantically close: aja-re ('reírse'); ajati-re ('sonreírse') axa-ɾe; axati-ɾe inheritance See Language page Amanda Novak, D. Jagannathan, Tanja Bauerlein
Koreguaje somʉ somʉ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
Siona choji tʃohi inheritance See Language page Kelsey Neely
Karitiana haha (onomatopoeia) haha unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
Kokama apuca apuka inheritance See Language page Zach Burnett, Daniel Valle
Wayampi nupi nupi unique See Language page PLE
Sirionó i̯kʸa ~ hi̯kʸa (P85) i̯kʸa ~ hi̯kʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Kamayurá huka huka inheritance See Language page Rebekah L. Evans
Ocaina maato maato unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Murui Witoto jaɨsite haɯθitɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Iquito sataani sataani inheritance See Language page Cynthia Hansen
Záparo tsutanu tsutanu See Language page Becky Walker
Wari tatamʔ, katamʔ tatamʔ, katamʔ See Language page PLE
Ese Ejja/Huarayo sa-kwe sa-kwe See Language page Joyce McCormick
Cavineña c̷a-ya; šokoi-šokoi-ya (The former also means "smile") ča-ya; šokoi-šokoi-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Central Aymara laruña laru-ɲa See Language page PLE
Movima ho-si-čeɬ ho-si-tʃeɬ See Language page Anissa Capuccino, Becky Walker
Trumai (ha) tɬat (ha) tɬat unique See Language page Rebekah L. Evans, PLE
Kaingang ny nɨŋ See Language page PLE
Suyá ikẽ ikẽ See Language page Rebekah Evans
Djeoromitxi dje dʒe See Language page PLE